1865 April 6th

April 6 1865 Thursday

Battle of Rice’s Station, VA (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)
Battle of Sayler’s Creek, VA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)
High Bridge, VA

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina
Mobile Campaign – Sieges of Fort Blakely and Spanish Fort
Appomattox Campaign
Flight of the Confederate Government
Stoneman’s Raid in Virginia and North Carolina

Go to April 7 1865

Alabama. Skirmish at Lanier’s Mill on Sipsey Creek.

Alabama. Skirmish at King’s Store.

Alabama. The Union attack on Fort Blakely and Spanish Fort was begun with harassing attacks by skirmishers and sharpshooters from the besieging Union troops of Major-General Frederick Steele. The Union right flank came under fire from the ironclad CSS Nashville, which was stationed at the mouth of the Raft River. Confederate Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell deployed his 4,000 men to prepare for an assault by three times as many besiegers.

Florida. Skirmish at Natural Bridge.

North Carolina. Incident on the Neuse River.

Texas. Confederate Colonel George Wythe Baylor of the 2nd Texas Cavalry killed Major-General John Austin Wharton in Houston. They had feuded over military matters. The incident began with an argument on the street outside of the Fannin Hotel, the headquarters of Major-General John Bankhead Magruder. The two officers had quarrelled in the past but, on this occasion, Wharton came into Magruder’s quarters and was reported to have called Baylor a liar. Seeking to restore his honour, Baylor shot and killed the unarmed Wharton. Baylor was the brother of the Confederate Governor of the Arizona Territory, Colonel John R Baylor.

Virginia. Skirmish at Flat Creek near Amelia Springs.

Virginia. Skirmish at Wytheville.

Virginia. Union naval officers led by Lieutenant-Commander Ramsay reported that all detectable Confederate underwater defences in the James River had been removed. All galvanic batteries for detonating torpedoes were carried off or destroyed. At Chaffin’s Bluff, one of the torpedoes contained an enormous charge of 1,700 pounds of powder. At Battery Semmes, there were two torpedoes containing 850 pounds each, and at Howlett’s Landing another one contained 1,400 pounds of explosives.

Virginia. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia made an arduous and starving night march from Jetersville towards Farmville, passing north of Burkeville. There was an hour’s delay after a bridge collapsed into Flat Creek and the infantry was forced to ford the cold waters. Straggling and desertions increased as Union cavalry harassed the column and foragers dispersed to find food or rest. By dawn, the army was almost at the extreme limit of endurance.
Union Major-General Meade thought that the Confederate army remained concentrated around Amelia Court House. During the morning, he sent the majority of the infantry of the Army of the Potomac in that direction. The Union forces soon discovered that Lee had already left Amelia and was moving westwards. As soon as Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant discovered that the Confederate army had abandoned Jetersville and started an unexpected overnight march towards Farmville, he ordered the direction of march to be diverted from Amelia in pursuit. The Union cavalry soon found the Confederate route and, within hours, the leading division of II Corps was encountering the Confederate rear guards. Despite the disappointment of not being able to attack at Amelia as planned, Grant resolved to out-march the Confederates and to head off their increasingly desperate search for supplies. The Union army closed up and marched with minimal straggling and relentless determination to end the campaign. Abandoned arms and equipment, groups of stragglers, and a constant trickle of hungry deserters presented clear signs that the Confederate army was disintegrating under duress.

