General Officers in the Union Army in Order of Seniority

For Union Generals in Alphabetical Order

Union Generals in Order of Seniority by Grade

Commander-in-Chief

The Constitution of the United States of America provided that the President should be Commander-in-Chief of the Army, the Navy, the Marines and the Militia of the several States when called into Federal service.

James Buchanan President 4 March 1857 – 4 March 1861
Abraham Lincoln President 4 March 1861 – 15 April 1865
Andrew Johnson President 15 April 1865 – 4 March 1869

Secretary of War

The War Department under the Secretary of War conducted the political and administrative oversight of the Army, Navy, and the Marines; and all matters pertaining to the conduct of military operations. The Militia of the several States were directed by the Governor.

John Buchanan Floyd 1857 to 31 December 1860
Joseph Holt interim 31 December 1860 to 17 January 1861
Joseph Holt 18 January 1861 to 4 March 1861
Simon Cameron 5 March 1861 to 14 January 1862
Edwin McMaster Stanton 15 January 1862

Equivalency of Grades in the US Army and US Navy

Army / Navy

General / Admiral
Lieutenant-General / Vice Admiral
Major-General / Rear Admiral
Brigadier-General  / Commodore (Flag Officer)
Captain / Colonel

“Line” and “Staff” Appointments

At the outbreak of war, there were five “Line” arms of service: Artillery, Dragoons, Mounted, Rifles, Cavalry, and Infantry. On 3 August 1861, the three mounted arms were consolidated and only three arms of service were recognised: Artillery, Cavalry, and Artillery.

The “Staff” arm of service was parallel and separate from the “Line” arms, and was organised into the various Staff Bureaux.

Line Officers of any grade always outranked all staff officers of any grade except within the purview of the staff officer’s specific responsibility, in which case the staff officer took orders from their respective staff Bureau.

The differentiation of staff and line appointments and commissions frequently caused problems of seniority when officers were promoted. Various expedients were employed to attribute higher rank – such but more commonly as promoting to brevet ranks, promoting to line commissions in the US Volunteers or the Regular Army, or transferring officers nominally to line commands within the Regular Army while serving detached from that official command. None of these expedients were convenient or particularly effective and the intractable problems of resolving seniority in staff and line commissions were not resolved until after the Civil War.

A proper understanding of the Byzantine rules of seniority has been explained in detail and after exhaustive research by John H Eicher and David J Eicher in their monumental “Civil War High Commands” and this should be consulted for clarity. It is apparent that even the most qualified officers of the day were not always clear about the proper application of seniority rules and many anomalies arose. According to the Eichers, about 25% of Union army rankings and 7% of Union Navy rankings 15% of Confederate Army rankings do not appear to follow the guidelines for the determination of rank, other than perhaps by the exertion of “Presidential preference”.

General-in-Chief

Following the War of Independence, the United States Army appointed no active duty General Officers. Secretaries of War from 1821 designated a General to be in charge of the field forces without formal congressional approval. When General Officers were next properly appointed, the highest authorised rank in the US Army was Major-General, and the senior Major-General on the Army rolls was referred to as the Commanding General of the United States Army, or, less officially but more commonly, as the General-in-Chief. This position and title as traditional rather than statutory and did not take away the powers of the President to act as the Commander-in-Chief of all the Armed Services. The position of General-in-Chief was abolished with the creation of the statutory Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903.

January 1 1861: Major-General Winfield Scott was the incumbent General-in-Chief of the US Army
November 1 1861: Major-General George Brinton McClellan appointed General-in-Chief of the US Army
March 17 1862: No General-in-Chief. Responsibility delegated to the War Board
July 11 1862: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck appointed General-in-Chief of the US Army
March 4 1864: Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant appointed General-in-Chief of the United States Army

The position of General-in-Chief was abolished with the creation of the statutory Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903.

Generals of the Pre-War US Regular Army

Prior to the Civil War, the US Army system of promoting officers was based strongly but not exclusively upon seniority. Without the challenges of war to prove their merit and potential, the General Officers, chief staff officers, and Colonels of the small pre-Civil War army tended to advance mostly by seniority.

The army was small, and the high command was few in number; by 1861 many of the senior commanders were of advanced age. For example, among the Colonels of the line, 11 of the 19 had fought as commissioned officers in the War of 1812, over fifty years earlier.

After the war, an Act of Congress on 28 July 1866 authorised that the US Regular Army should comprise:

One General
One Lieutenant-General
Five Major-Generals
Ten Brigadier-Generals

The grade of General was never authorised in the United States Army during the Civil War. Ulysses Simpson Grant was not appointed to the new rank of General until after the war on 25th July 1866, becoming the first officer in the US Army to hold that grade since George Washington. Two other Civil War generals later attained the rank of General in the US Army.

On July 25 1866, the US Congress established the grade of “General of the Army of the United States” for General Ulysses Simpson Grant. The General of the Army held all the authority and power of a 1799 proposal for a rank of a “General of the Armies” even though Grant was never called by this title. Only one officer at a time could hold the rank of General of the Army. For a few months in 1885, as he was dying, Grant was accorded a special honour and his rank was restored by Congressional legislation. After Grant became the US President, he was succeeded as General of the Army by William Tecumseh Sherman, effective March 4 1869. By an Act of Congress, on June 1 1888, the grade was conferred exceptionally upon Philip Henry Sheridan, who was in failing health. The rank of General of the Army ceased to exist with Sheridan’s death on August 5 1888.

The highest authorised rank during the war was Lieutenant-General. The grade of Lieutenant-General was first activated when Winfield Scott received a Brevet promotion to the grade in 1855 but nobody held the substantive grade until 2nd March 1864 when Ulysses Simpson Grant was appointed Lieutenant-General and de facto General-in-Chief. Prior to this date the Union Army had only two substantive grades of General: Brigadier-General and Major-General. Four Civil War generals were later appointed as Lieutenant-General in the US Army.

The grade of Lieutenant-General was revived in February 1864 to allow President Abraham Lincoln to promote Ulysses Simpson Grant to the supreme command of the armies of the United States during the American Civil War. After the war, Grant was promoted to General and his vacant Lieutenant-General grade was filled by William Tecumseh Sherman.

