1865 April 8th

April 8 1865 Saturday

Battle of Spanish Fort, AL (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Appomattox Station, VA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina

Mobile Campaign – Sieges of Fort Blakely and Spanish Fort

Appomattox Campaign

Flight of the Confederate Government

Stoneman’s Raid in Virginia and North Carolina

USA. Brigadier-General Alexander Schimmelfennig was relieved of field command due to ill health but continued in service until his death on 5 September 1865.

Alabama. Eighteen large submerged torpedoes were removed from the Apalachee River and Blakely River, in the immediate vicinity of the Union gunboats attacking Mobile.

Spanish Fort, Alabama. By the afternoon, 53 siege guns and 37 field guns were in action from the Union siege lines against Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. They were supported by a heavy bombardment by the guns of Commodore Henry Knox Thatcher’s fleet offshore. At 5.30 pm, the 8th Iowa Infantry spearheaded an assault by Colonel James Loraine Geddes’ brigade, and they gained a lodgement in the works of Spanish Fort. By midnight, the Confederates were forced to evacuate Spanish Fort and Fort Alexis, and it soon fell to troops from XVI Corps and XIII Corps. Most of the Confederate forces under the command of Brigadier-General Randall Lee Gibson, escaped and fled over a tread-way bridge to Battery Tracy and then towards the city of Mobile. The Confederate garrison included a Naval detachment under Captain Ebenezer Farrand, drawn from CSS Nashville, CSS Morgan, CSS Huntsville, CSS Tuscaloosa, and CSS Baltic. Spanish Fort was no longer an obstacle to the Union advance towards Mobile and the Union guns were soon being dismounted to be re-sited for the next phase of the attack. The Union captured 500 prisoners and 50 guns. A further 93 Confederates were killed, 395 men were wounded, and 250 men were reported missing. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Missouri. A Union pursuit in Northeast Missouri resulted in the capture of the guerrillas. They were taken to Macon City to face trial for various crimes.

North Carolina. Skirmish at Martinsville.

North Carolina. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman arrived in Raleigh to direct the conclusion of the Carolinas campaign.

North Carolina. Union Major-General George Stoneman’s cavalry raiders wrecked part of the railroad between Danville and Greensboro. They then headed through Asheville towards Hendersonville.

North Carolina. Confederate Lieutenant W H Parker, commanding the midshipmen who were escorting the Confederate archives and treasury, arrived in Charlotte from Danville and deposited the cargo in the Confederate Mint. While awaiting further orders, Parker learned that a Union cavalry detachment was nearby. Since the city was without military protection, Parker decided to move the archives and treasury further southward. He added the uniformed personnel of the local Navy Yard to his escort, bringing its numbers up to 150 men, and drew supplies from the Navy warehouse. Parker offered the protection of his command to Mrs Varina Davis, the wife of President Jefferson Finis Davis, who had recently arrived in Charlotte. The entourage bearing the archives and treasury, and escorting the First Lady of the Confederacy, set out from Charlotte on 11 April.

Virginia. Reconnaissance from Fairfax Court House to Vienna and Loudoun County began.

Virginia. US President Abraham Lincoln reached Hampton Roads before dawn and steamed for Washington, DC, aboard the River Queen.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Lunsford Lindsay Lomax withdrew to Lynchburg with the remnants of the Army of the Valley and awaited an opportunity to reinforce General Robert Edward Lee’s command.

Virginia. The Confederate IV Corps (Northern Virginia) of Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson was discontinued. Its sole remaining division (following the detachment of Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke’s Division to North Carolina in December) commanded by Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson was assigned to II Corps. Anderson and Johnson were discharged and sent home as they had no remaining command, along with Major-General George Edward Pickett, who had just sixty men under his command. The army continued westwards in the direction of Appomattox Station without interference from flank or rear. The cavalry of Major-General Fitzhugh Lee guarded the rear of the column at a distance of two miles and reported that the Union pursuers did not seem eager to press any closer.

The Appomattox River was narrowing and within twelve miles it would cease to be a major obstacle to the corssing of the Union troops known to be marching in force on its southern side. The first easy crossing points were around the Southside Railroad halt at Appomattox Station, and at Appomattox Court House, a short distance further north. Beyond that point, the James River offered the next potential barrier to protect the army from Union pursuit. The geography of the watershed between the Appomattox and James meant that if the Union army was the first to reach the area around Appomattox, it would block the last outlet for the Confederate retreat. The head of the Confederate army approached Appomattox Court House before nightfall.

