1864 September 29th

September 29 1864 Thursday

New Market Heights, VA

Vaughan Road, VA

Battle of Chaffin’s Farm, VA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Siege of Petersburg – Operations North of the James and Vaughan Road

Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Hood’s Operations in Northern Georgia

Price’s Missouri Raid

Forrest’s Third Tennessee Raid

Cuba. The steamer Roanoke, bound for New York from Havana, was captured by Confederates under Acting Master John C Braine off the Cuban coast. Braine’s actions caused the Confederate government concern and embarrassment since the expedition was organised and carried out from the neutral port of Havana. Braine had outlined his idea to Secretary of the Navy Stephen Russell Mallory earlier in the year, and approval was given with the stipulation that neutral rights were to be strictly observed. Instead of boarding the vessel as a passenger in New York, as planned, he chose to capture her during the Havana part of the voyage. With a small group of Confederates conspirators, he overcame the ship’s officers and steered for Bermuda. After attempting unsuccessfully to smuggle supplies and coal out of Bermuda island, Braine decided that the steamer could not break through the blockade to the Confederacy and the Roanoke was burned off Bermuda.

Alabama. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis met Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor in Selma. Davis was disappointed by Taylor’s reports of the impossibility of passing supplies or reinforcements across the river from west of the Mississippi. While Davis and Taylor were hopeful of the outcome of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s raid into middle Tennessee and the advance by General John Bell Hood’s army into northern Georgia, Taylor conveyed his belief that the war could only be protracted until the spring, and that any good outcomes depended on a political rather than a military solution.

Arkansas. Skirmish at White Oak Creek.

California. Reconnaissance to Eel River and North Fork Eel River ended.

Colorado Territory. Operations against Indians began.

Dakota Territory. Expedition from Fort Rice to Rice Fork ended.

Florida. Confederate Major-General Dabney Herndon Maury sent the 15th Confederate Cavalry eastwards from Mobile, Alabama, in an effort to cut off Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth’s Union column near Marianna. The pursuit failed as the Union column was well-organised and had a long head start. By the time Lieutenant-Colonel G W Scott’s Confederates reached Vernon, Asboth was already at Point Washington on the Choctawhatchee Bay. Asboth and his wounded men went aboard the steamer USS Lizzie Davis, while the rest of the column crossed East Pass and marched down Santa Rosa Island to Fort Pickens. Asboth’s raid brought in over 600 liberated slaves, 17 wagons filled with captured arms and stores, 200 captured horses. and 400 head of cattle. In all, 96 prisoners were taken in the various engagements of the raid to Marianna.

Georgia. Confederate General John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee began to cross the Chattahoochee River and headed for the Western & Atlantic Railroad. Their first objective was to destroy the railroad between Big Shanty and Ackworth.

Mississippi. Expedition from Vicksburg to Rodney and Fayette began.

Mississippi. Incidents at Wyatt’s.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Moore’s Bluff.

Missouri. Skirmish at Cuba.

Missouri. Skirmish at Harrison (Leasburg).

Nebraska. Skirmish with Indians near Plum Creek.

North Carolina. USS Niphon forced the British blockade runner Night Hawk aground off Fort Fisher and burned her. USS Niphon had fired upon Night Hawk as she attempted to run into New Inlet and observed her going aground. A boat crew boarded the steamer and under fire from Fort Fisher set her ablaze and took the crew prisoner. This occasion became the subject of a diplomatic note from the British Ambassador, alleging cruel treatment of the officers of Night Hawk and an unwarranted premature burning of the ship.

North Carolina. Skirmish in Scuppernong River.