When Grant became President in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as General and Philip Henry Sheridan succeeded Sherman as Lieutenant-General. Congress suspended further promotions to General and Lieutenant-General in 1870 but made an exception in 1888 to promote Sheridan on his deathbed by discontinuing the grade of Lieutenant-General and merging it with the grade of General.

In 1895, Congress briefly revived the grade of Lieutenant-General to promote Sheridan’s successor as Commanding General of the Army, John McAllister Schofield. Schofield had lobbied for the grade to be permanently re-established in order to cement the primacy of all future Commanding Generals. However, Congress regarded the grade of Lieutenant-General as a penultimate military accolade, second only to promotion to General, and refused to devalue the title’s significance by conferring it on any future Commanding General less eminent than previous recipients. Schofield was promoted to Lieutenant-General as a personal honour eight months before he / Retired. In retirement Schofield argued that the rank of Lieutenant-General ought to be permanently associated with the office of Commanding General, not the individual officers occupying it, and that an officer serving as Commanding General should hold the rank of Lieutenant-General while so detailed but revert to his permanent grade of Major-General upon leaving office. Over the next five decades, Schofield’s concept of Lieutenant-General as temporary rank would slowly prevail over the concept of Lieutenant-General as a permanent personal grade.

Major-Generals were nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Major-Generals could be appointed in the United States Regular Army (USA) or the United States Volunteers (USV).

Many states designated the commander-in-chief of their State Militia, Home Guard, Reserve, or similar local forces at the grade of Major-General. These officers had authority only within their State and were out-ranked by Generals of the USA and USV and few held active field commands.

Major-Generals outranked Brigadier-Generals and all other lesser officers. Regular Army grades conferred seniority over equal grades in the US Volunteers.

During the American Civil War, the bulk of the Union Army was composed of volunteer forces raised by individual states and led by federally appointed Major-Generals of volunteers (USV). The Regular Army was eventually authorised to commission a total of five Major-Generals. Three of the new vacancies were filled immediately by former Regular Army officers who had gained prominence in public life: George Brinton McClellan, John Charles Frémont, and Henry Wager Halleck, while Regular Army John Ellis Wool was promoted after capturing Norfolk. Subsequent appointments for Major-Generals USA were made to officers who had won decisive victories: Ulysses Simpson Grant after Vicksburg, William Tecumseh Sherman after Atlanta, George Gordon Meade after Spotsylvania (not Gettysburg), Philip Henry Sheridan after Cedar Creek, and George Henry Thomas after Nashville.

Of the ten Major-Generals (USA), one progressed to Lieutenant-General USA (U S Grant), two / Resigned to enter politics (G B McClellan and J C Frémont), and two / Retired (W Scott and J E Wool). Five remained in post and grade at the end of the War (H W Halleck, W T Sherman, G G Meade, P H Sheridan, G H Thomas). The latter four had gained their grade by battlefield success. W S Hancock was promoted Major-General USA on 26 July 1866.

Brigadier-Generals were nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Brigadier-Generals could be appointed in the United States Regular Army (USA) or United States Volunteers (USV). Some states appointed Brigadier-Generals in the State Militia, Home Guard, Reserve, and similar local forces. These had authority only within their own state and were out-ranked by Generals of the USA and USV; few held active senior commands. Brigadier-Generals outranked all other lesser officers.

Rank within the grade was determined by seniority since confirmation; however, the grade of Brigadier-General in the USA Regular Army was deemed higher than the same grade in the US Volunteers.

The overwhelming majority of Civil War Brigadier-Generals were appointed to that grade only in the volunteer service (USV), and hundreds of wartime generals lost their grades when the volunteers were disbanded after the war.

Early wartime vacancies in the Regular Army grade of Brigadier-General in the “Line” were filled on the basis of pre-war experience or anticipated brilliance, including Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner and Philip St George Cooke, Inspector-General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield was given line command, and Major Robert Anderson, all of whom were senior officers of the pre-war Army. Irvin McDowell and William Starke Rosecrans were promoted by proximity and trust of the General-in-Chief. By mid-1862 permanent commissions as Regular Army Brigadier-General were being granted to successful volunteer generals, many of whom had been civilians or junior Regular officers before the war. Such appointments went to Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman and Colonel George Henry Thomas; Major Winfield Scott Hancock; Captain John Pope, Captain George Gordon Meade, Captain James Birdseye McPherson, Captain Philip Henry Sheridan, and Captain John McAllister Schofield; to former Captain Joseph Hooker; and First Lieutenant Oliver Otis Howard — all of whom were already serving as Major-General USV — and also to the former civilian Alfred Howe Terry, a Brigadier-General USV. Three officers were promoted to Brigadier-General USA shortly after the end of the war, but not listed here: Edward Otho Cresap Ord on 26 July 1866, Edward Richard Sprigg Canby on 28 July 1866, and Lovell Harrison Rousseau on 28 March 1867.

Most of the Army’s wartime chiefs of staff departments were elevated to the rank of Brigadier-General of the “Staff”, including the Adjutant-General, the Chief of Ordnance, the Surgeon-General, the Commissary General of Subsistence, the Chief of Engineers, and the Judge Advocate General. In 1864 James Barnet Fry was appointed Provost Marshal-General with the rank of Brigadier-General to administer the non-Regular Army volunteers and draftees; uniquely among General Officers of this era, Fry lost his rank when his office was abolished after the volunteers were disbanded in 1866.

Officers of the “Staff” did not hold any seniority in the Army Lists and were always deemed junior to any “Line” Officer of any grade. Their grade and seniority held force only within their particular Bureau of branch of the Staff. They are therefore listed after Line Officers in this resource, but did not hold any seniority in terms of field or territorial command unless transferred permanently or temporarily to a “Line” command.

