1865 March 16th

March 16 1865 Thursday

Battle of Averasboro, NC (CWSAC Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Siege of Petersburg

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina

Alabama. Union Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby requested warships to provide naval gunfire and transports to support the landing of Union troops near Mobile. Six light-draft tinclad vessels were made ready for immediate action.

Florida. USS Pursuit, Acting Lieutenant William R Browne, captured the British schooner Mary, attempting to run the blockade into Indian River. The cargo consisted of shoes, percussion caps, and rum.

Nevada. Skirmish with Smoke Creek Indians at Walker’s Lake.

North Carolina. Skirmish at Little Cohera Creek.

North Carolina. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston had assumed command over all forces south of Virginia and east of the Mississippi. General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was appointed as his second-in-command (Chief of Staff), after arriving with his troops from Charlotte. Johnston also commanded two separate forces under General Braxton Bragg and Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee further south. Johnston attempted to combine these segments into a single army and reorganised his command structure as the different forces were merged. Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart assumed temporary command of the Army of Tennessee. Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill assumed temporary command of I Corps (Tennessee) with three divisions under Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson, Major-General Henry Delamar Clayton, and Hill’s own division now under Colonel J G Coltart. Major-General Edward Cary Walthall assumed temporary command of Stewart’s III Corps (Tennessee) with three divisions under Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke, Major-General Lafayette McLaws, and Brigadier-General William Booth Taliaferro.

Averasboro, North Carolina, also known as Averysboro, Averasborough, Taylor’s Hole Creek, or Smithville. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston had placed Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps north of Fayetteville to oppose the advance of Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s forces towards the state capital of Raleigh. They were faced by Union Major-General Henry Warner Slocum’s Army of Georgia or Left Wing, which was marching on a diverging course away from the Right Wing of Major-General Oliver Otis Howard. Slocum’s troops, about 26,000 strong, advanced towards Averasboro in order to cross the Cape Fear River and then to head east for Goldsboro. Slocum’s advanced guard encountered Hardee’s Corps soon after dawn, about six miles south of Averasboro. Hardee made a stand to identify his opponents and to clarify the objective of their advance. He found a four-mile gap between the Cape Fear River and Black River where his own weakness in numbers would be less exposed. Hardee had about 11,000 men. Brigadier-General William Booth Taliaferro’s two infantry brigades formed of former garrison and heavy artillery troops, while Major-General Lafayette McLaws had four infantry brigades. Major-General Joseph Wheeler had two mounted brigades. Hardee placed Taliaferro’s less experienced division in a thin double-line astride the Fayetteville to Raleigh Road, with orders to fall back, drawing the enemy onto McLaws’ veteran division dug in 600 yards behind them.

During the morning, the cavalry of Union Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick tested the Confederate skirmish lines. They met strong resistance and came under artillery fire. Slocum brought up two divisions from Major-General Alpheus Starkey Williams’ XX Corps but by 10 am they had also been halted in pelting rain by the Confederate first line. There seemed to be no way to outflank the defenders along the swampy river banks to each side. Union artillery began to bombard the defences which were centred around Colonel Alfred Rhett’s brigade across the Old Plank Road. Union Colonel Henry Case’s Brigade (1/3/XX) edged onto the right flank of Rhett’s men and the defence began to give way. Case’s attack overran three guns but was stopped by Brigadier-General Stephen Elliott’s Brigade. Slocum sent forward a third division from the reserve, but it was not until 3 pm that the three Union divisions began to push back Taliaferro’s two brigades of novice skirmishers towards McLaws’ main Confederate line.

Finding that he was coming up to a strongly entrenched line, anchored more firmly on the Cape Fear River and Black River, Slocum decided not to attack again and commenced a long-range artillery duel. Union Major-General Jefferson Columbus Davis’ XIV Corps began to arrive on the field, but it was dark before they could deploy fully for action. Skirmishing continued until nightfall but no successful attempts to attack McLaws’ position could be launched. Hardee’s troops were now seriously outnumbered, and he withdrew behind a successful delaying action conducted by Wheeler’s cavalry. Hardee received orders to resume his northward march to rejoin the rest of the army at Smithfield. The Confederates lost about 500 casualties and the Union lost 682 men (149 dead or missing and 533 wounded). (CWSAC Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: AVERASBORO, NC

