About General Officers in the Confederate Army, 1861-1865
The General Officers of the army of the Confederate States of America were the senior military leaders of the Confederacy. Many were former officers of the United States Regular Army from prior to the Civil War, while others were given the rank based on merit or necessity.
Confederate Generals needed confirmation of their appointment from the Confederate Congress. They answered to their civilian leadership in President Jefferson Davis, who was the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Navy, and Marines of the Confederate States.
When the Confederate Congress established their War Department on February 21 1861, the structure and organisation of the Confederate States Army were inevitably based on the structure and customs of the US Army. The Confederate Army comprised three elements; the Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA), which was intended to become the permanent regular army after the achievement of sovereignty, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS), which was a “Volunteer” Army to be disbanded after hostilities; and also, the Militias and Forces of the several States.
Graduates from West Point and Mexican War veterans were highly sought after for military service, especially as General Officers. Both the Confederate and Union armies appointed Generals from professional and political backgrounds alongside current and former members of the military.
Grades and Ranks were broadly based on the US Army’s design.
On February 27 1861, a General staff for the army was authorised, consisting of four key positions: Adjutant-General and Inspector-General (combined), Quartermaster-General, Commissary General, and Surgeon-General. Initially the last of these was to hold their grade as a staff officer only. The post of Adjutant-General and Inspector-General was filled immediately by Samuel Cooper, using his expertise in the position he had gained as a colonel in the US Army from 1852. He held it throughout the Civil War, providing continuity and consistency in the Army’s administrative functions.
The Confederate Army ultimately had four grades or levels of General Officers: General, Lieutenant-General, Major-General and Brigadier-General. The Regular Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA) did not progress far beyond the planning stage.
The Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) was the effective force organised and so PACS and ACSA ranks were broadly identical operationally.
Initially the Confederate Army commissioned only Brigadier-Generals in both the volunteer and regular services. However, the Confederate Congress quickly passed legislation allowing for the appointment of Major-Generals as well as Generals in the PACS, thus conferring clear and distinct seniority over the existing Major-Generals leading the Militia of the various states.
As officers were appointed to the various grades of General by Jefferson Davis and were confirmed, he personally created the promotion lists which determined seniority and rank. Davis determined the dates of rank and seniority of officers appointed to the same grade on the same day “usually following the guidelines established for the pre-war US Army.” With four grades of general officer available, the Confederates were able to assign commands closely aligned to the grade of their commanders. The Union, until the last year or so of the war, had only two General Officer grades – Brigadier-General and Major-General.
The permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America provided that the President should be Commander-in-Chief of the Army, the Navy, the Marines, and of the Militia of the several States when called into service. A nominal Army of the Confederate States was formed in 1861, but the vast majority of Generals, officers and men served in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, a temporary organisation broadly equivalent to the US Volunteers. President Jefferson Davis became Commander-in-Chief on his inauguration as President of the Confederate States of America on 18th February 1861. Davis had served with distinction in the US Volunteers and as Secretary of War of the United States.
Jefferson Finis Davis of Mississippi 8 February 1861 to 21 February 1862 (Provisional)
Jefferson Finis Davis of Mississippi 22 February 1862 to 5 May 1865
Secretary of War
Leroy Pope Walker of Alabama 21 February 1861 to 17 September 1861
Judah Philip Benjamin of Louisiana 17 September 1861 to 17 March 1862
Brigadier-General George Wythe Randolph of Virginia 17 March 1862 to 17 November 1862
Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith of Kentucky temporary 17 November 1862 to 21 November 1862
James Alexander Seddon of Virginia 21 November 1862 to 6 February 1865
Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge of Kentucky 6 February 1865 to 10 May 1865
The US Regular Army had traditionally considered its most senior ranking officer as General-in-Chief, but the post of General-in-Chief was not created by the Confederate Congress until 23 January 1865. The position had been debated as early as 27 February 1862, but President Jefferson Finis Davis voiced his rejection and veto to the Congress on 14 March 1862. He believed that there was a risk that such a General could “command an army or armies without the will of the President” and infringe the rights of the President as Commander-in-Chief.