In 1865 Congress established the office of Chief of Staff to the Lieutenant-General with the grade of Brigadier-General USA as a mechanism to transfer Brigadier-General of Volunteers John Aaron Rawlins to the Regular Army so that he could continue to serve as Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s principal military assistant after the war. However, the Regular Army commission was not confirmed and the post was terminated when Rawlins became President Grant’s first Secretary of War in 1869

Pre-War US Regular Army Generals who also served as Generals, 1861-1865

Scott, Winfield
Wool, John Ellis
Twiggs, David Emanuel
Harney, William Selby
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston
Sumner, Edwin Vose (Sr)

Pre-War US Regular Army Heads of Staff Departments, 1861-1865

Abert, John James Chief of Topographic Engineers
Andrews, Timothy Patrick Paymaster-General
Gibson, George Commissary General of Subsistence
Churchill, Sylvester Inspector-General
Cooper, Samuel Adjutant General
Craig, Henry Knox Chief of Ordnance
Larned, Benjamin Franklin Paymaster-General
Lawson, Thomas Surgeon-General
Lee, John Fitzgerald Judge Advocate-General
Totten, Joseph Gilbert Chief of Engineers

Generals (US Regular Army) 1866 

The grade of General was never authorised in the United States Army during the Civil War. Ulysses Simpson Grant was not appointed to the new rank of General until after the war on 25th July 1866, becoming the first officer in the US Army to hold that grade since George Washington. Two other Civil War generals later attained the rank of General in the US Army.

Post-War Promotions 1866

Grant, Ulysses Simpson
Sherman, William Tecumseh
Sheridan, Philip Henry

On July 25 1866, the US Congress established the grade of “General of the Army of the United States” for General Ulysses Simpson Grant. The General of the Army held all the authority and power of a 1799 proposal for a rank of a “General of the Armies” even though Grant was never called by this title. Only one officer at a time could hold the rank of General of the Army. For a few months in 1885, as he was dying, Grant was accorded a special honour and his rank was restored by Congressional legislation. After Grant became the US President, he was succeeded as General of the Army by William Tecumseh Sherman, effective March 4 1869. By an Act of Congress, on June 1 1888, the grade was conferred exceptionally upon Philip Henry Sheridan, who was in failing health. The rank of General of the Army ceased to exist with Sheridan’s death on August 5 1888.

Lieutenant-Generals (US Regular Army) 1861-1865

The highest authorised rank during the war was Lieutenant-General. The grade of Lieutenant-General was first activated when Winfield Scott received a Brevet promotion to the grade in 1855 but nobody held the substantive grade until 2nd March 1864 when Ulysses Simpson Grant was appointed Lieutenant-General and de facto General-in-Chief. Prior to this date the Union Army had only two substantive grades of General: Brigadier-General and Major-General. Four Civil War generals were later appointed as Lieutenant-General in the US Army:

Grant, Ulysses Simpson

Post-War Promotions 1866-1891

Sherman, William Tecumseh
Sheridan, Philip Henry
Schofield, John McAllister
Miles, Nelson Appleton

The grade of Lieutenant-General was revived in February 1864 to allow President Abraham Lincoln to promote Ulysses Simpson Grant to the supreme command of the armies of the United States during the American Civil War. After the war, Grant was promoted to General and his vacant Lieutenant-General grade was filled by William Tecumseh Sherman.

When Grant became President in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as General and Philip Henry Sheridan succeeded Sherman as Lieutenant-General. Congress suspended further promotions to General and Lieutenant-General in 1870 but made an exception in 1888 to promote Sheridan on his deathbed by discontinuing the grade of Lieutenant-General and merging it with the grade of General.

In 1895, Congress briefly revived the grade of Lieutenant-General to promote Sheridan’s successor as Commanding General of the Army, John McAllister Schofield. Schofield had lobbied for the grade to be permanently re-established in order to cement the primacy of all future Commanding Generals. However, Congress regarded the grade of Lieutenant-General as a penultimate military accolade, second only to promotion to General, and refused to devalue the title’s significance by conferring it on any future Commanding General less eminent than previous recipients. Schofield was promoted to Lieutenant-General as a personal honour eight months before he retired. In retirement Schofield argued that the rank of Lieutenant-General ought to be permanently associated with the office of Commanding General, not the individual officers occupying it, and that an officer serving as Commanding General should hold the ex officio rank of Lieutenant-General while so detailed but revert to his permanent grade of Maj0r-General upon leaving office. Over the next five decades, Schofield’s concept of Lieutenant-General as temporary ex officio rank would slowly prevail over the concept of Lieutenant-General as a permanent personal grade.

Major-Generals (Regular Army) 1861-1865

Major-Generals were nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Major-Generals could be appointed in the United States Regular Army (USA) or the United States Volunteers (USV). Many states designated the commander-in-chief of their State Militia, Home Guard, Reserve or similar local forces at the grade of Major-General. These officers had authority only within their State and were out-ranked by Generals of the USA and USV; few of them held active field commands.

Major-Generals outranked Brigadier-Generals and all other lesser officers. Regular Army grades usually conferred seniority over equal grades in the US Volunteers. Additionally, in some cases, the grade of Brigadier-General USA was conferred to enable an officer to outrank a Major-General USV within the same command.

During the American Civil War, the bulk of the Union Army was composed of volunteer forces raised by individual states and led by federally appointed Major-Generals of volunteers (USV). The Regular Army was eventually authorised to commission a total of five Major-Generals. Three of the new vacancies were filled immediately by former Regular Army officers who had gained prominence in public life: George Brinton McClellan, John Charles Frémont, and Henry Wager Halleck, while Regular Army John Ellis Wool was promoted for capturing Norfolk, Virginia. Subsequent appointments for Major-Generals USA were reserved as prizes who won decisive battlefield victories: Ulysses Simpson Grant for Vicksburg, William Tecumseh Sherman for Atlanta, George Gordon Meade for Spotsylvania (not Gettysburg), Philip Henry Sheridan for Cedar Creek, and George Henry Thomas for Nashville.

Scott, Winfield
McClellan, George Brinton
Frémont, John Charles
Halleck, Henry Wager
Wool, John Ellis
Promoted to Lieutenant-General USA: Grant, Ulysses Simpson
Sherman, William Tecumseh
Meade, George Gordon
Sheridan, Philip Henry
Thomas, George Henry

Of the ten Major-Generals (USA), one progressed to Lieutenant-General USA (U S Grant), two resigned to enter politics (G B McClellan and J C Frémont), and two retired (W Scott and J E Wool). Five remained in post and grade at the end of the War (H W Halleck, W T Sherman, G G Meade, P H Sheridan, G H Thomas). The latter four had gained their grade after battlefield success.