Union Military Division of the Mississippi: Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman
Army of Georgia: Major-General Henry Warner Slocum
XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Passmore Carlin
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Harrison Carroll Hobart
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George Pearson Buell
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Lieutenant-Colonel D Miles
2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General James Dada Morgan
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Vandever
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Grant Mitchell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Benjamin Dana Fearing
XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams
1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Nathaniel James Jackson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James Lercon Selfridge
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Hawley
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General James Sidney
3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Henry Case
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Daniel Dustin
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Cogswell
Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
1st Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Thomas Jefferson Jordan
2nd Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Smith Dykins Atkins
3rd Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel George Eliphaz Spencer

Texas. USS Quaker City, Commander William F Spicer, captured the small blockade running sloop Telemico in the Gulf of Mexico with a cargo of cotton and peanuts.

Virginia. Reconnaissance from Winchester to Front Royal.

Virginia. A Union naval expedition consisting of USS Don, USS Stepping Stones, USS Heliotrope, and USS Resolute proceeded for three days up the Rappahannock River and its tributary, Mattox Creek, to the vicinity of Montrose. They destroyed a supply base supporting Confederate guerrillas on the peninsula between the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers. A landing force of 70 US Marines and sailors went up the right fork of Mattox Creek to destroy boats and came under fire. They were attacked by fifty Confederate cavalrymen, but these were driven off.

Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early returned to Petersburg, having lost almost his entire remaining command in the Shenandoah Valley at Waynesboro. The only substantial part of his army left, the 1,200 cavalrymen of Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser, had already been recalled to Petersburg, leaving nothing for Early to command in the Shenandoah Valley. Despite a favourable reception by General Robert Edward Lee, Early was not assigned to resume command of those parts of II Corps at Petersburg currently under Major-General John Brown Gordon. Early was directed to return to the Shenandoah Valley but the order was subsequently rescinded and Early remained awaiting orders until the end of the war.

 West Virginia. Reconnaissance to Carrick’s Ford ended.

West Virginia. Reconnaissance from Summit through to Kabletown and Myerstown to the Shenandoah Ferry began.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of East Tennessee: George Stoneman
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Terry’s Provisional Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Edmund Jackson Davis
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
  • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
    • Sub-District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Rolla: Edwin C Catherwood
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: William Hemsley Emory
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Wesley Merritt

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Henry Eugene Davies

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
    • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart assumed temporary command of the Army of Tennessee, succeeding General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.

Stewart, Alexander Peter / Tennessee / Born 2 October 1821 Rogersville, Tennessee / Died Biloxi, Mississippi 30 August 1908
USMA 1 July 1842 12/56 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1842 / Resigned USA 31 May 1845 / Major Artillery Tennessee Militia 17 May 1861 / Major PACS Artillery 15 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 8 November 1861 / Major-General PACS 5 June 1863 to rank from 2 June 1863 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Temporary) 23 June 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Chickamauga 19 September 1863 WIA Ezra Church 28 July 1864
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Western Department 16 November 1861-December 1861 / Stewart’s Brigade First Geographical Division December 1861-February 1862 / Stewart’s Brigade McCown’s Division Western Department February 1862-1 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 1 April 1862-6 April 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-14 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 14 April 1862-2 July 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of Mississippi 2 July 1862-18 August 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Right Wing Army of Tennessee 18 August 1862-20 November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-27 February 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 27 February 1863-April 1863 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee April 1863-6 June 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 6 June 1863-1 September 1863 / Stewart’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 1 September 1863-19 September 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 1 October 1863-7 July 1864 / III Corps Tennessee 14 June 1864-14 June 1864 / III Corps Tennessee 23 June 1864-29 July 1864 / III Corps Tennessee 15 August 1864-16 March 1865 / Army of Tennessee 16 March 1865-8 April 1865 / III Corps Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill assumed temporary command of I Corps (Tennessee), succeeding Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee.