High Bridge, Virginia. High Bridge was the crossing of the Southside Railroad over the Appomattox River and its flood plain, four miles northeast of Farmville. It was 2,500-feet long, and 126-feet high, built on 60-foot piers across the narrow river, and followed a long approach over low ground from the north. A wooden bridge for wagons was located below the railroad bridge. A wooden bridge for wagons was located below the railroad bridge.
Union forces from Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord’s Army of the James had advanced along the Southside Railroad towards Burkeville, on a parallel route south of Union II Corps and VI Corps. Ord formed a special task force to burn the bridges along the Confederate line of retreat at Farmville and High Bridge. This comprised the 54th Pennsylvania Infantry, the 123rd Ohio Infantry (500 men), and eighty men from Companies I, L, and M of the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry under Colonel Francis Washburn, which was normally attached to the Army headquarters. The overall commander, with about 900 men altogether, was Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Read, the Army Chief of Staff. The force left Burkeville at 4 am and contacted enemy dismounted cavalry shortly before noon, about two miles from High Bridge. The Union cavalry pressed on and reached the railroad bridge before the main Confederate force arrived. They chased away some Home Guards and secured the southern end of the bridge. While Washburn prepared to set fire to the bridge, three brigades of Confederate cavalrymen, numbering about 1,200 men, arrived under Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser. They made a dismounted attack against the Union infantry waiting near the Watson farmhouse, about half a mile to the south. Hearing sounds of battle, Washburn and his men rejoined the infantry, and unaware that he was facing most of two divisions of enemy cavalry, Read ordered a mounted charge by the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. The ferocious charge broke through the Confederate line of Brigadier-General Thomas Taylor Munford, but the advance dissolved into hand-to-hand combat. Read was killed and Confederate Brigadier-General James Dearing was mortally wounded in a duel of pistols. Washburn was also mortally wounded. The Confederate cavalry rallied in a nearby wood and launched a counterattack to overwhelm the Union infantry, and managed to separate the cavalry from their supporting infantry. Many Union cavalry troopers were surrounded and the majority were killed, wounded, or captured. Few escaped. The Confederates had regained control of the Appomattox River bridges and this now offered some hope of an escape. Retention of control of High Bridge permitted most of the survivors of the disaster unfolding at Sayler’s Creek to cross the river.

