1864 November 29th

November 29 1864 Tuesday

Battle of Spring Hill, TN (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)
Sand Creek Massacre, CoT (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Siege of Petersburg
Hood’s Invasion of Tennessee
Sherman’s March to the Sea

Go to November 30 1864

Arkansas. Confederate cavalry attacked the steamer Alamo on the Arkansas River, near Dardanelle. They caused little damage to the vessel or to the passengers.

Colorado Territory. Incident at the Big Sandy River.

Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado Territory, also known as Sand Creek or the Chivington Massacre or the Massacre of Cheyenne Indians. Scattered Indian raids had caused much ill will between the white settlers and the Native Americans for many months. In the autumn, Colorado Territorial officers offered a vague amnesty to Indians who reported to army forts. Black Kettle, with about 500 Cheyenne and a few Arapahos, believed they were protected and established a winter camp about 40 miles south of Fort Lyon in Kiowa County.
Union Colonel John Milton Chivington, who advocated a policy of extermination, arrived near their camp from Fort Lyon. During the morning Chivington ordered his troops to attack the Native American encampment at Sand Creek. Two officers, Captain Silas Soule and Lieutenant Joseph Cramer, commanding Companies D and K, respectively, of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, refused to follow Chivington’s order and told their men to hold fire. However, other soldiers in Chivington’s force immediately attacked the village. Disregarding the American flag, and a white flag that was run up shortly after the soldiers had commenced firing, Chivington’s soldiers massacred many of its inhabitants. Some of the Indians cut horses from the camp’s herd and fled up Sand Creek or to a nearby Cheyenne camp on the headwaters of the Smokey Hill River. Others, including the trader George Bent, fled upstream and dug holes in the sand beneath the banks of the stream. They were pursued by the troops and fired on but many survived. Cheyenne warrior Morning Star said that most of the Indian dead were killed by artillery fire, especially by the guns firing from the south bank of the river at the people retreating up the creek. Before Chivington and his men left the area, they plundered the tipis and took the horses. Chivington’s men came back to the camp and killed many of the wounded. They also scalped and mutilated many of the dead, regardless of whether they were men, women, children, or infants.
The Sand Creek Massacre resulted in a heavy loss of life, mostly among Cheyenne and Arapaho women and children. Hardest hit by the massacre were the Wutapai, Black Kettle’s band. Perhaps half of the Hevhaitaniu were lost, including the chiefs Yellow Wolf and Big Man. The Oivimana led by War Bonnet lost about half their number. There were heavy losses to the Hisiometanio (Ridge Men) under White Antelope. Chief One Eye was also killed, along with many of his band. The Suhtai clan and the Heviqxnipahis clan under chief Sand Hill experienced relatively few losses. The Dog Soldiers and the Masikota, who by that time had allied, were not present at Sand Creek. Of about ten lodges of Arapaho under Chief Left Hand, representing about fifty or sixty people, only a handful escaped with their lives.
After hiding all day above the camp, in holes dug beneath the bank of Sand Creek, the survivors there, many of whom were wounded, moved up the stream and spent the night on the prairie. Trips were made to the site of the camp but very few survivors were found there. After a cold night without shelter, the survivors set out toward the Cheyenne camp on the headwaters of the Smoky Hill River. They soon met up with other survivors who had escaped with part of the horse herd, some returning from the Smoky Hill camp where they had fled during the attack. They then proceeded to the Smoky Hill camp, where they received assistance.
The events at Sand Creek dealt a fatal blow to the traditional Cheyenne clan system and the authority of its Council of Chiefs. Although initial reports indicated nine soldiers killed and 38 wounded, the final tally was 4 men killed and 21 wounded in the 1st Colorado Cavalry and 20 killed or mortally wounded and 31 wounded in the 3rd Colorado Cavalry; a total of up to 24 killed and 52 wounded. Chivington claimed that 500 to 600 Indian warriors were killed. More accurate reports indicate that 133 Indians were killed, of whom 105 were women and children. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Georgia. Incident at Waynesboro.