Major-Generals (United States Volunteers) 1861-1865 

Dix, John Adams
Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss
Butler, Benjamin Franklin
Hunter, David
Morgan, Edwin Denison
Hitchcock, Ethan Allen
Promoted to Major-General USA and Lieutenant-General USA: Grant, Ulysses Simpson
Burnside, Ambrose Everett
Rosecrans, William Starke
Buell, Don Carlos
Pope, John
Curtis, Samuel Ryan
Sigel, Franz
McClernand, John Alexander
Smith, Charles Ferguson
Wallace, Lewis
Mitchel, Ormsby McKnight
Clay, Cassius Marcellus
Promoted to Major-General USA: Thomas, George Henry
Cadwalader, George
Promoted to Major-General USA: Sherman, William Tecumseh
Ord, Edward Otho Cresap
Sumner, Edwin Vose
Heintzelman, Samuel Peter
Keyes, Erasmus Darwin
Hooker, Joseph
Casey, Silas
Porter, Fitz John
Franklin, William Buel
Couch, Darius Nash
Reverted to: Brigadier-General USV: Morell, George Webb
Promoted to Major-General USA posthumously: Stevens, Isaac Ingalls
Promoted to Major-General USA posthumously: Kearny, Philip
Promoted to Major-General USA posthumously: Richardson, Israel Bush
Slocum, Henry Warner
Peck, John James
Sedgwick, John
McCook, Alexander McDowell
Nelson, William
Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas
Promoted to Major-General USV posthumously: Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno
Foster, John Gray
Parke, John Grubb
Promoted to Major-General USV posthumously: Reno, Jesse Lee
Augur, Christopher Columbus
Schenck, Robert Cumming
Hurlbut, Stephen Augustus
Granger, Gordon
Hamilton, Charles Smith
Rousseau, Lovell Harrison
McPherson, James Birdseye
Prentiss, Benjamin Mayberry
Stoneman, George
Reynolds, John Fulton
Promoted to Major-General USA: Meade, George Gordon
Howard, Oliver Otis
Sickles, Daniel Edgar
Milroy, Robert Huston
Butterfield, Daniel
Hancock, Winfield Scott
Sykes, George
French, William Henry
Stanley, David Sloane
Negley, James Scott
Schofield, John McAllister
Palmer, John McAuley
Steele, Frederick
Doubleday, Abner
Dana, Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh
Berry, Hiram Gregory
Oglesby, Richard James
Logan, John Alexander
Blunt, James Gilpatrick
Hartsuff, George Lucas
Reverted to Brigadier-General USV: Burns, William Wallace
Reverted to Brigadier-General USV: Buford, Napoleon Bonaparte
Washburn, Cadwallader Colden
Herron, Francis Jay
Blair, Francis Preston
Reynolds, Joseph Jones
Promoted to Major-General USA: Sheridan, Philip Henry
Stahel, Julius
Schurz, Carl
Reverted to Brigadier-General USV: Newton, John
Warren, Gouverneur Kemble
Promoted to Major-General USV posthumously: Whipple, Amiel Weeks
Birney, David Bell
Reverted to Brigadier-General USV: Brooks, William Thomas Harbaugh
Pleasonton, Alfred
Promoted to Major-General USV posthumously: Buford, John
Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson
Gillmore, Quincy Adams
Promoted to Major-General USV posthumously: Strong, George Crockett
Smith, William Farrar
Steedman, James Blair
Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg
Wright, Horatio Gouverneur
Smith, Andrew Jackson
Dodge, Grenville Mellen
Gibbon, John
Osterhaus, Peter Joseph
Mower, Joseph Antony
Crook, George
Weitzel, Godfrey
Cox, Jacob Dolson
Hazen, William Babcock
Terry, Alfred Howe
Wood, Thomas John
Merritt, Wesley
Griffin, Charles
Custer, George Armstrong
Davies, Henry Eugene
Wilson, James Harrison
Barlow, Francis Channing
Mott, Gershom
Grierson, Benjamin Henry

Post-War Promotions 1865

Swayne, Wager
Kilpatrick, Hugh Judson
Leggett, Mortimer Dormer
Emory, William Hemsley
Potter, Robert Brown
Miles, Nelson Appleton
Gillem, Alvan Cullem
Fessenden, Francis
Smith, Giles Alexander

Brigadier-Generals (Regular Army) 1861-1865

Brigadier-Generals were to be nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Brigadier-Generals could be appointed in the United States Regular Army (USA) or United States Volunteers (USV). Some states appointed Brigadier-Generals in the State Militia, Home Guard, Reserve and similar local forces. These had authority only within their own state and were out-ranked by Generals of the USA and USV; few held active senior commands. Brigadier-Generals outranked all other lesser officers.

Rank within the grade was determined by seniority since confirmation; however, the grade of Brigadier-General in the USA Regular Army was deemed higher than the same grade in the US Volunteers. During the war, it became necessary to promote accomplished officers to higher grades in the Regular Army in order that they could command fellow Brigadier-Generals who had seniority over them in the ranks of the US Volunteers.

The overwhelming majority of Civil War Brigadier-Generals were appointed to that grade only in the volunteer service (USV), and hundreds of wartime generals lost their grades when the volunteers were disbanded after the war.

Early wartime vacancies in the Regular Army grade of Brigadier-General were filled on the basis of pre-war experience or anticipated brilliance, including Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner and Philip St George Cooke, Inspector-General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield, and Major Robert Anderson, all senior officers of the pre-war Army. Two relative newcomers were Irvin McDowell and William Starke Rosecrans. By mid-1862 permanent commissions as Regular Army Brigadier-General were being posed as rewards for particularly successful volunteer generals, many of whom had been civilians or junior Regular officers before the war. Later appointments went to Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman and Colonel George Henry Thomas; Major Winfield Scott Hancock; Captain John Pope, Captain George Gordon Meade, Captain James Birdseye McPherson, Captain Philip Henry Sheridan, and Captain John McAllister Schofield; former Captain Joseph Hooker; and First Lieutenant Oliver Otis Howard — all serving as Major-General USV — and former civilian Alfred Howe Terry, a Brigadier-General USV.

