1865 April 7th

April 7 1865 Friday

Battle of High Bridge, VA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Battle of Cumberland Church, VA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Farmville, VA

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina

Mobile Campaign – Sieges of Fort Blakely and Spanish Fort

Appomattox Campaign

Flight of the Confederate Government

Stoneman’s Raid in Virginia and North Carolina

Alabama. Reconnaissance from Huntsville to New Market and Maysville ended.

Alabama. Reconnaissance from Blakely towards Stockton.

Alabama. Skirmish at Pike’s Ferry on the Catawba River.

Arkansas. Incident at Arkansas River.

North Carolina. Incident on the Neuse River.

North Carolina. Union Commander William Henry Macomb reported that his expedition had reached Winton from Murfreesboro during the night. The accompanying army detachment had returned to the boats after finding Weldon too strongly garrisoned, but had succeeded in cutting the railroad near Seaboard for about a mile. The gunboats prepared to turn back for Suffolk,

Tennessee. The State of Tennessee became the 18th State to ratify the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, which abolished slavery.

Virginia. US President Abraham Lincoln left City Point aboard the River Queen to return to Washington, DC.

Virginia. Skirmish at Prince Edward Court House.

Virginia.. Four Confederate soldiers managed to board the Union side-wheel steamer USS Minquas and destroyed the ship and two barges loaded with quartermasters’ and commissary stores. The ship’s crew managed to escape capture by swimming ashore.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant arrived from Burkeville and set up his headquarters near Farmville. He urged the II Corps and VI Corps to advance against the Confederate rear on the northern bank of the Appomattox between High Bridge and Farmville, while the rest of his army remained on the southern bank. The IX Corps was left to continue the rebuilding of the Southside Railroad, converting it to the narrower gauge used by the US Military Railroad. That left V Corps, XXIV Corps, and XXV Corps to march along the southern bank of the Appomattox to get ahead of the Confederates. They were preceded, as always, by the cavalry of Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan. Sheridan detached Major-General George Crook’s cavalry division to support the operations on the northern bank of the river and moved on from Sayler’s Creek with his other two divisions towards Prince Edward Court House, twelve miles from Rice’s Station. After reaching Prince Edward without encountering any substantial opposition, Sheridan decided to keep moving towards Appomattox Station, twenty-five miles west of Farmville on the Southside Railroad.

When Grant learned of Sheridan’s rapid advance, he ordered Major-General Charles Griffin once again to try to keep pace. Griffin led his V Corps to Prince Edward Court House and then continued beyond. Grant then added the two corps of Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord’s Amy of the James (XXIV Corps and XXV Corps), and they set out along the railroad from Farmville at about 5 pm. By this time, Griffin was already west of Rice’s Station. Grant decided to ride with this southern prong of his armies, leaving Major-General George Gordon Meade to direct the action north of the Appomattox. Grant expected to reunite his two wings by the following evening, or the day after that, in the process crushing the Confederate army between them.

High Bridge, Virginia. The Union Army of the Potomac continued its relentless attempt to surround the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Elements of the Union II Corps under Major-General Andrew Atkinson Humphreys came up against the rear-guard holding the bridges over the Appomattox. The river was not fordable, so the capture of a bridge was essential for the pursuit to continue. High Bridge was 2,500 long, and 126-feet high, built on 60-foot piers across the narrow river and followed a long approach over low ground from the north. It was the crossing of the Southside Railroad over the Appomattox River and its flood plain, four miles northeast of Farmville. A wooden bridge for wagons was located below the railroad bridge.

Major-General William Mahone had failed to order the burning of the railroad bridge (High Bridge) and the wagon bridge in enough time to ensure their complete destruction. Union Brigadier-General Francis Channing Barlow’s division (2/II) saved the wagon bridge from the flames and started crossing immediately, despite the efforts of a cloud of Confederate skirmishers who were striving to rectify the error. Colonel T L Livermore of the II Corps staff led a party of pioneers onto the open deck of the High Bridge and extinguished the fires despite gunfire from the skirmishers 60 feet below. The capture of the intact wagon bridge enabled II Corps to cross in pursuit of Lee’s army towards Farmville. By 9 am, Union Brigadier-General Nelson Appleton Miles’ division (1/II) was also across. Then Brigadier-General Philippe Regis Denis de Keredern De Trobriand’s division (3/II) came after them to head north-westwards while Barlow’s division pursued Gordon’s troops along the railroad line. Despite being the only Union corps north of the Appomattox, Humphreys advanced aggressively to find the retreating Confederate army. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Virginia. After losing a large portion of Confederate General Robert Edward Lee’s army at Sayler’s Creek, the largest organised segment of the Confederate army now comprised mainly Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s I Corps. Longstreet was joined from High Bridge four miles to the east by the divisions of Major-General Henry Heth and Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox. Major-General John Brown Gordon brought the skeletons of II Corps and the disbanded IV Corps, and a good part of the surviving wagon train. Major-General William Mahone’s division came last in the column, while the rear was covered by cavalry under Major-General Fitzhugh Lee. The starving remnants of Longstreet’s Corps began to arrive at Farmville at about 7 am and found some desperately-needed rations stacked in boxcars on the railroad. They received their first issue of rations in five days. As Longstreet resumed the march he came upon the brigade of Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise, the only organised part of IV Corps that had escaped from Sayler’s Creek and which had set out before sunrise from High Bridge. Wise was allocated to the remainder of II Corps. Meanwhile, the rest of the army trudged westwards from High Bridge. Mahone still led the rear-guard and he kept the bridges intact for as long as possible so that as many fugitives and stragglers as possible could rejoin the ranks. The losses at Five Forks and Sayler’s Creek were so great that entire formations had dissolved.