General Robert Edward Lee 31 January 1865 to April 10 1865
Military Adviser to the President
General Robert Edward Lee and General Braxton Bragg served as Military Advisers to the President at different times, “charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy.” Executive authority remained with the President with guidance from the Adviser.
General Robert Edward Lee June 8 1861 to 4 November 1861
Vacant 5 November 1861 to 4 March 1862
General Robert Edward Lee March 5 1862 to 31 May 1862
Vacant 1 June 1862 to 23 February 1864
General Braxton Bragg 24 February 24 1864 to 30 January 1865
“Line” and “Staff” Appointments
At the outbreak of war, there were five “Line” arms of service in the US Army: Artillery, Dragoons, Mounted, Rifles, Cavalry, and Infantry. The Confederate Army recognised three arms of service: Artillery, Cavalry, and Artillery.
The “Staff” arm of service was parallel and separate from the “Line” arms, and was organised into the various Staff Bureaux.
Line Officers of any grade always outranked all staff officers of any grade except within the purview of the staff officer’s specific responsibility, in which case the staff officer took orders from their respective staff Bureau.
The differentiation of staff and line appointments and commissions frequently caused problems of seniority when officers were promoted. Various expedients were employed to attribute higher rank – such as promoting to brevet ranks, promoting to line commissions in the US Volunteers or the Regular Army, or transferring officers nominally to line commands within the Regular Army while serving detached from that official command. None of these expedients were convenient or particularly effective and the intractable problems of resolving seniority in staff and line commissions were not resolved until after the Civil War.
A proper understanding of the Byzantine rules of seniority has been explained in detail and after exhaustive research by John H Eicher and David J Eicher in their monumental “Civil War High Commands” and this should be consulted for clarity. It is apparent that even the most qualified officers of the day were not always clear about the proper application of seniority rules and many anomalies arose. According to the Eichers, about 25% of Union army rankings and 7% of Union Navy rankings 15% of Confederate Army rankings do not appear to follow the guidelines for the determination of rank, other than perhaps by the exertion of “Presidential preference”.
Prior to the Civil War, the US Army system of promoting officers was based strongly but not exclusively upon seniority. Without the challenges of war to prove their merit and potential, the General Officers, chief staff officers, and Colonels of the small pre-Civil War army tended to advance mostly by seniority. The army was small, and the high command was few in number; by 1861 many were of advanced age. Among the Colonels of the line, 11 of the 19 had fought as commissioned officers in the War of 1812, over fifty years earlier.
Pre-War US Regular Army Generals and Heads of Staff Departments who became Confederate Generals
Twiggs, David Emanuel
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston
Generals (ACSA) 1861-1865
Generals occupied the most senior posts in the Confederate Army, commanding Armies, Military Divisions or Departments, or serving as Military Adviser to the President. Eight Generals were ultimately appointed, of whom one was killed in action and one reverted to a lower grade.
On May 16 1861, there were three officers holding the grade of Brigadier-General in the ACSA, and new legislation stated that: “the five General Officers provided by existing laws for the Confederate States shall have the rank and denomination of ‘General’, instead of ‘Brigadier-General’, which shall be the highest military grade known to the Confederate States”. These first “full” Generals became and remained the most senior commanders of the Confederate armies throughout the war. Samuel Cooper, Robert Edward Lee, and Joseph Eggleston Johnston were the first three officers to hold the grade of Brigadier-General on that date.
Albert Sidney Johnston and Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard followed later in 1861 and their seniority dates were adjusted to ensure they ranked appropriately. The original Generals, in order of seniority became Samuel Cooper, Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert Edward Lee, Joseph Eggleston Johnston, and Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard. This order of seniority placed Cooper, who served only in a staff role and never as a field commander, as nominally the senior General. This arrangement affected the Confederacy’s military effectiveness, most notably because of the strained relationship it caused between General Joseph Eggleston Johnston and President Jefferson Davis. Johnston was the only former serving General officer in the United States Army to join the Confederacy. He therefore considered himself the senior officer and resented the order of seniority that Davis had authorised. However, Davis argued that Johnston’s grade in the US Army was as a staff officer, and not as a line officer. Davis identified this distinction on other occasions to the detriment of former staff officers when assigning seniority and rank in the Confederate Army, and this provoked a number of controversies.
