1865 April 1st

April 1 1865 Saturday

Battle of Five Forks, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)
Ebenezer Church, VA
Fort Blakely, AL

Fall of Petersburg
Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina
Mobile Campaign – Siege of Spanish Fort
Appomattox Campaign
Wilson’s Raid to Selma
Stoneman’s Raid in Virginia and North Carolina

Go to April 2 1865

Ascension Island. The Confederate commerce raider CSS Shenandoah put into Lea Harbour at Ascension Island. Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell CSN had sighted only one vessel since it departed from Melbourne on 20 February. Waddell found the whalers Pearl, Hector, Harvest, and Edward Carey anchored in the harbour and seized them, obtaining valuable charts which showed the location of the whaling grounds most frequented by American whalers. In addition to obtaining this valuable intelligence, Waddell stocked CSS Shenandoah‘s storerooms with provisions and supplies from the four prizes. The ships were then drawn upon a reef where the local inhabitants were permitted to strip them before the wrecks were burned. Of the 130 prisoners, eight were shipped aboard CSS Shenandoah and the remainder were set ashore to be picked up by a passing whaler.

Alabama. Skirmish at Centreville involving Union Major-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry.

Alabama. Skirmish at Maplesville.

Alabama. Skirmish at Plantersville.

Alabama. Skirmish at Randolph.

Alabama. Skirmish at Trion.

Alabama. USS Rodolph, temporarily commanded by Acting Ensign James F Thompson, struck a torpedo in the Blakely River and sank rapidly. The tinclad warship was towing a barge containing apparatus for the raising of USS Milwaukee, which had fallen victim to a torpedo attack on 28 March. Four men were killed and eleven more wounded.

Ebenezer Church, Alabama. Union Major-General James Harrison Wilson, commanding three divisions of Union cavalry with about 13,500 men, crossed the Cahaba River and arrived near Selma. Captured documents had informed him of the dispositions of Confederate Lieutenant-General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Wilson sent Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook with two brigades to reinforce Brigadier-General John Thomas Croxton’s brigade, which had skirmished with the enemy near Trion. He continued towards Selma with his other two divisions (Brigadier-General Eli Long and Brigadier-General Emory Upton). After skirmishing throughout the morning, Wilson’s advanced guard ran into Forrest’s line of battle at Ebenezer Church, where the Randolph Road intersected the main Selma road near Maplesville. Forrest had hoped to bring his entire force to bear against Wilson. However, delays caused by flooding and continual contact with the enemy, meant that Forrest could muster fewer than 2,000 men, many of whom were militia composed of old men and young boys. Forrest’s scratch force was commanded by Colonel Edward Crossland, and Brigadier-General Philip Dale Roddey, and the militia was led by Brigadier-General Daniel Weisiger Adams. A Union cavalry charge broke the Confederate militia near Plantersville, causing Forrest to be outflanked on his right flank. He was forced to retreat under severe pressure. One of Confederate Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers’ veteran brigades arrived to join Forrest and they reinforced the retreating mob. They were engaged in a running battle through Ebenezer Church. Forrest retreated again to occupy a strong line of prepared earthworks in a bridgehead about five miles long, north of the Alabama River at Selma. Forrest now had three small brigades of cavalry with about 2,500 men and a depleted force of militia.

Fort Blakely, Alabama. Union Major-General Frederick Steele’s army began its envelopment of Fort Blakely and Spanish Fort, which protected Mobile from the east. Union Colonel Andrew Barclay Spurling’s 2nd Cavalry Brigade of XIII Corps, leading the column towards Mobile, encountered Confederate outposts five miles from Fort Blakely at Sibley’s Mills. In a dismounted action, the 2nd Maine Cavalry, supported later by the 2nd Illinois Cavalry, drove back the 46th Mississippi Infantry and other troops to within a mile of the works at Fort Blakely. Union Brigadier-General John Parker Hawkins committed his division of black troops and completed the successful attack. The Confederates lost 74 men in the retreat and the Union lost only two men. Confederate prisoners were forced to remove the land mines (torpedoes), which had already accounted for one Union casualty. The Union forces enveloped Spanish Fort that same day, enabling them to send more troops to focus on Fort Blakely. The Union reported two casualties to 75 Confederates.