Longstreet’s Corps began the next leg of the journey before midnight, heading for Appomattox Station, 25 miles to the west, where eight railroad trains loaded with rations were expected. However, the 20,000 Confederates had not shaken off their 80,000 pursuers south of the river as easily as they hoped. It turned out that a misunderstanding meant that High Bridge was not destroyed, leaving the army in a desperate condition. Lee attempted to form a clear view of how many troops had managed to cross the Appomattox. Lee relieved Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson, Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson, and Major-General George Edward Pickett of their commands, and sent them home since they no longer had any troops to lead. He was met briefly by the Secretary of War, Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge, who supported Lee’s plan to persist in his attempt to reach General Joseph Eggleston Johnston in North Carolina. Breckinridge rode off at mid-morning to join President Jefferson Finis Davis in Danville. Breckinridge’s report to the President was not favourable about Lee’s prospects.

Farmville, Virginia. The Farmville bridges over the Appomattox were four miles to the west of High Bridge. Confederate Brigadier-General Edward Porter Alexander was ordered to ensure their destruction and to avoid a Union crossing such as had already happened at High Bridge. Alexander held on to allow as many men as possible to cross before setting the spans of the railroad and wagon bridges alight. The Confederate cavalry of Major-General Fitzhugh Lee was still south of the river at Farmville, closely pressed by Union cavalry under Major-General George Crook. As Lee fell back to the river he found the bridges already on fire as Alexander did not dare to repeat the error of High Bridge by delaying too long. Lee turned westwards and fled towards an upstream ford, which he hoped would not be too deep to cross. The Union VI Corps began to appear on the hillsides to the south of the burning bridges, but the destruction of the bridges prevented both them and XXIV Corps from crossing easily to join the pursuit. Men from VI Corps began to build an improvised footbridge, using the pilings of the railroad bridge, in order to join II Corps on the northern bank of the Appomattox. The footbridge was finished by sunset and the first men of VI Corps began to pass to the northern bank by the light of bonfires and burning torches.

If the Union II Corps and VI Corps could cross the Appomattox, supported by Crook’s cavalry, there would be as many as 40,000 Union troops across the river, and this force alone was larger than the entire Confederate army. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry managed to reach the ford unscathed and crossed safely to take up a defensive position on the northern bank. When Crook’s cavalry poured across, tempted by the sight of Longstreet’s marching column toiling northwards in the distance, Lee blocked them in front while Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser delivered a surprise flank attack. The Union cavalry fled back to the southern bank and the threat to the army’s exposed western flank was deflected. Confederate Brigadier-General William Gaston Lewis was wounded and captured at Farmville. Together the actions at High Bridge and Farmville cost 847 Union casualties (including 800 men captured) and about 100 Confederates.

Cumberland Church, Virginia. The deep bend of the river at Farmville caused the Lynchburg Pike to run north for about a mile before it turned west at Cumberland Church, where a road from High Bridge joined it. Confederate Major-General William Mahone’s division deployed at Cumberland Church to guard the junction while the rest of the army passed through. He was reinforced by an artillery brigade under Brigadier-General Edward Porter Alexander. At about 2 pm, the advance guard of the Union II Corps encountered the Confederate forces entrenched on high ground near Cumberland Church. Some Union cavalry in the brigade of Colonel John Irvin Gregg had managed to ford the river at Farmville but they were attacked and defeated by Confederate cavalry under Brigadier-General Thomas Taylor Munford and Major-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser, and Major-General Henry Heth’s infantry division. Gregg was captured but the noise of the fighting persuaded Major-General Andrew Atkinson Humphreys, commanding II Corps, that the bulk of the army had managed to cross at Farmville and he ordered an attack by Colonel G W Scott’s brigade (1/1/II) on the Confederate left flank. This was repulsed by Mahone’s division.