Tennessee. Skirmish at the Watauga River,

Tennessee. Skirmish at Jonesboro.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Centreville.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Lynchburg.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s raiders passed through Fayetteville and learned that the Chattanooga & Nashville Railroad was protected by strong Union forces. Forrest sent fifty men to cut the telegraph and tracks around Tullahoma as a diversion and split his column into two to add to the confusion. Confederate Brigadier-General; Abraham Buford was sent south with two brigades and four guns. His orders were to evade interception, to break up the Memphis & Charleston Railroad between Huntsville and Decatur, Alabama, and then to re-cross the Tennessee River. Forrest took his two other brigades northwest through Lewisburg and across the Duck River.

Virginia. Skirmish at Waynesboro

Virginia. Skirmish at Ream’s Station

Virginia. Incident at Fisher’s Hill.

Chaffin’s Farm, Virginia, also known as New Market Heights or Fort Harrison, Chaffin’s Bluff, Chafin’s Farm, Fort Gilmer, or Laurel Hill. The defences around Chaffin’s Bluff protected a vital Confederate pontoon bridge below Drewry’s Bluff and were a vital link in the defences of the capital and on the James River. After crossing the James River, Union Major-General Benjamin Butler’s Army of the James advanced towards the Richmond defences north of the river at dawn. The Confederate cavalry of Major-General Fitzhugh Lee abandoned their outposts at Deep Bottom Bridge and the Union troops pressed forward against skirmishers towards Chaffin’s Farm, near Fort Harrison. The two Confederate redoubts at Fort Harrison and Fort Gilmer and neighbouring lines were defended by three infantry brigades from Major-General Charles William Field’s division under Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning, Brigadier-General Evander McIvor Law, and Brigadier-General John Gregg. They were reinforced by Colonel John S Fulton’s brigade from Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson’s division, two Militia brigades, and Brigadier-General Martin Witherspoon Gary’s cavalry brigade. Ships of the Confederate James River Squadron, Commander John K Mitchell, supported the Confederate troops from the James River.

Union Major-General David Bell Birney moved the X Corps north from the Deep Bottom bridgehead toward the Confederate works on New Market Heights manned by Gregg’s Confederates. A brigade of black troops attacked the heights but was repulsed. Birney reinforced the assault force and stormed the heights again. This time, Major-General Alfred Howe Terry’s division managed to turn the Confederate left flank and turned the tide of the battle. When word of the Union success against Fort Harrison reached Gregg, he was compelled to pull his troops back from his advanced position into Fort Gregg, Fort Gilmer, and Fort Johnson. Union Brigadier-General Augustus Valentine Kautz’s cavalry division on the northern flank was reinforced by Terry’s division (1/X) to form a flank guard.

After taking New Market Heights, Birney’s X Corps turned to the northwest along the New Market Road and moved against a secondary line of works guarding Richmond north of Fort Harrison. Union Brigadier-General Robert Sanford Foster’s division assaulted a small salient known as Fort Gilmer. Brigadier-General William Birney led his brigade of that division against Fort Gregg, located south of Fort Gilmer. At roughly the same time as Birney’s first attack moved forward at New Market Heights, the Union XVIII Corps under Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord assaulted Fort Harrison to the west of New Market Heights. Ord’s all-out assault was led through the fog by Brigadier-General George Jerrison Stannard’s division. Stannard’s men rushed across an open field and took cover in a slight depression just in front of the fort. After a moment’s rest, they prepared to storm the fort. Brigadier-General Hiram Burnham’s brigade (2/1/XVIII) led the way and crossed 1,400 yards of open ground under fire and captured Fort Harrison at the rush. The weak Confederate garrison broke to the rear, seeking refuge behind a secondary line. Once inside the fort, the Union attackers became disorganised after two of Stannard’s brigade commanders were wounded and Burnham, the third, was killed during the attack. Ord was disabled by a leg wound. Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman succeeded Ord to command XVIII Corps. To Stannard’s right, Heckman’s division (2/XVIII) enveloped the position but veered too far north and was repulsed by the alerted defenders. About a mile further east Birney’s and X Corps drove away the Confederate outposts to their main line and established a connection with Heckman’s troops.