Most of the Army’s wartime chiefs of staff departments were elevated to the ex officio rank of Brigadier-General, including the Adjutant-General, the Chief of Ordnance, the Surgeon-General, the Commissary General of Subsistence, the Chief of Engineers, and the Judge Advocate General. In 1864 James Barnet Fry was appointed Provost Marshal-General with the rank of Brigadier-General to administer the non-Regular Army volunteers and draftees; uniquely among ex officio General Officers of this era, Fry lost his rank when his office was abolished after the volunteers were disbanded in 1866.

In 1865 Congress established the office of Chief of Staff to the Lieutenant-General with ex officio rank of Brigadier-General as a mechanism to transfer Brigadier-General of Volunteers John Aaron Rawlins to the Regular Army so that he could continue to serve as Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s principal military assistant after the war; the office terminated when Rawlins became President Grant’s first Secretary of War in 1869.

Promoted to Major-General USA: Wool, John Ellis
Twiggs, David Emanuel
Harney, William Selby
Promoted to Major-General USV: Sumner, Edwin Vose (Sr)
Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno
Promoted to Major-General USV: McDowell, Irvin
Anderson, Robert
Promoted to Major-General USV: Rosecrans, William Starke
Cooke, Philip St George
Promoted to Major-General USV: Pope, John
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hooker, Joseph
Promoted to Promoted to Major-General USA: Meade, George Gordon
Promoted to Major-General USA: Sherman, William Tecumseh
Promoted to Major-General USV: McPherson, James Birdseye
Promoted to Major-General USA: Thomas, George Henry
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hancock, Winfield Scott
Promoted to Major-General USA: Sheridan, Philip Henry
Promoted to Major-General USA: Schofield, John McAllister
Promoted to Major-General USA: Howard, Oliver Otis
Promoted to Major-General USA: Terry, Alfred Howe

Brigadier-Generals (US Regular Army Staff )

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston
Meigs, Montgomery Cunningham
Craig, Henry Knox
Thomas, Lorenzo
Ripley, James Wolfe
Taylor, Joseph Pannell
Hammond, William Alexander
Totten, Joseph Gilbert
Ramsay, George Douglas
Fry, James Barnet
Delafield, Richard
Holt, Joseph
Eaton, Amos Beebe
Barnes, Joseph K
Dyer, Alexander Brydie