Union Military Division of West Mississippi: Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Army of West Mississippi: Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby, Chief of Staff
Major-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Engineer Brigade (West Mississippi): Brigadier-General Joseph Bailey
Siege Train: Colonel James Totten
XIII Corps (Gulf): Major-General Gordon Granger
1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General James Clifford Veatch
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General James Richard Slack
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Elias Smith Dennis
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel William B. Kinsey
2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Christopher Columbus Andrews
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Henry Bertram
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Thomas Spicely
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Frederick Moore
3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General William Plummer Benton
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel David P Grier
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Henry M Day
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Conrad Krez
XVI Corps (Gulf): Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith
1st Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General John McArthur
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel William L McMillen
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel Lucius F Hubbard
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel William R Marshall
2nd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel John I Rinaker
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General James Isham Gilbert
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel Charles L Harris
3rd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Eugene Asa Carr
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel Jonathan B Moore
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel Lyman M Ward
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVI Corps (Gulf): Colonel James L Geddes
District of West Florida: Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth
Reserve Corps (West Florida): Major-General Frederick Steele
1st Division, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Brigadier-General John Parker Hawkins
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Brigadier-General William
Anderson Pile
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Colonel Hiram Scofield
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Colonel Charles W Drew
Cavalry, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Brigadier-General Benjamin Henry Grierson
1st Division, Cavalry, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Brigadier-General Joseph Farmer Knipe
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Colonel Joseph Kargé
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry, Reserve Corps (West Florida): Colonel Gilbert L M Johnson
2nd Division, Cavalry, Reserve Corps (West Florida):

Arkansas. Reconnaissance from Pine Bluff to Bartholomew Bayou began.

Colorado Territory. Five Ute Indians attacked a ranch fifteen miles northwest of Fort Garland and killed a Mexican beef farmer. As the Utes were believed to be friendly, the Union garrison of the fort awaited further instructions before declaring war against the Ute Nation.

Dakota Territory. Union troops began operations against Indians west of Fort Laramie.

Florida. Governor John Milton of Florida died in office and was succeeded by Abram K Allison.

Florida. Expedition from Barrancas ended.

Georgia. Expeditions from Dalton to Spring Place and the Coosawattee River began.

Georgia. Incident at Coosawattee River.

Missouri. Reconnaissance began from Licking against Confederate guerrillas at Piney Fork of the Gasconade River and Hog Creek.

North Carolina. Skirmish near Snow Hill.

North Carolina. Union Commander William Henry Macomb set out in the evening from Plymouth with the USS Shamrock, USS Wyoming, USS Hunchback, USS Valley City, and USS Whitehead, up the Roanoke River as far as the Stumpy Reach, where they anchored for the night.

Tennessee. Skirmish at White Oak Creek.

Virginia. After Mrs. Lincoln returned to Washington, DC, aboard the River Queen, US President Abraham Lincoln remained with the armies on the James River. Lincoln slept overnight at City Point aboard USS Malvern, awaiting the news that he would be able to enter the Confederate capital.

Virginia. Skirmish on the White Oak Road near Petersburg.