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee arrived during the afternoon and realised the importance of the loss of Fort Harrison. He sent for reinforcements to march north from Petersburg and they immediately reinforced Fort Gilmer, which dominated the Chaffin’s Bluff positions. The Union army commander, Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, also arrived and ordered a new coordinated attack with some of Ord’s troops added to strengthen this second attack. At about 3 pm, Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames’ division (2/X) and William Birney’s brigade (1/3/X) attacked, but the defences were already reinforced by Confederates from Richmond. The attackers were repulsed with heavy losses despite great gallantry and determination. The Union X Corps broke off the action and withdrew to entrench at Laurel Hill.

The presence of the Confederate ironclad warships on the James River put an end to the XVIII Corps’ further advance on Chaffin’s Bluff along the James River and a third attack was cancelled. The Union troops worked all night to prepare Fort Harrison for the expected counter-attack and later renamed the captured fort as Fort Burnham in his honour. The Confederate defenders at New Market Heights inflicted 850 casualties on the attacking 13,000 Union troops while suffering only 50 casualties. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE; CHAFFIN’S FARM, VA

Union General-in-Chief: Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler
Army of the James: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler
X Corps (James): Major-General David Bell Birney
1st Division, X Corps (James): Major-General Alfred Howe Terry
1st Brigade, 1st Division, X Corps (James): Colonel F B Pond
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, X Corps (James): Colonel Joseph Carter Abbott
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, X Corps (James): Colonel Harris Merrill Plaisted
2nd Division, X Corps (James): Brigadier-General Robert Sanford Foster
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, X Corps (James): Colonel Rufus Daggett
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, X Corps (James): Colonel Galusha Pennypacker
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, X Corps (James): Colonel L Bell
4th USCT Brigade, 2nd Division, X Corps (James): Brigadier-General William Birney
XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman vice Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord
1st Division, XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General George Jerrison Stannard
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel Aaron Fletcher Stevens
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General Hiram Burnham
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel Samuel Henry Roberts
2nd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel James Stewart
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel Edward Hastings Ripley
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel Harrison Stiles Fairchild
3rd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General Charles Jackson Paine
1st USCT Brigade, 3rd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel John H Holman
2nd USCT Brigade, 3rd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel Alonzo Granville Draper
3rd USCT Brigade, 3rd Division, XVIII Corps (James): Colonel Samuel Augustus Duncan

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee

III Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Lane’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Henry Lane
McGowan’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Samuel McGowan
Thomas’ Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Lloyd Thomas
Scales’ Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Alfred Monroe Scales
Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General William Mahone
Weisiger’s Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Davis Addison Weisiger
Wright’s Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel W Gibson
Harris’ Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Finegan’s Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan
Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Henry Heth
Walker’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Harrison Walker
Archer’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Jay Archer
Davis’ Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Robert Davis
McRae’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William MacRae

Vaughan Road, Virginia. also known as Wyatt’s Farm, Peebles’ Farm, and Pegram’s Farms, and Chappell House. In combination with Major-General Benjamin Butler’s Union offensive north of the James River, Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered a reconnaissance in force to extend his left flank to cut the Confederate lines of communication southwest of Petersburg. He wanted to divert Confederate reinforcements from being sent to the north bank of the James. His attack would relieve pressure on Fort Harrison, which had been captured the day before and was holding against determined counterattacks. It would also exploit the transfer of Confederate reinforcements from his own front to retake Fort Harrison.

Two divisions of the IX Corps under Major-General John Grubb Parke (Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox’s 1/IX and Brigadier-General Robert Brown Potter’s 2/IX) followed two divisions of the V Corps under Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren (Brigadier-General Charles Griffin’s 1/V and Brigadier-General Romeyn Beck Ayres’ 2/V) were assigned to the operation. They marched towards Poplar Springs Church and then onto the Vaughan Road. Warren was in overall command and he aimed for the fortifications guarding the Boydton Plank Road, which was the route for supplies into Petersburg from the Confederate railhead on the Weldon Railroad at Stony Creek to the south. Protection on the left flank and rear was provided by Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg’s cavalry division. The Confederate defensive line in the area was being extended to reach the vicinity of the Union flank at Globe Tavern. While these lines were being constructed, a temporary line was held along the Squirrel Level Road as a screen.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman assumed temporary command of XVIII Corps (James), succeeding Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord.