Beauregard, Cooper, J E Johnston, and Lee had their grades re-nominated on 20 February 1863 and re-confirmed on 23 April 1863 by the Confederate Congress. This was done as a technicality in response to debates on 17 February whether confirmations made by the Provisional legislature of the Confederacy needed re-confirmation by the permanent legislature. The confirmations were made by an Act of Congress on 19 February 1863.
Braxton Bragg was appointed a General in the ACSA to date from 6 April 1862, the date when General Albert Sidney Johnston was killed in action.
Of the six substantive Generals ACSA, in order of seniority:
One was Killed in Action: A S Johnston
Five were Paroled: S Cooper, A S Johnston, R E Lee, J E Johnston, and B Bragg
Generals (PACS) 1861-1865
On 17 February 1864 legislation was passed to allow the President to appoint an officer to command the Trans-Mississippi Department, with the rank of General in the PACS. General Edmund Kirby Smith was appointed to this position and grade. The effective separation of this Department from the remainder of the Confederacy after the Union re-conquest of the Mississippi necessitated an exceptional degree of autonomy in that Department and this high grade for the autonomous commander.
The Congress passed legislation in May 1864 to allow for “temporary” General officers to be appointed at any grade in the PACS by the President and confirmed by the Senate, and to be given a non-permanent command. John Bell Hood was the highest ranking officer to be appointed a “temporary” General on 18 July 1864, the date he took command of the Army of Tennessee. This appointment was not confirmed permanently by the Congress, and he reverted to his substantive grade of Lieutenant-General in January 1865. In March 1865, Hood’s status was clarified by the Confederate Senate, which stated: “General J B Hood, having been appointed General, with temporary rank and command, and having been relieved from duty as Commander of the Army of Tennessee, and not having been reappointed to any other command appropriate to the rank of General… has lost the rank of General, and therefore cannot be confirmed as such.” His period as General coincided effectively with the period “awaiting orders” of General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.
Of the two substantive Generals PACS, in order of seniority:
One was Paroled: E K Smith
One reverted to the grade of Lieutenant-General PACS: J B Hood
Confederate Lieutenant-Generals (PACS)
On September 18 1862, the new grade of Lieutenant-Generals was authorized. From this point, the Confederate Army had four grades of General Officers: Brigadier-General, Major-General, Lieutenant-General, and General.
The Confederate Congress passed legislation in May 1864 to allow for “temporary” General officers in the PACS, to be appointed temporarily in special circumstances by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Under this law, Richard Heron Anderson, Jubal Anderson Early, Stephen Dill Lee and Alexander Peter Stewart were appointed temporarily to Lieutenant-General. Stephen Dill Lee was re-nominated to Lieutenant-General and confirmed permanently. Daniel Harvey Hill was appointed temporarily in 1863 and reverted to Major-General.
Congress legalized the creation of Army Corps on 18 September 1862 and directed that a Lieutenant-General should command. Lieutenant-Generals were nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. All Lieutenant-Generals were appointed in the PACS. Army Corps or Corps were officially formed from 6 November 1862 onwards after the appropriate rank of Lieutenant-General had been authorised for their commanders. Prior to November 1862 the term Corps was not officially authorised, but it had been in infrequent but unofficial use. Other terms were also used before and after this date to denote subdivisions of an Army larger than a division e.g. Right Wing, Longstreet’s Command, to avoid using the unauthorised designation of Corps.
Some Lieutenant-Generals never commanded a Corps within an Army as such but commanded comparable forces in a Territorial Command.