Georgia. Skirmish near Louisville.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Doyal’s Plantation near Donaldsonville.

Louisiana. A Union boat crew under the command of Acting Ensign A Rich from USS Elk, Acting Lieutenant Nicholas Kirby, captured an unidentified small craft with a cargo of whisky and opium near Mandeville.

Missouri. Operation at Fulton ended.

Missouri. Reconnaissance from Warrensburg to Greenton Valley began.

Boyd’s Landing, South Carolina. Union Major-General John Gray Foster had proposed an expedition up the Broad River to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad. The expedition would also seek to establish contact with the approaching armies of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman. Commander George Henry Preble organised an artillery battalion and two naval infantry battalions to cooperate with the Army and they landed at Boyd’s Landing on Broad River.

Tennessee. Incidents at Thompson’s Station.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Columbia Ford.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Mount Carmel.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Rally Hill.

Spring Hill, Tennessee, also known as Thompson’s Creek. Confederate General John Bell Hood left two divisions of Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee’s Corps with the supply train and all but two batteries of his artillery to demonstrate and pin the Union army at Columbia on the Duck River. Meanwhile, he marched overnight with the rest of the Army of Tennessee past the town towards Spring Hill in the Union rear. To ensure that his ambitious plan was fulfilled, Hood accompanied Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham’s Corps, Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s Corps and Major-General Edward Johnson’s division from Lee’s Corps, across the Duck River on a pontoon bridge which had been assembled at Davis’ Ford a few miles upstream. On the Union side, Union Major-General John McAllister Schofield had one division marching towards Spring Hill, two more divisions were just setting out on the road between Columbia and Spring Hill, and two more divisions were holding the north bank of the Duck River at Columbia.
Cavalry skirmishing between Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s Union cavalry and Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s Confederate troopers continued throughout the day as the Confederates advanced from Davis’ Ford. Forrest’s wide turning movement with 4,000 troopers forced Wilson northwards to Hurt’s Corner, preventing the Union horsemen from interfering with the advance of Hood’s infantry further to the south and west. Wilson’s cavalry then fell back gradually along the Lewisburg Pike towards Franklin. Forrest detached one brigade to maintain pressure on Wilson while the rest of his cavalrymen turned northwest and approached Spring Hill via Hurt’s Corner on the Mount Carmel Road.
At 8 am, Union Major-General David Sloane Stanley began marching with Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball’s 1st Division and Brigadier-General George Day Wagner’s 2nd Division of IV Corps towards Spring Hill. They were guarding the bulk of the Union reserve artillery and the supply trains, with orders to hold the vital crossroads at Spring Hill in order that the entire army could withdraw safely to Franklin. At the same time, the 2nd Brigade of Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood’s 3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland) under Colonel Sidney Post was sent to reconnoitre along the north bank of Duck River. They reported Confederate troops moving northwards in force. Stanley dropped off Kimball’s 1st Division of IV Corps temporarily to hold the crossings of Rutherford Creek against this expected advance. At 11.30 am Stanley heard reports that Confederate cavalry was in the vicinity and he moved Wagner’s Division at the double-quick to hurry the last two miles to the Spring Hill crossroads. Forrest had ordered his men at 10 am to turn west toward Spring Hill, where they intended to hold the crossroads until Confederate infantry could relieve them. At about 11:30 am, Forrest’s cavalry ran into pickets from two regiments of the Union IV Corps, the only troops defending the vital crossroads at that time. Wagner’s vanguard began to arrive at Spring Hill at about 2 pm to reinforce the two regiments stationed there. Stanley quickly formed Wagner’s division of about 5,000 men to protect the village of Spring Hill on three sides. To the northwest of the village, Union Colonel Emerson Opdycke’s brigade protected the enormous supply train of 800 wagons in a 50-acre field near the railroad station. Stanley had the benefit of 34 guns which he unlimbered in close support of Wagner’s division. To the east was Colonel John Q Lane’s brigade, and to the southeast was Colonel Luther Prentiss Bradley’s brigade.