Five Forks, Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee had ordered Major-General George Edward Pickett, with  his own infantry division and three cavalry divisions under Brigadier-General Thomas Tyler Munford (acting for Major-General Fitzhugh Lee who was in overall command of the cavalry), Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, and Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser to hold the vital crossroads of Five Forks at all hazards. There was a three-mile gap to the east between these troops and the end of the main line of Confederate defences of Petersburg at Hatcher’s Run. Pickett’s troops built a log and dirt defensive line about a mile and three-quarters long on the White Oak Road, protecting both sides of the Ford Road crossing. Pickett guarded the two flanks with cavalry and stationed an under-strength cavalry brigade under Brigadier-General William Paul Roberts and a dismounted cavalry regiment from Munford’s Division to screen the wide gap to the main line. The right flank was guarded by the cavalry division of W H F Lee and the right by Munford with Fitzhugh Lee’s division. Rosser’s cavalry was in reserve, guarding the supply trains two miles further to the north beyond Hatcher’s Run. The five infantry brigades dug in along White Oak Road were aligned in order east to west: Brigadier-General Matthew Whitaker Ransom, Brigadier-General William Henry Wallace, Brigadier-General George Hume Steuart, Brigadier-General William Henry Terry’s brigade under Colonel Joseph Mayo, and Brigadier-General Montgomery Dent Corse. The left flank (eastern) was refused for about 100 yards for security.
Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan’s plan of attack was to put light pressure along the entire line with his cavalry troopers, pinning the Confederates in position. Two divisions of Union Major-General Wesley Merritt’s Cavalry Corps (one under Brigadier-General Thomas Casimer Devin to the east and the other under Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer to the west), pinned the Confederate force in their entrenchments, with all but Custer’s two left-hand brigades operating on foot. Union Brigadier-General George Crook’s cavalry division remained mounted in reserve behind them, ready for pursuit. Union Brigadier-General Ranald Slidell Mackenzie’s cavalry division was given the task of striking the White Oak Road about three miles east of Five Forks, from where it would turn to drive along the road towards the main enemy position.
Meanwhile, Sheridan planned to mass the Union V Corps, with 16,000 men under Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren, against the Confederate left flank for an overwhelming attack at dawn. Warren’s force was still missing when Sheridan expected him to be ready to attack at 4 am. Muddy roads and tangled underbrush had slowed the approach of the Union infantry and then it took four hours to rebuild a bridge over Gravelly Run. Warren’s first two divisions arrived during the morning but the third division and Warren himself did not appear at Dinwiddie until noon. Sheridan gave orders for Warren to attack at midday but, in Sheridan’s opinion, Warren did not grasp the urgency of the situation, because he was not in a position to attack along his 1,000 yard frontage until about 4 pm. Warren was meant to advance north-westwards from Gravelly Run Church with two divisions ahead and a third division in reserve, in order the crush the Confederate left flank. Meanwhile, Merritt’s cavalry distracted the Confederate right flank. The right front division under Brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford was directed to strike at an angle near the end of the enemy’s works, and the left front division under Brigadier-General Romeyn Beck Ayres was instructed to strike the line head-on. The third division under Brigadier-General Charles Griffin provided the reserve. Sheridan was chafing at the repeated delays in the engagement of the V Corps and blamed this on Warren’s ineptitude and procrastination. At about 4 pm, the long-delayed advance of V Corps finally moved forward. The delay actually served in some ways to the Union advantage as the Confederates were close to believing that no offensive operations would now take place as nightfall was approaching.
Faulty maps and intelligence led Sheridan to believe that the enemy’s left flank was much farther east than it actually was; the real flank was well to the west of where Sheridan believed. As Crawford’s division advanced, it missed the enemy line completely, while Ayres’ men brushed past its extreme end. Ayres’ division received fire unexpectedly from the short refused line at the end of the Confederate infantry’s left flank. The Union attack had struck 800 yards too far to the east and needed to be re-directed rapidly. The two Union divisions floundered as they attempted to re-orientate themselves towards the actual Confederate positions, struggling through heavy thickets of underbrush. Ayres managed to change front and faced his opponents. The reserve division under Griffin was halted in order not to add to the confusion in the front lines. Warren sent aides with messages to alter the direction of the attack but they failed to achieve their goal, so he rode to the front to take personal command. Sheridan, who was fortuitously with Ayres, ordered the divisions of Crawford on his right and Griffin, who was on his right rear, to turn and advance through the woods onto Ayres’ right flank. They moved slowly, and a dangerous gap opened up between them. However, the Confederate line was so thin that the advancing troops soon crossed White Oak Road against minimal fire.
Apparently oblivious of the danger and trusting that hostilities would not break out, Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee were relaxing some distance from the lines at a shad-bake when fighting broke out. Nobody knew their exact location. Atmospheric conditions muffled the sounds of battle so much that Pickett and Lee were unaware of the fighting. When word of the attack finally reached him, Pickett ran a gauntlet of fire to reach his troops, but by the time he had reached the battlefield, it was too late. Lee was forced to remain in the rear with Rosser’s cavalry and did not reach his men.
Ayres’s division managed to crush the Confederate left flank without any initial aid from his right. Ayres pressed on, rolling up the line, and then Crawford and Griffin arrived beyond to break through into the Confederate rear. Mayo’s Confederate brigade changed face to oppose the attack and elements of the withdrawing brigades of Wallace and Ransom joined him from the west flank. Steuart’s, Corse’s, and W H F Lee’s commands held their positions until the Union advance threatened their rear. Corse was then ordered to change face to a north-south line to form a rear guard for a withdrawal. Sheridan led personally from the front as Confederate resistance disintegrated. The Union cavalry on the left and centre, under Devin and Custer, had been demonstrating all day and they now added their offensive firepower to the attack. Devin broke the line and when Sheridan found Griffin at 6.20 pm beyond Five Forks, he ordered him to assume command of V Corps and to run rampage in the Confederate rear. Sheridan sent a staff officer to Warren, who was further in the rear with Crawford, to inform him that he had been relieved of command on the field. Sheridan had already received inferred assent from Grant who had also grown impatient with Warren’s performance. Warren reached Sheridan’s headquarters at 10 pm, shocked and confused by his removal, but Sheridan would not reconsider his decision. Warren later demanded a court of inquiry but his active role in the campaign was over.~W H F Lee’s cavalry had been engaged earlier in the afternoon and had not been dislodged but, after Mayo’s brigade fell back through the Five Forks junction, Union cavalry from Colonel Charles Lane Fitzhugh’s brigade charged and captured three guns and over a thousand prisoners. After losing about 800 casualties and over 5,000 prisoners, the remaining Confederates retreated from the Five Forks crossroads towards Ford’s Station and Ford’s Meeting House on the Southside Railroad. Mackenzie’s Union cavalry completed its mission and reached Five Forks along White Oak Road. They took up a position along the Ford Road, blocking the direct line of retreat of the Confederates, and gathered more prisoners. The haul of prisoners was so great that Sheridan was forced to call off the pursuit after nightfall and ordered preparations to be made for the expected counter-attack. No counter-attack was forthcoming as Pickett had mustered barely 2,000 men and no artillery by the morning.