By midday, speculation about a possible surrender emerged for the first time in open conversation among the Confederate leaders of the Army of Northern Virginia although General Robert Edward Lee and Lieutenant-General James Longstreet tried to suppress any defeatist talk for as long as possible. After nightfall, a courier arrived with a reply to the exchange of letters prompted by Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant the previous day. Grant’s conditions were more conciliatory than his sobriquet of “Unconditional Surrender” might have implied and he offered to meet Lee to discuss the arrangements for surrender. Lee did not concede his intention to surrender immediately but offered a personal meeting with Grant at 10 am the following morning.

Virginia. When news of the defeat at Appomattox Station arrived near midnight, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee summoned his first-ever council of war since he assumed command of the army on 1 June 1862. The loss of much of the army’s reserve artillery, the probable loss of many supply wagons and the four vital railroad trains loaded with rations at Appomattox, along with the realisation that Union troops had won the race to the Appomattox headwaters, had substantially increased the probability of defeat. Lee and Lieutenant-General James Longstreet were joined by Major-General John Brown Gordon and Major-General Fitzhugh Lee. The quartet decided that a final breakout attempt must be tried before dawn. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry would lead the way west along the Lynchburg Turnpike while Gordon supported their advance. Once a breakthrough was achieved they would hold open a gap for the remaining artillery, cannibalised into just two battalions, and the remnants of the wagon train, to pass through. Longstreet’s Corps would bring up the rear. The best hope for the operation was that a portion of the army might escape into the mountains to continue the resistance there or to rejoin the Confederate army in North Carolina. The remaining effective number with the army was about 12,500 men with 61 guns, with about as many more men scattered in the surrounding countryside or straggling along the roads.

Virginia. The Union Army of the Potomac continued to shadow the retreating Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The Union II Corps and VI Corps trailed behind on the northern bank of the Appomattox, while V Corps marched ahead of XXIV Corps on the south. The cavalry of Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan ranged ahead towards Appomattox Station. At about 10 pm, Sheridan reported that he had captured four railroad trains carrying rations and chased away some wagon trains from Appomattox Station, thereby depriving the Confederates of their expected supplies. Sheridan added that Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer’s division had ridden ahead to Appomattox Court House, where he had captured at least twelve guns, as well as many prisoners and wagons. Custer now occupied a position across the Lynchburg Turnpike ahead of the Confederates. Sheridan urged Major-General Charles Griffin and Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord to bring up their V Corps and XXIV Corps to reinforce the blocking position. He intended to form an impassable seal the barrier across the Confederate line of march with these six additional infantry divisions.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant crossed to the northern side of the river to meet Major-General George Gordon Meade. He set up his headquarters before nightfall on the Lynchburg Turnpike, fifteen miles from Appomattox and twelve miles west of Farmville. By midnight Grant heard from Confederate General Robert Edward Lee that he would acquiesce to a personal meeting at 10 am in the morning to discuss the military situation, but without conceding any intention to surrender.

Appomattox Station, Virginia, also known as Clover Hill. During the afternoon, three railroad trains loaded with supplies were awaiting Confederate General Robert Edward Lee’s army at Appomattox Station. The news reached Union Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer and he pushed his division forward with the 2nd New York Cavalry in the lead. The trains were loaded with essential supplies of clothes, blankets, equipment, ordnance, and medical supplies. Even more important was the desperately needed cargo of food rations. After moving along the wagon road beside the railroad, Custer’s men approached Appomattox Station from the southeast. The Station consisted of only a few houses and a single squad of Confederate cavalry was guarding the trains. The Confederate trains had no choice but to surrender to the large Union force. Just as the Union troops were preparing to leave, artillery shells began to fall around them at about 9 pm. These shells were fired by Confederate Brigadier-General Reuben Lindsay Walker’s Reserve Artillery, which had advanced to the head of Lee’s column in order not to impede the movement of the Army of Northern Virginia. With Walker were approximately sixty guns, 200 baggage wagons, and the army’s hospital wagons. Walker’s men were unprepared to fight and were not expecting to meet any Union resistance. A fourth railroad train, which had just arrived with more supplies, started back for Lynchburg in such a rush that it broke some of the couplings and shed most of its cars along the track. This became the fourth train of supplies snapped up by Custer. Walker drew his men into defensive semicircle and two batteries went into action, while the remainder of the artillery attempted to escape capture. The rear-guard comprised the only other Confederate troops in the vicinity, about 400 men in all from Major T M R Talcott’s Engineers, Brigadier-General Martin Witherspoon Gary’s cavalry brigade, and 75 to 100 gunners serving as infantry. Fighting escalated as more Union skirmishers pushed northeast from the Station. The Confederates were hindered by surprise, their lack of organisation, and uncertainty in their chain of command. Although Custer’s men were not sure what lay ahead they were ordered to charge. Their advance broke down into a series of disjointed probes and pushes through difficult terrain toward the Station. Custer’s cavalry division finally broke through the Confederate rear-guard to capture the supply trains and twenty-four guns. They drove off Walker’s scratch force, and scattered other Confederates lingering in the area. This unique action had pitted artillery without infantry support against cavalry without artillery support. Custer captured and burned three entire, and one partial, railroad trains loaded with provisions for Lee’s army. Pressing on to Appomattox Court House, Custer identified the main Confederate positions and was reinforced by additional parts of the Cavalry Corps as they arrived. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Union Organisation