Army Corps were numbered within an Army and when this was done the preferred orthography was, for example, “First Corps”. By modern convention Corps are usually denoted by Roman numerals e.g. I Corps for clarity and consistency but this was never the contemporary practice in the Confederate Army. While they were occasionally designated “First Corps” etc but most frequently, and even when numbered, they were known by their commander’s name. Some Corps were never assigned a number and even those that were numbered continued in usual practice to be referred to by their commander’s name. Confederates Corps are sometimes designated by a Roman numeral for clarity although this is both anachronistic and technically inaccurate. After some initial duplication of numbers in 1862 the United States Army sought to end such anomalies from late 1862 onwards and regulated the assignment of all Corps numbers, using Roman numerals. The Union eventually fielded Corps numbered from I Corps to XXV Corps, with some duplications and anomalies. In contrast, the Confederates only numbered the several Corps within one field army rather than across the Army as a whole and therefore had several commands designated as I Corps, II Corps etc.
Corps usually remained with their parent army but were occasionally detached to operate independently e.g. Longstreet’s Corps operated in Southern Virginia in 1863, Early‘s Corps operated in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864, Breckinridge’s Reserve Corps operated at Baton Rouge in 1862. A Corps operated temporarily with another field army on only one occasion when Longstreet’s I Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was transferred temporarily to the Army of Tennessee in the autumn of 1863. It returned the following spring.
In the absence of the appointed Lieutenant-General, the senior Major-General of the division would normally assume command but the Corps would retain officially the name of the appointed Lieutenant-General. Occasionally, when the Lieutenant-General had an extended absence or was as yet unnamed, the Corps would be referred to for clarity by the name of the temporary commander. Necessity sometimes forced the appointment of a new or temporary Corps commander from outside the Corps.
This grade in the Confederate Army was not synonymous with Union usage. Ulysses Simpson Grant was the only Lieutenant-General during the war, although Winfield Scott held the Brevet grade of Lieutenant-General by a special act of Congress since 1855. Grant was the only substantive Union Lieutenant-General in active service during the war.
Of the 18 Lieutenant-Generals PACS, in order of seniority:
Two were Killed in Action:
L Polk, A P Hill
One Died of Wounds:
T J Jackson
One was Promoted to General PACS:
E K Smith
One was Promoted to General PACS and Reverted to Lieutenant-General PACS:
J B Hood
Eight were Paroled:
J Longstreet, W J Hardee, R S Ewell, R Taylor, A P Stewart, S D Lee, S B Buckner, N B Forrest
Three have No Record of Parole:
T H Holmes, J A Early, W Hampton
One was Discharged, Dismissed, Dropped, or otherwise Terminated:
R He Anderson
Two Reverted to lower grade:
J C Pemberton, D H Hill
Confederate Major-Generals 1861-1865
Major-Generals were to be nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Major-Generals were all appointed to the PACS. Some states designated the commander-in-chief of their State Militia, Home Guard, Reserve, and similar local forces as Major-General. These had authority only within their own state and were out-ranked by Generals of the ACSA and PACS; few held active field commands.
Major-Generals served in a few cases as Chief of Staff or aides to higher-ranking Generals or staff officers. Many commanded Military Departments or the Districts within them, but the majority served as commanders of Divisions within a field army.
The creation of Divisions within a field army was authorized by the Congress on 6 March 1861 to be commanded by a Major-General. Divisions, whether they were within an Army Corps or acting independently, were intended to be commanded by a Major-General. Divisions were occasionally numbered within a Corps or an Army e.g. “1st Division” but the most widespread practice was to name them after their appointed commander e.g. “Cleburne’s Division”. Even on the infrequent occasions where they were assigned a numeral they were more frequently referred to by the commander’s name. In contrast, from mid to late 1862 onwards, Union Divisions were generally but not invariably numbered within a Corps e.g. 1st Division, VI Corps.
In the absence of the appointed Major-General, the senior Brigadier-General of the division would command but the Division would retain officially the name of the appointed Major-General. In practice, especially when a Major-General had an extended absence or was as yet unnamed, the Division would be referred to for clarity by the Brigadier-General’s name. Necessity sometimes forced the appointment of Division commanders from outside the Corps.