Hill, Daniel Harvey / South Carolina / Born 12 July 1821 York, South Carolina / Died Charlotte, North Carolina 24 September 1889
USMA 1 July 1842 28 /56 Artillery-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1842 / 3rd US Artillery 20 October 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 13 October 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Resigned USA 28 February 1849 / Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 10 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 25 March 1862 to rank from 26 March 1862 / Resigned PACS 1 January 1863 Refused / Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 11 July 1863 Unconfirmed Expired 11 October 1863 / Reverted Major-General PACS 15 October 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 5 May 1864-17 May 1864 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 21 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General 10 July 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Big Bethel 10 June 1861
Department of South Carolina 27 May 1861-20 August 1861 / Department of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Army of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Department of Fredericksburg 17 July 1861-22 October 1861 / District of Pamlico 29 September 1861-16 November 1861 / Hill’s Division Army of the Peninsula November 1861 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northern Virginia 16 November 1861-January 1862 / Hill’s Division District of the Potomac January 1862-March 1862 / 4th Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Centre Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Hill’s Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-10 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 17 July 1862-19 September 1862 / Valley District 6 September 1862-29 December 1862 / Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 January 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 January 1863-16 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 23 February 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 28 May 1863-1 July 1863 / Department of Richmond 1 July 1863-13 July 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 24 July 1863-14 October 1863 / Hill’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 10 July 1864 / District of Georgia 21 January 1865-10 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 22 February 1865-16 March 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 16 March 1865-8 April 1865 / Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Major-General Edward Cary Walthall assumed temporary command of III Corps (Tennessee), succeeding Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart.

Walthall, Edward Cary / Mississippi / Born 4 April 1831 Richmond, Virginia / Died 21 April 1898
1st Lieutenant PACS 15th Mississippi Infantry 27 April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 21 July 1861 / Colonel PACS 29th Mississippi Infantry 11 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 December 1862 to rank from 13 December 1862 / Major-General PACS (Temporary) 6 June 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Chattanooga 25 November 1863 Exchanged WIA Resaca 15 May 1864
4th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 12 November 1862-14 November 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 14 December 1862-2 January 1863 / Walthall’s Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 2 January 1863-21 August 1863 / Walthall’s Brigade Liddell’s Division Reserve Corps Army of Tennessee 21 August 1863-31 October 1863 / Walthall’s Brigade Cheatham’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 31 October 1863-25 November 1863 / Walthall’s Brigade Cheatham’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee January 1864-20 February 1864 / Walthall’s Brigade Hindman’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 February 1864-6 June 1864 / Walthall’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 6 June 1864-16 March 1865 / III Corps Tennessee 16 March 1865-9 April 1865 / Walthall’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865026 April 1865

CSA: Major-General Camille Armand Jules Marie De Polignac departed for France and effectively resigned from service.

Polignac, Camille Armand Jules Marie de (Prince) / France-Louisiana / Born 16 February 1832 Millemont, France / Died Paris, France 15 November 1913
Lieutenant 3rd Chasseurs French Army May 1853 / 4th Hussars French Army 1854 / Lieutenant 4th Chasseurs French Army July 1855 / Discharged French Army February 1859 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 July 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 2 May 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 January 1863 / Major-General PACS 11 June 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864 / Resigned PACS 16 March 1865 / No Record of Parole / Major French Army July 1870 / Lieutenant-Colonel French Army September 1870 / General of Brigade French Army October 1870 General of Division French Army 1 November 1870
Assistant Inspector-General Army of Mississippi 2 May 1862-June 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Mississippi 2 May 1862 / Assistant -Inspector-General Western Department 17 July 1862-July 1863 / Polignac’s Brigade District of West Louisiana July 1863-November 1863 / Polignac’s Brigade 2nd Division District of West Louisiana November 1863-8 April 1864 / 2nd Division I Corps Trans-Mississippi Army 8 April 1864-17 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

General-in-Chief: Robert Edward Lee

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright

District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: George Baird Hodge

  • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: Benjamin Grubb Humphreys

Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury

District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise

Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
  • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
  • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
  • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson

Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill

  • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford

District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones

  • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
  • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant

District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin

Army of Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary

  • I Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
  • II Corps Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
  • III Corps Tennessee: Edward Cary Walthall temporary

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker

  • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
  • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
  • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Mosby Monroe Parsons

District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner

District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
  • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
  • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac RES
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Bryan Grimes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
William Henry Forney
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
William Paul Roberts
William Flank Perry
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Young Marshall Moody
Richard Waterhouse

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