USA: Clinton Bowen Fisk‘s commission as Brigadier-General USV was vacated.

Fisk, Clinton Bowen / New York / Born 8 December 1828 York, New York / Died New York, New York 9 July 1890
Private Missouri Militia May 1861 / Colonel USV 33rd Missouri Infantry 5 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 24 November 1862 / Major-General Missouri Militia 29 February 1865 / Vacated 8 April 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
Fisk’s Division Department of the Missouri 26 December 1862-22 January 1863 / 13th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 22 January 1863-8 February 1863 / 2nd Brigade 13th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 8 February 1863-10 June 1863 / District of Southeast Missouri 20 July 1863-30 November 1863 / District of St Louis 30 November 1863-25 March 1864 / District of North Missouri 6 April 1864-28 May 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Henry Knox Thatcher USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Cornelius Kinchilo Stribling USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Foxhall Alexander Parker USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • X Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Joseph Anthony Mower
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: William S Mudgett
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Bonnet Carré: James J Byrne
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • District of South Alabama: Thomas Kilby Smith
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Rolla: John Morrill
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Plains: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Annapolis: Frederic Dummer Sewall
    • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
      • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Reuben F Maury temporary
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Charles Griffin
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
  • Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Wesley Merritt

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Benjamin Chew Tilghman

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: IV Corps (Northern Virginia) was discontinued and its remaining forces were merged into II Corps (Northern Virginia).

CSA: Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson was honourably discharged.

Anderson, Richard Heron / South Carolina / Born 7 October 1821 Stateburg, South Carolina / Died Beaufort, South Carolina 26 June 1879
USMA 1 July 1842 40/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 16 July 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 13 July 1848 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 3 March 1861 / Colonel 1st South Carolina Regular Infantry 28 January 1861 / Major ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 14 July 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Temporary) 31 May 1864 / Discharged PACS 8 April 1865 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Santa Rosa Island 9 October 1861 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Dept of South Carolina 27 May 1861-21 August 1861 / Anderson’s Brigade Army of Pensacola August 1861-12 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 15 February 1862-31 May 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-21 June 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 29 June 1862-1 July 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 July 1862-14 July 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-17 September 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia November 1862-30 May 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-7 May 1864 / I Corps Northern Virginia 7 May 1864-19 October 1864 / IV Corps Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-8 April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Young Marshall Moody was captured at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.

Moody, Young Marshall / Virginia / Born 23 June 1822 Chesterfield, Virginia / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 18 September 1866
Captain PACS 11th Alabama Infantry May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 43rd Alabama Infantry April 1862 / Colonel PACS 4 November 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 March 1865 to rank from 4 March 1865 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Drewry’s Bluff 16 May 1864 CIA Appomattox 8 April 1865
Gracie’s Brigade B R Johnson’s Division IV Corps Army of Northern Virginia 2 December 1864-8 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

General-in-Chief: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • Department of Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon
    • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Feimster Tucker
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
    • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • Valley District: Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill
      • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
    • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant
    • District of Florida: Samuel Jones
  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • I Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
      • II Corps Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
      • III Corps Tennessee: Edward Cary Walthall temporary
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Echols
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • District of Arkansas: James Fleming Fagan
    • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
      • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Elkanah Brackin Greer
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood
Charles Griffin

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk VAC
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet
Thomas Maley Harris
John Henry Ketcham
Frederick Tracy Dent

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Richard Heron Anderson DIS
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
William Thompson Martin
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Bryan Grimes
Thomas James Churchill
John Sappington Marmaduke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
William Henry Forney
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
William Paul Roberts
William Flank Perry
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Young Marshall Moody
Richard Montgomery Gano
Walter Paye Lane
William Polk Hardeman
Henry Gray
Richard Waterhouse

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