Heckman, Charles Adam / Pennsylvania / Born 3 December 1822 Easton, Pennsylvania / Died Germantown, Pennsylvania 14 January 1896
Sergeant USA US Voltigeurs and Riflemen 1847 / Discharged USA 1848 / Captain USV 1st Pennsylvania Infantry April 1861 / Major USV 9th New Jersey Infantry 3 October 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 8 October 1861 / Colonel USV 10 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 25 May 1865 / WIA New Bern 14 March 1862 WIA Young’s Cross Roads 26 July 1862 WIA Port Walthall 7 May 1864 CIA Drewry’s Bluff 16 May 1864 Exchanged 12 September 1864
1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / Heckman’s Brigade Department of North Carolina 10 December 1862-2 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-30 January 1863 / 2nd Division XVIII Corps Department of the South 23 February 1863-12 April 1863 / District of Beaufort North Carolina 30 May 1863-15 July 1863 / District of Beaufort Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-20 July 1863 / Defences of New Bern 21 July 1863-14 August 1863 / Sub-District of Beaufort North Carolina 14 August 1863-11 October 1863 / Getty’s Division XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 14 January 1864-28 April 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XIII Corps Army of the James 28 April 1864-16 May 1864 / XVIII Corps James 29 September 1864-1 October 1864 / 3rd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-30 December 1864 / XXV Corps James 1 January 1865-2 February 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Hiram Burnham was killed at Fort Harrison, Virginia.

Burnham, Hiram / Maine / Born 1814 Narraguagas, Maine / KIA Fort Harrison, Chafin’s Farm, Virginia 29 September 1864
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 6th Maine Infantry 15 July 1861 / Colonel USV 12 December 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1864 to rank from 26 April 1864 / WIA Fredericksburg 3 May 1863
Light Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 3 May 1863-11 May 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac February 1864-14 April 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 28 April 1864-31 July 1864 /1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 31 July 1864-3 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 27 September 1864-29 September 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodore Phinney Green
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: Alexander Moseley Pennock
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: Jefferson Columbus Davis
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox temporary
  • Department of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: Francis Jay Herron
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Joseph Bailey
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: vacant
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: John McNeil

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: George Sykes
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman interim Joseph Hooker awaited

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Edward Elmer Potter temporary
  • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: David Bell Birney
    • XVIII Corps James: Charles Adam Heckman temporary

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General William Miller assumed command of the District of Florida, succeeding Brigadier-General John King Jackson.

Miller, William / New York-Florida / Born 3 August 1820 Ithaca, New York / Died Point Washington, Florida 8 August 1909
USV 1846-1848 / Major PACS Florida Infantry Battalion 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 3rd Florida Battalion 1861 / 1st Florida Infantry April 1862 / Colonel PACS 15 August 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 August 1864 / Paroled Tallahassee, Florida 21 May 1865 / WIA Perryville 8 October 1862 WIA Stones River 2 January 1863
J C Brown’s Brigade J P Anderson’s Division Left Wig Army of Mississippi 8 September 1862-8 October 1862 / Reserve Forces of Florida 8 September 1864-10 May 1865 / District of Florida 29 September 1864-1 February 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: George Baird Hodge interim Franklin Gardner awaited
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Defences of Petersburg: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones interim William Joseph Hardee awaited

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan*
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(Philp Henry Sheridan)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham KIA
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Daniel Davidson Bidwell
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
Richard Waterhouse

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