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee was anxious to keep open the escape route of his army and ordered Lieutenant-General James Longstreet to discontinue the issue of rations at Farmville and to march immediately to Mahone’s support. Longstreet’s men reluctantly left their cooking and the wagon trains fled with whatever could be salvaged. Troops from the weakened commands of Lieutenant-General John Brown Gordon also joined Longstreet and Mahone held the position with their assistance. When Brigadier-General George Thomas Anderson’s brigade from Major-General Charles William Field’s division took a concealed path through woodland on to the Union flank, they netted 300 prisoners and drove back the Union advance. The Union forces regrouped and attacked twice more but were repulsed both times. Darkness halted the conflict. The Confederates still controlled the road west and resumed their retreat overnight. However, the delays caused by the rear-guard actions at Farmville, Cumberland Church, and High Bridge, permitted Union cavalry to ride ahead to capture the next available supply depot at Appomattox Station and to block the line of retreat through Appomattox Court House. Union Brigadier-General Thomas Alfred Smyth was mortally wounded at Cumberland Church. Union casualties were estimated as 655 men (571 in II Corps) and Confederate as 255 men. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Virginia. At about 5 pm, Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant sent a message to Confederate General Robert Edward Lee from his headquarters at Farmville. He began a correspondence regarding the possible surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, putting the responsibility for further bloodshed in Lee’s hands. Union Brigadier-General Seth Williams, Grant’s Inspector-General, took the letter to the front-line near Cumberland Church. At about 9 pm he advanced between the lines under a flag of truce. The letter was accepted by Captain H H Perry and taken to Lee’s headquarters. Longstreet and Lee considered the invitation to surrender but demurred, retaining one last hope that the army could obtain supplies at Appomattox Station before it was either trapped or starved. Lee replied with a non-committal letter asking about the surrender terms Grant might propose.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Benjamin Chew Tilghman (3rd USCT Infantry) assumed command of the District of Florida, succeeding Brigadier-General Eliakim Parker Scammon.

Tilghman, Benjamin Chew / Pennsylvania / Born 26 October 1821 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 3 July 1901
Captain USV 26th Pennsylvania Infantry 31 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1 September 1862 / Colonel USV 1 March 1863 / Colonel USV 3rd USCT Infantry 28 July 1863 / Mustered Out USV 9 June 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 13 April 1865 / WIA Chancellorsville May 1863
2nd Brigade 2nd Division District of Florida 25 February 1864-25 April 1864 / District of Florida 7 April 1865-19 April 1865 / 4th Brigade District of Florida 7 April 1865-19 April 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Thomas Alfred Smyth was mortally wounded at Cumberland Church, Virginia.

Smyth, Thomas Alfred / Ireland / Born 25 December 1832 Ballyhooley, Ireland / KIA Farmville, Virginia 9 April 1865
Captain USV 24th Pennsylvania Infantry April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 10 August 1861 / Major USA 1st Delaware Infantry 17 October 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 30 December 1862 / Colonel USV 7 February 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1864 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 posthumously / WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 WIA Cumberland Church 7 April 1865.
2nd Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 16 May 1863-3 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac4 July 1863-14 August 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 3 September 1863-28 December 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 February 184-25 March 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-17 May 1864 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 17 May 1864-31 July 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 31 July 1864-22 August 1864 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 23 August 1864-5 November 1864 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 15 November 1864-22 December 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 22 December 1864-25 February 1865 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 28 February 1865-7 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • X Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Joseph Anthony Mower
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: William S Mudgett
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Bonnet Carré: James J Byrne
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • District of South Alabama: Thomas Kilby Smith
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Rolla: John Morrill
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Plains: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Annapolis: Frederic Dummer Sewall
    • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
      • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Reuben F Maury temporary
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Charles Griffin
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
  • Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Wesley Merritt

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Benjamin Chew Tilghman

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General William Gaston Lewis was captured at Farmville, Virginia.

Lewis, William Gaston / North Carolina / Born 3 September 1835 Rocky Mount, North Carolina / Died Goldsboro, North Carolina 7 January 1901
2nd Lieutenant PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 21 April 1861 / Major PACS 33rd North Carolina Infantry 17 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 43rd North Carolina Infantry 25 April 1862 / Colonel PACS 22 April 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / Paroled Farmville, Virginia 11 April 1865 / WIA Stephenson’s Depot 20 July 1864 WIA 1864 WIA & CIA Farmville 7 April 1865
Lewis’ Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina 20 April 1864-10 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of Richmond 10 May 1864-14 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Ransom’s Division Department of Richmond 14 May 1864-17 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade B R Johnson’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 21 May 1864-20 July 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Pegram’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia September 1864-6 February 1865 / Lewis’ Brigade J A Walker’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 6 February 1865-7 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

General-in-Chief: Robert Edward Lee

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • Department of Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon
  • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Feimster Tucker
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
  • Valley District: Lunsford Lindsay Lomax

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant
  • District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • I Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
    • II Corps Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
    • III Corps Tennessee: Edward Cary Walthall temporary

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Echols

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: James Fleming Fagan
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Elkanah Brackin Greer

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood
Charles Griffin

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet
Thomas Maley Harris
Frederick Tracy Dent

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
William Thompson Martin
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Bryan Grimes
Thomas James Churchill
John Sappington Marmaduke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long PAR
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
William Henry Forney
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
William Paul Roberts
William Flank Perry
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Young Marshall Moody
Richard Montgomery Gano
Walter Paye Lane
William Polk Hardeman
Henry Gray
Richard Waterhouse

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close