Of the 88 Major-Generals PACS, in order of seniority:
Three were Killed in Action:
P R Cleburne, R E Rodes, W H T Walker
Four Died of Wounds:
J E B Stuart, W H C Whiting, W D Pender, S D Ramseur
Four Died in Service:
D E Twiggs, E Van Dorn, D R Jones, D S Donelson
One was promoted to General ACSA:
Eighteen were Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS:
L Polk, T Holmes, W J Hardee, J Longstreet, T J Jackson, E K Smith, J C Pemberton, R S Ewell, A P Hill, R He Anderson, R Taylor, S B Buckner, J B Hood, J A Early, A P Stewart, S D Lee, W Hampton, N B Forrest
Forty-six were Paroled:
W W Loring, B F Cheatham, S Jones, J P McCown, D H Hill, S G French, G E Pickett, C L Stevenson, J H Forney, D H Maury, M L Smith, A Elzey, F Gardner, I R Trimble, J Wheeler, E Johnson, H Heth, R Ransom, J M Withers, C M Wilcox, F Lee, H Cobb, J A Wharton, W T Martin, C W Field, J P Anderson, W B Bate, R F Hoke, W H F Lee, J F Fagan, J B Gordon, J B Kershaw, B R Johnson, E C Walthall, H D Clayton, W Mahone, J C Brown, L L Lomax, J L Kemper, M C Butler, G W C Lee, T L Rosser, B Grimes, H T Hays, T J Churchill, J S Marmaduke
Eleven have No Record of Parole:
J B Magruder, M Lovell, S Price, T C Hindman, J C Breckinridge, L McLaws, J G Walker, W Smith, C A J M de Polignac, A R Wright, P M B Young
G W Smith
Confederate Brigadier-Generals 1861-1865
Before the authorization of the grades of General ACSA or PACS, Lieutenant-General PACS and Major-General PACS, the first five General officers in the Confederacy were appointed as Brigadier-General in the ACSA. These five were later re-appointed as General ACSA.
Some states designated commanders of their State Militia and local forces as Brigadier-General. These had authority only within their own state and were out-ranked by equivalent Generals of the ACSA and PACS.
The appointment of officers as Brigadier-General was authorised by Congress on 6 March 1861. The first officers at this grade in the ACSA were soon elevated to General ACSA.
Of the 4 Brigadier-Generals ACSA, in order of seniority:
Four were promoted to General ACSA
All other Brigadier-Generals appointed later held their grade in the PACS.
The organization of regiments into brigades was authorized by the Congress on March 6 1861. It was intended that Brigades of infantry and cavalry should be commanded by a Brigadier-General. Brigadier-Generals were nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Brigadier-Generals were appointed later in the war to command larger concentrations of artillery and to some senior staff positions.
Brigades, whether acting within a Division or independently, were intended to be commanded by a Brigadier-General. Occasionally Brigades might be numbered within a division or command e.g. “1st Brigade” but the standard practice was to name them after their commander e.g. “Kemper’s Brigade”. Even where they were numbered, they were more frequently referred to by the commander’s name.
Within a Brigade, each Regiment was commanded by a Colonel, supported at full strength by a Lieutenant-Colonel and a Major. In the absence of the appointed Brigadier-General, the senior Colonel of the brigade would command the Brigade, but it would retain officially the name of the appointed Brigadier. In practice, especially when a Brigadier-General had an extended absence or was yet to be assigned, the Brigade would be referred to for clarity by the commanding Colonel’s name. Preference to command a brigade was usually accorded to the senior Colonel if a promotion was required, but necessity sometimes forced the appointment of brigade commanders from outside the division or even the corps.