Brigadier-General (US Regular Army Staff) Unconfirmed

Rawlins, John Aaron

Brigadier-General (United States Volunteers) 1861-1865

Promoted to Major-General USV: Heintzelman, Samuel Peter
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hunter, David
Promoted to Major-General USV: Keyes, Erasmus Darwin
Porter, Andrew
Promoted to Major-General USV: Franklin, William Buel
Promoted to Major-General USV and Major-General USA: Sherman, William Tecumseh
Stone, Charles Pomeroy
Promoted to Major-General USV: Buell, Don Carlos
Sherman, Thomas West
Lyon, Nathaniel
McCall, George Archibald
Montgomery, William Reading
Kearny, Philip
Promoted to Major-General USV and Brigadier-General USA: Hooker, Joseph
Phelps, John Wolcott
Promoted to Major-General USV and Major-General USA and Lieutenant-General USA: Grant, Ulysses Simpson
Promoted to Major-General USV: Reynolds, Joseph Jones
Promoted to Major-General USV: Curtis, Samuel Ryan
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hamilton, Charles Smith
Promoted to Major-General USV: Couch, Darius Nash
King, Rufus
Promoted to Major-General USV: Cox, Jacob Dolson
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hurlbut, Stephen Augustus
Promoted to Major-General USV: Sigel, Franz
Promoted to Major-General USV: Schenck, Robert Cumming
Promoted to Major-General USV: Prentiss, Benjamin Mayberry
Lander, Frederick West
Kelley, Benjamin Franklin
Promoted to Major-General USV: McClernand, John Alexander
Williams, Alpheus Starkey
Rchardson, Israel Bush
Cooper, James
Ricketts, James Brewerton
Willcox, Orlando Bolivar
Corcoran, Michael
Promoted to Major-General USV: Burnside, Ambrose Everett
Lockwood, Henry Hayes
Blenker, Louis
Promoted to Major-General USV: Slocum, Henry Warner
Wadsworth, James Samuel
Promoted to Major-General USV: Peck, John James
Promoted to Major-General USV: Mitchel, Ormsby McKnight
Morell, George Webb
Martindale, John Henry
Sturgis, Samuel Davis
Promoted to Major-General USV: Stoneman, George
Benham, Henry Washington
Promoted to Major-General USV: Smith, William Farrar
Denver, James William
Promoted to Major-General USV and Major-General USA: Thomas, George Henry
Viele, Egbert Ludovicus
Shields, James
Promoted to Major-General USV: Reynolds, John Fulton
Barry, William Farquhar
Abercrombie, John Joseph
Promoted to Major-General USV: Sedgwick, John
Promoted to Major-General USV: Smith, Charles Ferguson
Promoted to Major-General USV: Casey, Silas
Graham, Lawrence Pike
Promoted to Major-General USV and Major-General USA Meade, George Gordon
Duryée, Abram
Promoted to Major-General USV: McCook, Alexander McDowell
Promoted to Major-General USV and Brigadier-General USA: Howard, Oliver Otis
Paine, Eleazar Arthur
Promoted to Major-General USV: Sickles, Daniel Edgar
Jameson, Charles Davis
Dumont, Ebenezer
Promoted to Major-General USV: Milroy, Robert Huston
Promoted to Major-General USV: Wallace, Lewis
Gorman, Willis Arnold
Promoted to Major-General USV: Butterfield, Daniel
Promoted to Major-General USV: Wright, Horatio Gouverneur
Promoted to Major-General USV: Ord, Edward Otho Cresap
Promoted to Major-General USV: Nelson, William
Ward, William Thomas
Price, Thomas Lawson
Barnard, John Gross
Palmer, Innis Newton
Williams, Seth
Newton, John
Promoted to Major-General USV and Brigadier-General USA: Hancock, Winfield Scott
Promoted to Major-General USV: Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas
Wright, George
Williams, Thomas
Promoted to Major-General USV: Sykes, George
Promoted to Major-General USV: French, William Henry
Brooks, William Thomas
Brannan, John Milton
Burns, William Wallace
Hatch, John Porter
Promoted to Major-General USV: Stanley, David Sloane
Strong, William Kerley
Schoepf, Albin Francisco
Promoted to Major-General USV: Rousseau, Lovell Harrison
Promoted to Major-General USV: Negley, James Scott
Promoted to Major-General USV: Wood, Thomas John
Johnson, Richard W
Von Steinwehr, Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich
Plummer, Joseph Bennett
Promoted to Major-General USV: Foster, John Gray
Cullum, George Washington
Boyle, Jeremiah Tilford
Promoted to Major-General USV: Augur, Christopher Columbus
Reno, Jesse Lee
Hamilton, Schuyler
Morgan, George Washington
Promoted to Major-General USV: Stahel, Julius H
Promoted to Major-General USV and Brigadier-General USA: Schofield, John McAllister
McKean, Thomas Jefferson
Promoted to Major-General USV: Parke, John Grubb
Tower, Zealous Bates
Davis, Jefferson Columbus
Lane, James Henry
Promoted to Major-General USV: Palmer, John McAuley
Keim, William High
Garfield, James Abram
Arnold, Lewis Golding
Promoted to Major-General USV: Steele, Frederick
Ketchum, William Scott
Promoted to Major-General USV: Doubleday, Abner
Davidson, John Wynn
Promoted to Major-General USV: Dana, Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh
Promoted to Major-General USV: Birney, David Bell
Meagher, Thomas Francis
Naglee, Henry Morris
Johnson, Andrew
Spears, James Gallant
Carr, Eugene Asa
Davies, Thomas Alfred
Tyler, Daniel
Emory, William Hemsley  Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Promoted to Major-General USV: Smith, Andrew Jackson
Patrick, Marsena Rudolph
Quinby, Isaac Ferdinand
Promoted to Major-General USV: Berry, Hiram Gregory
Ferry, Orris Sanford
Woodbury, Daniel Phineas
Judah, Henry Moses
Promoted to Major-General USV: Oglesby, Richard James
Cook, John
Wallace, William Hervey Lamm
McArthur, John
McCook, Robert Latimer
Lauman, Jacob Gartner
Van Cleve, Horatio Phillips
Promoted to Major-General USV: Logan, John Alexander
Fry, Speed Smith
Asboth, Alexander
Craig, James
Manson, Mahlon Dickerson
Promoted to Major-General USV: Granger, Gordon
Promoted to Major-General USV: Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg
Promoted to Major-General USV: Dodge, Grenville Mellen
Mitchell, Robert Byington
Promoted to Major-General USV: Blunt, James Gilpatrick
Patterson, Francis Engle
Promoted to Major-General USV: Gillmore, Quincy Adams
Whipple, Amiel Weeks
Grover, Cuvier
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hartsuff, George Lucas
Saxton, Rufus
Alvord, Benjamin
Buford, Napoleon Bonaparte
Smith, William Sooy
Kimball, Nathan
Devens, Charles
Promoted to Major-General USV: Schurz, Carl
Crawford, Samuel Wylie
Wessells, Henry Walton
Hascall, Milo Smith
Ross, Leonard Fulton
Geary, John White
Promoted to Major-General USV and Brigadier-General USA: Terry, Alfred Howe
Promoted to Major-General USV: Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson
Carleton, James Henry
Baird, Absalom
Robinson, John Cleveland
Seymour, Truman
Bayard, George Dashiell
Prince, Henry
Piatt, Abram Sanders
Crittenden, Thomas Turpin
Weber, Maximilian
Hackleman, Pleasant Adam
Sullivan, Jeremiah Cutler
Hovey, Alvin Peterson
Veatch, James Clifford
Benton, William Plummer
Bohlen, Henry
Caldwell, John Curtis
Rodman, Isaac Peace
Dow, Neal
Greene, George Sears
Carter, Samuel Powhatan
Promoted to Major-General USV: Gibbon, John
Taylor, George William
Tyler, Erastus Barnard
Promoted to Major-General USV and Brigadier-General USA: McPherson, James Birdseye
Promoted to Major-General USV: Griffin, Charles
Gordon, George Henry
Tuttle, James Madison
White, Julius
Promoted to Major-General USV: Osterhaus, Peter Joseph