Virginia. During the night, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee transferred three brigades under Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson’s IV Corps (the division of Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson) from the Petersburg defences to cover the rallying and reorganisation of the remains of Major-General George Edward Pickett’s command near Five Forks. Anderson headed for Sutherland Station on the Southside Railroad, three miles north of Five Forks. Further orders were issued in an attempt to shore up the overstretched defences of Petersburg. Two regiments from Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps were ordered to scout the deserted works south of Hatcher’s Run, while the remainder of his corps held intolerably tenuous defences running eastwards from Burgess’ Mill. Lieutenant-General James Longstreet was ordered to bring the division of Major-General Charles William Field by rail from north of the James to save Petersburg. That left only Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw’s division and the reservists of Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell to defend Richmond north of the James.The loss of the vital junction at Five Forks threatened the last remaining Confederate supply line into Richmond and Petersburg, the Southside Railroad, and made the further defence of the two cities impossible. Total combined casualties were estimated as 6,030 men but reports differ widely. The Union V Corps lost 634 men and one gun lost but captured 3,422 Confederate prisoners. Confederate losses were estimated at 5,200 prisoners and five guns, including those gathered by the pursuing cavalrymen. After hearing of the scale of the victory at Five Forks after nightfall, Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant and Major-General George Gordon Meade issued orders for an immediate general assault against the Petersburg lines by II Corps, IX Corps, VI Corps, and XXIV Corps on 2 April 1865. On 21 November 1881, a Court of Inquiry determined that Warren had been done an injustice when he was summarily relieved of command and he was exonerated of all fault. However, Warren, one of the heroes of Gettysburg, died three months before the ruling. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Annapolis was established and subordinated to the Middle Department. It comprised the area around Annapolis, Maryland, and Camp Parole.
USA: Colonel Frederic Dummer Sewall (Assistant Inspector-General) assumed command of the District of Annapolis.

USA: Colonel William S Mudgett (80th USCT Infantry) assumed command of the District of Carrollton, succeeding Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson Viall.

USA: Colonel James J Byrne (18th New York Cavalry) assumed command of the District of Bonnet Carré, succeeding Colonel Charles Everett.

USA: IV Corps (Cumberland) was discontinued.

USA: Brigadier-General Charles Griffin assumed command of V Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren.

USA: Major-General Joseph Anthony Mower assumed command of XX Corps (Georgia), succeeding Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams.

USA: Wesley Merritt promoted Major-General USV 1 April 1865 unconfirmed.

USA: James Alexander Williamson confirmed Brigadier-General USV 1 April 1865 to rank from 13 January 1865.

USA: John Henry Ketcham promoted Brigadier-General USV 23 October 1865 to rank from 1 April  1865. Ketcham had already resigned from US Volunteers on 2 March 1865 and did not serve substantively at this grade.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • X Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Joseph Anthony Mower
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: William S Mudgett
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Bonnet Carré: James J Byrne
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • District of South Alabama: Thomas Kilby Smith
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Rolla: John Morrill
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Plains: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Annapolis: Frederic Dummer Sewall
    • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
      • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Reuben F Maury temporary
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Charles Griffin
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
  • Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Wesley Merritt

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General William Feimster Tucker assumed command of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, succeeding Colonel George Baird Hodge.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • Department of Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon
  • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Feimster Tucker
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
  • Valley District: Lunsford Lindsay Lomax

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant
  • District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • I Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
    • II Corps Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
    • III Corps Tennessee: Edward Cary Walthall temporary

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Echols

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker interim John Bankhead Magruder awaited
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: James Fleming Fagan
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Elkanah Brackin Greer

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller
Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon
Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge
Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet
Thomas Maley Harris

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Bryan Grimes
Thomas James Churchill
John Sappington Marmaduke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
William Henry Forney
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
William Paul Roberts
William Flank Perry
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Young Marshall Moody
Richard Montgomery Gano
Walter Paye Lane
William Polk Hardeman
Henry Gray
Richard Waterhouse

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