Of the 383 Brigadier-Generals PACS, in order of seniority:
35 were Killed in Action:
B McCulloch, R S Garnett, F K Zollicoffer, L Tilghman, R B Garnett, L O Branch, J M McIntosh, C S Winder, S R Gist, H Little, J J A A Mouton, S Garland, M Jenkins, M E Green, W E Starke, W Barksdale, E D Tracy, J Gregg, W R Scurry, W E Jones, P Smith, G P Doles, E F Paxton, A Gracie, J Pegram, J H Morgan, J Adams, J M Jones, T Green, O F Strahl, A M Perrin, C C Wilson, J R Chambliss, R C Tyler, J C C Sanders
19 Died of Wounds:
B E Bee, A H Gladden, R Griffith, M Gregg, J J Pettigrew, P J Semmes, B H Helm, L A Armistead, G B Anderson, A G Jenkins, J Daniel, C Posey, R W Hanson, J By Gordon, L A Stafford, J H Kelly, C H Stevens, H B Granbury, J C Carpenter
13 Died in Service:
J B Floyd, J H Winder, J B Grayson, P S Cocke, J K Duncan, J L Hogg, W D Smith, L M Walker, J B Villepigue, J S Bowen, J J Archer, A Nelson, W E Baldwin
1 was promoted to Major-General PACS and General ACSA:
2 were promoted to Major-General PACS, Lieutenant-General PACS and General PACS:
E K Smith, J B Hood
16 were promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS:
T H Holmes, W J Hardee, R S Ewell, J Longstreet, J C Pemberton, T J Jackson, D H Hill, R He Anderson, J A Early, S B Buckner, R Taylor, A P Stewart, A P Hill, W Hampton, N B Forrest, S D Lee
60 were promoted to Major-General PACS:
W W Loring, E Van Dorn, D R Jones, B Huger, J B Magruder, D S Donelson, B F Cheatham, J M Withers, S Jones, W H C Whiting, A Elzey, I R Trimble, G B Crittenden, J E B Stuart, L McLaws, T C Hindman, J P McCown, C M Wilcox, R E Rodes, S G French, J C Breckinridge, W Mahone, E Johnson, H Heth, J G Walker, G E Pickett, B R Johnson, J P Anderson, H Cobb, J B Kershaw, C L Stevenson, R Ransom, T J Churchill, P R Cleburne, C W Field, J H Forney, D H Maury, M L Smith, F Gardner, A R Wright, J L Kemper, W D Pender, F Lee, H T Hays, J C Brown, J F Fagan, W H F Lee, W B Bate, J Wheeler, S D Ramseur, J S Marmaduke, E C Walthall, C A J M de Polignac, R F Hoke, W H T Walker, H D Clayton, J Br Gordon, L L Lomax, M C Butler, B Grimes
160 were Paroled:
A R Lawton, H A Wise, H H Sibley, G J Pillow, D Ruggles, R S Ripley, P O Hébert, H W Mercer, R E Colston, J K Jackson, J R Chalmers, W S Featherston, W B Taliaferro, H P Bee, J M Hawes, G H Steuart, S M Barton, H E McCullough, J S Roane, W Pendleton, J Finegan, W N R Beall. T Jordan, W Preston, J Echols, G E Maney, J S Williams, J G Martin, T L Clingman, D W Adams, L Hébert, B H Robertson, M D Ector, E A Perry, A H Colquitt, A Buford, W Steele, F A Shoup, J R Davis, J C Vaughn, E M Law, F R T Nicholls, W S Walker, M D Corse, G T Anderson, A Iverson, J H Lane, E L Thomas, J R Cooke, W G M Davis, W R Boggs, J C Tappan, D McRae, M M Parsons, M J Wright, Z C Deas, W H Jackson, H L Benning, W T Wofford, S McGowan, M A Stovall, G B Cosby, F C Armstrong, W L Cabell, J D Imboden, A E Jackson, R B Vance, J W Whitfield, J A Walker, M W Ransom, H H Walker, G C Wharton, F M Cockrell, J P Major, S W Ferguson, L S Baker, P D Roddey, E Hunton, T P Dockery, B G Humphreys, H B Davidson, C A Battle, W A Quarles, W W Kirkland, R D Johnston, A W Reynolds, E W Pettus, A L Long, H R Jackson, W W Adams, J A Smith, J H Lewis, J T Morgan, J J Finley, J H Clanton, A J Vaughan, D C Govan, R L Gibson, N H Harris, T Allen, W W Allen, E P Alexander, C W Sears, W F Tucker, R L Page, D H Reynolds, J B Clark, S J Gholson, J Bratton, J McCausland, C A Evans, W Terry, W R Cox, W G Lewis, Z York, R D Lilley, W L Brandon, B T Johnson, J T Holtzclaw, W F Brantley, R Ho Anderson, G G Dibrell, T B Smith, D A Weisiger, W Miller, P Cook, G W Gordon, L J Gartrell, W H Stevens, B W Duke, C M Shelley, P T Moore, W H Wallace, G M Sorrel, W H F Payne, P B Starke, W MacRae, J Gorgas, J B Palmer, D M Dubose, B J Hill, J P Simms, W L Jackson, J E Harrison, J B Kennedy, R L T Beale, T Harrison, W McComb, R Lowry, W H Forney, T M Logan, I M St John, W R Peck, R L Walker, W P Roberts, W F Perry, T H Bell, E Capers, A W Campbell, Y M Moody