Burbridge, Stephen Gano
Elliott, Washington Lafayette
Howe, Albion Parris
Smith, Green Clay
Campbell, William Bowen
Major-General USA and Major-General USV: Sheridan, Philip Henry
Roberts, Benjamin Stone
Major-General USA: Pleasonton, Alfred
Ammen, Jacob
Sill, Joshua Woodrow
Buckingham, Catharinus Putnam
Warren, Fitz-Henry
Smith, Morgan Lewis
Cruft, Charles
Saloman, Frederick
Jackson, James Streshly
Major-General USA: Washburn, Cadwallader Colden
Major-General USA: Herron, Francis Jay
Cochrane, John
Turchin, John Basil
Briggs, Henry Shaw
Jackson, Conrad Feger
Morgan, James Dada
Willich, August
Terry, Henry Dwight
Major-General USA: Steedman, James Blair
Shepley, George Foster
Buford, John
Major-General USA: Blair, Francis Preston
Kenly, John Reese
Slough, John Potts
Major-General USA: Weitzel, Godfrey
Haupt, Herman
Major-General USA: Crook, George
Kane, Thomas Leiper
Major-General USA: Mott, Gershom
Hunt, Henry Jackson
Major-General USA: Reynolds, Joseph Jones
Major-General USA: Barlow, Francis Channing
Brayman, Mason
Jackson, Nathaniel James
Getty, George Washington
Sully, Alfred
Major-General USA: Warren, Gouverneur Kemble
Averell, William Woods
Hays, Alexander
Pratt, Calvin Edward
Spinola, Francis Barretto
Ward, John Henry Hobart
Meredith, Solomon
Bowen, James
Scammon, Eliakim Parker
Granger, Robert Seaman
West, Joseph Rodman
Revere, Joseph Warren
Ellet, Alfred Washington
Andrews, George Leonard
Fisk, Clinton Bowen
Hays, William
Vogdes, Israel
Russell, David Allen
Hunt, Lewis Cass
Wheaton, Frank
Mason, John Sanford
Gregg, David McMurtrie
Tyler, Robert Ogden
Torbert, Alfred Thomas Archimedes
Lytle, William Haines
Marston, Gilman
Dwight, William
Meredith, Sullivan Amory
Kirk, Edward Needles
McLean, Nathaniel Collins
Vandever, William
Schimmelfennig, Alexander
Graham, Charles Kinnaird
Smith, John Eugene
Copeland, Joseph Tarr
Heckman, Charles Adam
Champlin, Stephen Gardner
Potter, Edward Elmer
Rowley, Thomas Algeo
Carrington, Henry Beebee
King, John Haskell
Slemmer, Adam Jacoby
Neill, Thomas Hewson
Pitcher, Thomas Gamble
Sweeny, Thomas William
Carlin, William Passmore
Ayres, Romeyn Beck
Promoted to Major-General USV: Hazen, William Babcock
Morton, James St Clair
Promoted to Major-General USV: Mower, Joseph Antony
Arnold, Richard
Hinks, Edward Winslow
Strong, George Crockett
Lawler, Michael Kelly
Wagner, George Day
Cutler, Lysander
Knipe, Joseph Farmer
Stevenson, John Dunlap
Barnes, James
Garrard, Theophilus Toulmin
Harland, Edward
Zook, Samuel Kosciuszko
Beatty, Samuel
Wistar, Isaac Jones
Nickerson, Frank Stillman
Hobson, Edward Henry
Buckland, Ralph Pomeroy
Webster, Joseph Dana
Orme, William Ward
Harrow, William
Allen, Thomas G
Morris, William Hopkins
Beatty, John
Ruger, Thomas Howard
Ransom, Thomas Edward Greenfield
Dennis, Elias Smith
Smith, Thomas Church Haskell
Leggett, Mortimer Dormer  Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Tillson, Davis
Tyndale, Hector
Dodge, Charles Cleveland
Lee, Albert Lindley
Matthies, Charles Leopold
Crocker, Marcellus Monroe
Brown, Egbert Benson
McNeil, John
McGinnis, George Francis
Deitzler, George Washington
Ewing, Hugh Boyle
McMillan, James Winning
Shackelford, James Murrell
Ullmann, Daniel
Stannard, George Jerrison
Baxter, Henry
Nagle, James
Vinton, Francis Laurens
Thayer, John Milton
Campbell, Charles Thomas
Welsh, Thomas
Paine, Halbert Eleazer
Reid, Hugh Thompson
Harding, Abner Clark
Potter, Robert Brown Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Ewing, Thomas
Lightburn, Joseph Andrew Jackson
Carr, Joseph Bradford
Bartlett, Joseph Jackson
Owen, Joshua Thomas
Connor, Patrick Edward
Hawkins, John Parker
Paul, Gabriel René
Wild, Edward Augustus
Ferrero, Edward
Ames, Adelbert
Birney, William
Rucker, Daniel Henry
Allen, Robert
Ingalls, Rufus
Shaler, Alexander
Promoted to Major-General USV: Grierson, Benjamin Henry
Foster, Robert Sanford
Kilpatrick, Hugh Judson Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Webb, Alexander Stewart
Duffié, Alfred Napoleon Alexander
Whitaker, Walter Chiles
Promoted to Major-General USV: Merritt, Wesley
Promoted to Major-General USV: Custer, George Armstrong
Whipple, William Denison
Starkweather, John Converse
Garrard, Kenner
Woods, Charles Robert
Sanborn, John Benjamin
Smith, Giles Alexander Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Rice, Samuel Allen
Maltby, Jasper Adalmorn
Smith, Thomas Kilby
Gresham, Walter Quintin
Force, Manning Ferguson
Cameron, Robert Alexander
Corse, John Murray
Rawlins, John Aaron
Chambers, Alexander
Gillem, Alvan Cullem  Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Rice, James Clay
Turner, John Wesley
Eustis, Henry Lawrence
Promoted to Major-General USV: Davies, Henry Eugene
Hamilton, Andrew Jackson
Birge, Henry Warner
Harker, Charles Garrison
Ledlie, James Hewitt
Promoted to Major-General USV: Wilson, James Harrison
Underwood, Adin Ballou
Chetlain, Augustus Louis
Pile, William Anderson
Fuller, John Wallace
Miller, John Franklin
Trobriand, Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern de
Bussey, Cyrus /
Andrews, Christopher Columbus
Sibley, Henry Hastings
Burnham, Hiram
McCook, Edward Moody
Grant, Lewis Addison
Hatch, Edward
Kautz, August Valentin
Fessenden, Francis Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Brooke, John Rutter
Hartranft, John Frederick
Carroll, Samuel Sprigg
Griffin, Simon Goodell
Upton, Emory
Miles, Nelson Appleton Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Hayes, Joseph
Pierce, Byron Root
Connor, Selden
Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence
Rice, Elliott Warren
Bartlett, William Francis
Bragg, Edward Stuyvesant
Hardin, Martin Davis
Paine, Charles Jackson
De Russy, Gustavus Adolphus
McIntosh, John Baillie
Chapman, George Henry
Grose, William
Cooper, Joseph Alexander
Croxton, John Thomas
Sprague, John Wilson
Reilly, James William
Bradley, Luther Prentice
Walcutt, Charles Carroll
Belknap, William Worth
Haskin, Joseph Abel
Fessenden, James Deering
Bidwell, Daniel Davidson
Long, Eli
Egan, Thomas Wilberforce
Hawley, Joseph Roswell
Seward, William Henry
Duval, Isaac Hardin
Edwards, John
Smyth, Thomas Alfred
Vanderveer, Ferdinand
Powell, William Henry
Devin, Thomas Casimer
Gibbs, Alfred
Mackenzie, Ranald Slidell
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard
Slack, James Richard
Lucas, Thomas John
Davis, Edmund Jackson
Bailey, Joseph
Beal, George Lafayette
Thomas, Henry Goddard
Hamlin, Cyrus
Jones, Patrick Henry
Oliver, John Morrison
Scott, Robert Kingston
Robinson, James Sidney
Potts, Benjamin Franklin
Mitchell, John Grant
Williamson, James Alexander
Curtis, Newton Martin
Doolittle, Charles Camp
Thomas, Stephen
Gilbert, James Isham
Raum, Green Berry
Pennypacker, Galusha
Stolbrand, Charles John
Swayne, Wager Promoted Post-War 1865 to Major-General USV
Ewing, Charles
Van Vliet, Stewart
Harris, Thomas Maley
Ketcham, John Henry
Dent, Frederick Tracy
Osborn, Thomas Ogden
Potter, Joseph Haydn
Brisbin, James Sanks
Warner, James Meech
Parsons, Lewis Baldwin
Edwards, Oliver
Watkins, Louis Douglass
Hamblin, Joseph Eldridge
Wells, William
Jackson, Richard Henry
Forsyth, James William
Morgan, Charles Hale
Barnum, Henry Alanson
Rice, Americus Vespucius
Woods, William Burnham
Clark, William Thomas
Catterson, Robert Francis