Rice’s Station, Virginia, also known as Rice’s Depot. Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s I Corps was leading the march of the Army of Northern Virginia from Amelia Court House. Longstreet halted at Rice’s Station, three miles from the Appomattox River on the Southside Railroad, to allow the rest of the army to catch up. Their rearguard on the south bank of the Appomattox River reached the farthest point southwards that the army ever achieved during its retreat towards Farmville and Lynchburg. Their further progress was blocked by two divisions of the Union XXIV Corps under Major-General John Gibbon, and parts of Major-General Godfrey Weitzel’s XXV Corps of the Army of the James. The Union troops were too few in number to attack. After some ineffective skirmishing, Longstreet withdrew unopposed during the night, burned the bridges, and headed toward Farmville after crossing the Appomattox River at High Bridge. Total casualties were reported as 1,200 men, of whom 780 were Union troops captured by the Confederates. (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Sayler’s Creek, Virginia, also known as Sailor’s Creek, Harper’s Farm, Deatonsville, Hillsman Farm, or Lockett Farm, or the “Black Thursday of the Confederacy”. The majority of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia made a night march from Amelia Court House towards Rice’s Station. Early in the day, Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered a general advance to Amelia Court House. At about 8.30 am, parts of Union Major-General Andrew Atkinson Humphreys’ II Corps contacted Lee’s column moving west and wheeled in pursuit. Union Major-General Charles Griffin’s V Corps marched northwards from Jetersville through Painesville, while Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright’s VI Corps marched south to come onto the left of II Corps.
Lee had two strong divisions at the head of his column under Lieutenant-General James Longstreet (Major-General Charles William Field’s division and Major-General William Mahone’s division). Behind them came Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson with the remnants of III Corps. Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell followed up with a mixed force of 3,000 men from the Richmond garrison. The wagon train followed Ewell and then Major-General James Brown Gordon led the II Corps as the rear guard. Gordon was pressed hard by the infantry of Humphreys’ II Corps and skirmishing became continuous from 8.30 am onwards. Further ahead, Union cavalry from Major-General George Crook’s Cavalry Corps, especially Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer’s 3rd Division and Brigadier-General Thomas Casimer Devin’s 1st Division became increasingly active along the flanks of the Confederates column. At 11 am, Ewell and Anderson were forced to halt to protect the supply train from the constant harassment. Mahone continued onwards to join Longstreet’s three divisions who were engaged around Rice’s Station and High Bridge, unaware that Anderson had halted behind him. The gap quickly grew wider between Mahone and the rest of the army. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee was with Longstreet and was unaware of the problems developing further back along the column. The supply train crawled onwards into the unprotected gap between Mahone and Anderson, where it fell victim to relentless cavalry raids. Anderson’s column was held up until 2 pm and then, after a brief march, was halted completely. The ground was particularly difficult between the forks of Sayler’s Creek, which flowed into the Appomattox about six miles from Farmville. The supply train was overwhelmed by Union cavalry and partially burned between these two forks.
Lee rode back to find out why the column had been split and turned Mahone’s division back with him from Rice’s Station. They discovered that the rear of the column was in serious difficulty. To evade harassment and the difficult area at Sayler’s Creek, Ewell had ordered the wagons behind him to escape by a less vulnerable route by turning west along the Jamestown road at J Hott’s house, less than three miles from Deatonsville. This way led directly to High Bridge. Gordon was not advised of the change of route and followed the wagons along the diversion instead of catching up with the rear of Ewell’s troops on the main route. While Ewell and Anderson struggled to evade the cavalry harassing their march. they discovered that enemy infantry had come up hard against their rear. They realised at this point that Gordon had inadvertently exposed their rear by turning to follow the route of the wagon trains.
Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan was directing the battle and he saw the opportunity at once. He urged Wright to bring up VI Corps immediately to replace Humphreys’ II Corps and to crush the isolated central force of Ewell and Anderson. The Union II Corps pressed on behind Gordon, driving him along the diversionary route towards the crossing of Sayler’s Creek above its separation into two branches. This attack was led by Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton’s (1/VI) and Brigadier-General Truman Seymour’s divisions (3/VI). On the main route, two Confederate divisions led by Major-General George Washington Custis Lee and Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw, and miscellaneous troops under Ewell’s overall command, deployed along Sayler’s Creek to face the unexpected attack. They came under fire from two Union guns posted at Hillman’s Farm. Confederate Colonel Stapleton Crutchfield was killed leading a detachment of artillerymen brought from the defences of Richmond, and Commander John Randolph Tucker and his naval squadron (300 to 400 strong) attached to G W C Lee’s division, also took part. The Union VI Corps attacked in force after a heavy artillery bombardment. The Confederates counter-attacked but were driven back. More Union artillery under Major Andrew Cowan was deployed at the Hillman Farm and played a key role in their repulse. When Union Major-General John White Geary’s division (2/VI) arrived with more artillery, Ewell was hammered relentlessly by the Union guns but continued to resist along the creek.
Meanwhile, Anderson’s troops further along the road attempted to break through the cavalry that was wrecking the supply train ahead of them. Custer’s cavalry division was driven back but Devin’s division entered the action and halted the advance. Hearing the escalating sound of Wright’s VI Corps’ guns, a mile to the northeast, Sheridan raised the tempo of the cavalry attacks against Anderson. Sheridan committed Crook’s cavalry division against the centre of Anderson’s command, already pinned down by Custer and Devin. The dismounted troopers broke through the disorganised and confused defenders. The resistance was feeble and the demoralised Confederates scattered. The only unit to escape in any form of order and size was the brigade of Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise. Anderson, Johnson, and Pickett fled on horseback but at least half of Anderson’s 3,000 men were killed or captured in the pinewoods and tangled brush. Custer was left to round up the shattered remnants while Sheridan led Crook and Devin onwards to join in the annihilation of Ewell’s troops.
Pressing on from the defeat of Anderson’s command, Union Colonel Peter Stagg’s cavalry brigade suddenly hit Ewell’s unprotected right flank and overran Kershaw’s small division of veterans in a single crushing charge. Crook dismounted the cavalry brigades of Colonel John Irvin Gregg and Colonel Charles Henry Smith and ordered Brigadier-General Henry Eugene Davies to charge Pickett’s puny line. Ewell stayed behind to try to bring some of the defenders out of the trap. Tucker’s Naval Battalion achieved a local success driving part of VI Corps back across the creek, but was then overrun in hand-to-hand fighting and captured. Seeing the disastrous impact of Sheridan’s arrival in the enemy’s flank and rear, the infantry of VI Corps resumed their advance and stormed across the creek. Resistance was now futile as frontal, flank and rear attacks swamped the defence. Ewell was forced to surrender with about 2,800 men. Only 200 men from Kershaw’s division escaped this cauldron.
Meanwhile, Gordon’s column was being pursued relentlessly by the Union II Corps as far as Perkinson’s Mills on Sayler’s Creek. Gordon held off one attack but as more Union reinforcements arrived after Ewell’s resistance was crushed, his troops were gradually overwhelmed. Gordon lost about 1,700 men and withdrew with his survivors west of the creek. From there, they marched overnight towards High Bridge. Viewing Gordon’s survivors streaming along the road towards High Bridge and unable to intervene, Lee exclaimed: “My God, has the army dissolved?” Gordon’s Corps got away across the wagon bridge and then attempted to burn the crossings of the Appomattox. Mahone bravely reported that his division was ready to do his duty. He moved his division forward to provide a rampart behind which the various scattered fugitives could rally when they saw Lee. The Union troops were too occupied in gathering so many prisoners that they were unable to coordinate an attack against Mahone’s last-ditch bulwark. Mahone held on until nightfall and then pulled back four miles to the High Bridge crossing after dark.
After the disaster at Sayler’s Creek, Longstreet’s Corps now comprised the majority of the organised part of the Confederate army that remained. Anticipating a depot of supplies to be found at Farmville ahead of Longstreet, Lee believed that he could still press on to fulfil his overall objective of joining General Joseph Eggleston Johnston in North Carolina with a substantial force. Longstreet pressed on to Farmville during the night but his whole column was still not across the river by dawn. His rear was guarded by the cavalry of Major-General Fitzhugh Lee around Farmville. Lee rode to Rice’s Station to rejoin Longstreet and ordered him to make a night march to Farmville and then to cross the Appomattox River, burning the crossings behind him.
Sayler’s Creek has been described as the death knell of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Confederate casualties during the day were between 7,000 and 8,000 men, including 4,800 prisoners and fourteen guns. There were only 1,180 casualties for the Union, of whom just 166 were killed. Almost a third of the Confederate Army that had been at Jetersville was cut off and most of the surrounded troops surrendered, including Confederate Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell, Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw, Major-General George Washington Custis Lee, Brigadier-General Seth Maxwell Barton, Brigadier-General James Phillip Simms, Brigadier-General Dudley McIver Dubose, Brigadier-General Eppa Hunton, Brigadier-General Montgomery Dent Corse, Brigadier-General Peter Alexander Selkirk McGlashan (still serving as Colonel as his appointment had not been delivered) and Colonel Theodore Washington Brevard (Brigadier-General unconfirmed). (CWSAC Major Battle – Union Victory)

West Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-Colonel John Singleton Mosby and his Partisan Rangers surprised the camp of the Union Loudoun County Rangers, capturing a number of men and nearly all their horses. This was Mosby’s final escapade against the Union army.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • X Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Joseph Anthony Mower
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: William S Mudgett
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Bonnet Carré: James J Byrne
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • District of South Alabama: Thomas Kilby Smith
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Rolla: John Morrill
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Plains: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Annapolis: Frederic Dummer Sewall
    • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
      • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Reuben F Maury temporary
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Charles Griffin
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
  • Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Wesley Merritt

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Reserve Forces of Virginia was discontinued and its field forces consolidated into II Corps (Northern Virginia).

CSA: The Department of Richmond surrendered and its remaining field forces were incorporated into II Corps (Northern Virginia).

CSA: Henry Alexander Wise promoted Major-General PACS 6 April 1865 unconfirmed.

CSA: Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Major-General John Austin Wharton was killed in a private feud at Houston, Texas.

CSA: Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Major-General George Washington Custis Lee was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Brigadier-General James Dearing was mortally wounded at High Bridge, Virginia.

CSA: Brigadier-General Seth Maxwell Barton was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

Barton, Seth Maxwell / Virginia / Born 8 September 1829 Fredericksburg, Virginia / Died Washington, District of

CSA: Brigadier-General Montgomery Dent Corse was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Brigadier-General Dudley McIver Dubose was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Brigadier-General Eppa Hunton was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Brigadier-General Armistead Lindsay Long was paroled at Appomattox, Virginia.

CSA: Brigadier-General James Phillip Simms was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Major James Monroe Goggin (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Colonel Peter Alexander Selkirk McGlashan (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

CSA: Colonel Theodore Washington Brevard (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was captured at Sayler’s Creek, Virginia.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

General-in-Chief: Robert Edward Lee

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • Department of Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon
  • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Feimster Tucker
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
  • Valley District: Lunsford Lindsay Lomax

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant
  • District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • I Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
    • II Corps Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
    • III Corps Tennessee: Edward Cary Walthall temporary

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Echols

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: James Fleming Fagan
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Elkanah Brackin Greer

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller
Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon
Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood
Charles Griffin

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet
Thomas Maley Harris
Frederick Tracy Dent

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton DEC
William Thompson Martin
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Bryan Grimes
Thomas James Churchill
John Sappington Marmaduke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long PAR
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
William Henry Forney
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
William Paul Roberts
William Flank Perry
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Young Marshall Moody
Richard Montgomery Gano
Walter Paye Lane
William Polk Hardeman
Henry Gray
Richard Waterhouse

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