44 have No Record of Parole:
G J Rains, N G Evans, J H Trapier, W M Gardner, A Rust, S B Maxey, J E Slaughter, E B Greer, A Cumming, J B Robertson, E McNair, J Cantey, A M Manigault, D H Cooper, A M Scales, T N Waul, E Higgins, W Y C Humes, J O Shelby, L S Ross, A T Hawthorn, A Baker, J Chesnut, S Watie, T M Scott, M W Gary, B D Fry, S Elliott, W R Terry, J Conner, R C Barringer, J S Preston, H B Lyon, J H Sharp, G D Johnston, W H Young, S R Anderson, R Bullock, M L Bonham, R M Gano, W P Lane, W P Hardeman, H Gray, R Waterhouse
25 Resigned or Retired:
C Clark, R C Gatlin, R A Toombs. A Pike, J R Anderson, L P Walker, T F Drayton, L T Wigfall, W H Carroll, H Marshall, H C Wayne, S A M Wood, G W Randolph, D Leadbetter, W W Mackall, R A Pryor, J C Moore, S R Liddell, J Hagood, L E Polk, H W Allen, G Bryan, W C Wickham, M P Lowrey, R H Chilton
8 were Discharged, Dismissed, Expired, Revoked, Declined, Refused, or otherwise Terminated:
A G Blanchard, D M Frost, J A De Lagnel, R Richardson, T Toon, G B Hodge, E G Lee, C Leventhorpe
Brevet Ranks in the Confederate Army
The Confederate States of America had legislation and regulations for the use of Brevets in their armed forces, provided by Article 61 of the nation’s Articles of War, and by their 1861 Army Regulations, which were based on the US Army’s 1857 version of their regulations. Although Article 61 was revised in 1862, it had no effect since the Confederate States Army did not award any Brevet commissions or during its existence.
Acting and Unconfirmed Confederate Generals
Many Confederate officers were appointed as Generals late in the war by General Edmund Kirby Smith in the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department, and others have been thought of Generals and exercised command as Generals but who were not duly appointed and confirmed or commissioned. Some State Militia Generals held field commands in their home states but were never given appointments or commissions in the Confederate Army. Some Colonels or lower-ranking officers exercised brigade or division command, and some are erroneously referred to as Generals. A few temporary or temporary Confederate Generals were appointed and confirmed as such.
Many Confederate officers are often referred to as Generals, but their appointments were never completed or confirmed, or their commissions were not properly delivered. The appointments of a few were withdrawn before they were voted upon by the Confederate Senate. Some appointments were nominated but not confirmed by the Confederate Senate. Some commissions as Generals were not delivered until after their death. In a few cases, promotions to General officer grades were made posthumously as recognitions of valour. Some General officer commissions remained undelivered when the war ended.
Notable Unconfirmed or Unsubstantiated Generals listed by Seniority (Rank) in Grade
Major-General (PACS) 1861-1865: J F Gilmer (Staff)
Brigadier-General (PACS) 1861-1865: W Y Slack, R H Hatton, T Ashby, T R R Cobb, J E Rains, J W Frazer, I W Garrott, J Deshler, X B Debray, J Dearing, R P Maclay, J B Terrill, S Benton, B M Thomas, J Dunovant
Appointments in Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department
Several Generals were assigned to duty by General Edmund Kirby Smith but not appointed by President Jefferson Davis or approved by the Confederate Senate because of interrupted communications with the capital Some of Smith’s earlier nominees were formally appointed, but at least nine officers were appointed by Smith late in the war and May have served in the capacity of Generals for a period of time but were never officially appointed and confirmed by the civilian authorities.