Post-War Promotions 1865

Este, George Peabody
Penrose, William Henry
Stokes, James Hughes
Sherman, Francis Trowbridge
Opdycke, Samuel Emerson
Gamble, William
Van Wyck, Charles Henry
Tibbitts, William Badger
Chrysler, Morgan Henry
Dewey, Joel Allen

Pre-War US Regular Army Heads of Staff Departments, 1861-1865 not commissioned as Generals

Gibson, George
Lawson, Thomas
Abert, John James
Totten, Joseph Gilbert
Churchill, Sylvester
Cooper, Samuel
Larned, Benjamin Franklin
Andrews, Timothy Patrick
Craig, Henry Knox
Lee, John Fitzgerald

Brigadier-General (US Volunteers) Unconfirmed or Unsubstantiated or Untimely

Baker, Edward Dickinson
Baker, Lafayette Curry
Biddle, Charles John
Buchanan, Robert Christie
Busteed, Richard
Chapin, Edward Payson
Clayton, Powell
Cluseret, Gustave Paul
Cowdin, Robert
Fairchild, Lucius
Farnsworth, Elon John
Farnsworth, John Franklin
Gilbert, Charles Champion
Hardie, James Allen
Haynie, Isham Nicolas
Hovey, Charles Edward
Howell, Joshua Blackwood
Kiernan, James Lawlor
Kirby, Edmund
Krzyzanowski, Wladimir Bonaventura
Lowell, Charles Russell
Marcy, Randolph Barnes
McCook, Daniel
McKinstry, Justus
Miller, Stephen
Phelps, John Smith
Poe, Orlando Metcalfe
Sanders, William Price
Shepard, Isaac Fitzgerald
Smith, Gustavus Adolphus
Stevenson, Thomas Greely
Stoughton, Edwin Henry
Stumbaugh, Frederick Shearer
Stuart, David
Taylor, Nelson
Terrill, William Rufus
Thruston, Charles Mynn
Todd, John Blair Smith
Vincent, Strong
Wade, Melancthon Smith
Weed, Stephen Hinsdale
Williams, David Henry
Williams, Nelson Grosvenor

Commanders of Territorial Commands not appointed to Union General Officer Grade, and mentioned in this resource

Alexander, Edmund
Allen, John D
Ames, John Worthington
Bartram, Nelson B
Beall, Benjamin Lloyd
Beckwith, Edward Griffin
Bentzoni, Charles (Carl)
Beveridge, John Lourie
Black, Henry M
Bowie, George Washington
Bowman, Samuel Millard
Brown, Benjamin Gratz
Brown, Harvey
Brown, Philip Perry (Jr)
Byrne, James J
Cady, Albemarle
Cahill, Thomas W
Catherwood, Edwin C
Chivington, John Milton
Cloud, William Fletcher
Cranor, Jonathan
Crooks, William
Currey, George Byron
Curtis, James Freeman
Davis, Greenlief P
Davis, William Watts Hart
Day, Nicholas Wyckoff
Dickey, William Henry
Drake, John Miller
Draper, Alonzo Granville
Drew, Charles Wilson
Dyer, Isaac
Everett, Charles
Fauntleroy, Thomas Turner
Fonda, John Giles
Ford, James Hobart
Foreman, Ferris
Fuller, Henry William
Gallup, George W
Glover, John Montgomery
Gravely, Joseph Jackson
Gregg, John Irvin
Guitar, Odon
Hall, Willard Preble
Hallowell, Edward Needles
Hamilton, Charles
Harding, Chester (Jr)
Heath, Thomas Tinsley
Henning, Benjamin S
Hill, Bennett Hoskin
Holbrook, William Cune
Johnston, Albert Sidney
Jourdan, James
Judd, Henry Bethel
Judson, William Russell
Kennett, John
Landram, William Jennings
Lee, Harvey
Lippitt, Francis James
Littlefield, Milton Smith
Livingston, Robert Ramsey
Loan, Benjamin Franklin
Loring, William Wing
Lovell, Charles Swain
Ludlow, Benjamin Chambers
Mather, Thomas Scott
Maury, Reuben F
McChesney Joseph Miller
McKibbin, Gilbert Hunt
Merrill, Lewis
Mersy, August
Molineux, Edward Leslie
Moonlight, Thomas
Morrill, John
Morris, William Walton
Moulton, Orson E
Mudgett, William S
Noble, William Henry
Patterson, Robert
Peteler, Francis
Philips, John Finis
Pickett, Josiah
Roberts, Samuel Henry
Sapp, William Fletcher
Schmitt, John C
Sewall, Frederic Dummer
Sigel, Albert
Simonson, John Smith
Smith, Charles Henry
Spalding, George
Steinburger, Justus
Stewart, James (Jr)
Sumner, Edwin Vose (Jr)
Sweitzer, Nelson Bowman
Thomas, Minor T
Tilghman, Benjamin Chew
Totten, James
Viall, Nelson
Voris, Alvin Coe
Waite, Carlos Adolphus
Wells, Henry Horatio
West, Robert Mayhew
Whipple, Stephen Girard
Wilson, John Moulder
Wisewell, Moses N
Woodford, Stewart Lyndon

Brevet Generals 

Brevet rank in the Union Army, whether in the Regular Army or the United States Volunteers, may best be regarded as an honorary title which conferred none of the authority, precedence or pay of real or full rank. The vast majority of the Union Army Brevet ranks were awarded posthumously or on or as of 13 March 1865 as the war was approaching its end.

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