Forrest received a message from Hood to take and hold Spring Hill at all hazards until the infantry column could arrive. Confederate Brigadier-General Francis Crawford Armstrong’s cavalry brigade dismounted to attack Lane’s brigade. Lane rushed forward and pushed Armstrong back from the crossroads. Forrest moved his men further south and he directed the brigade of Brigadier-General Colonel Tyree Harris Bell from Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers’ division to drive off what he thought was a small force of enemy cavalry from a knoll south of McCutcheon’s Creek. They were actually engaging with Bradley’s infantry brigade, which drove them back immediately, helped by strong artillery support.
By noon, Hood had successfully achieved his plan to outflank Schofield, threatening the rear of the Union army at Columbia with seven of his nine divisions, and all of his cavalry. Schofield’s army was in critical danger and it was also split into two vulnerable parts. One division of IV Corps and all of XXIII Corps remained at Columbia on the Duck River, while the supply wagons, the bulk of the artillery, and two divisions of the IV Corps which had moved early were at the crossroads of Spring Hill, nearly ten miles north of Columbia. Schofield was finally convinced at about 3 pm that the Confederates would not attack him at Columbia. At 3.30 pm, he accompanied two brigades from Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger (2/XXIII) on their march to Spring Hill. The main Union column heading towards Spring Hill was led by Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox’s division (3/XXIII), although Cox himself remained behind to command the rear guard at Columbia. Schofield ordered Cox to remain at Columbia until darkness fell and then to join him on the march north overnight, leaving the last rear guard to leave Columbia at dawn. Meanwhile, Ruger’s, Kimball’s, and Wood’s (3/IV) divisions headed for Spring Hill to join Wagner.
Confederate Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne’s division of Cheatham’s corps began to arrive on Forrest’s left at Spring Hill during mid-afternoon. The cavalrymen, low on ammunition, pulled out of the line and moved further north to be ready either to screen a further advance of Hood’s army or to block Schofield’s withdrawal. As soon as Schofield’s main body had left Columbia, Lee’s Confederate Corps finally began an attack against the Union position, although they had considerable difficulty deploying pontoon bridges for the river crossing. By the time Lee’s two divisions were able to cross the river, Cox had already begun the withdrawal and the final Union troops had departed from Columbia on the Franklin Pike by 10 pm.
Upon Hood’s arrival near Spring Hill about an hour and a half before dark, he established his headquarters at the Absalom Thomas house, or “Oaklawn”. Hood had halted Stewart’s Corps at Rutherford Creek early in the afternoon where he could protect the rear against any Union movement from Columbia. He was unaware that he had actually succeeded in his audacious plan. Cheatham’s Confederate Corps was only three miles to the southeast of Spring Hill and Stewart’s Corps was already approaching a position from which it could move to threaten the Union rear. Hood rode to join Cheatham and ordered him to commit his first division at Spring Hill without delay, and not to await the arrival of his other two divisions. Hood then rode off to direct Stewart to move north of Spring Hill to cut off the Union column. Cheatham ordered the division of Major-General William Brimage Bate to move against Spring Hill in concert with Cleburne’s division, which was on their right. Hood personally ordered Bate to divert his move further south towards the Columbia Pike and to sweep toward Columbia. Neither Bate nor Hood informed Cheatham of this change in orders, causing confusion later in the day. As winter darkness began to fall, Cleburne’s division launched a hasty and piecemeal attack on its own as Cheatham attempted to fulfil his orders to attack. Cleburne’s 3,000 men began an attack en echelon against Bradley’s brigade at about 4 pm. From right to left, his brigades were led by Brigadier-General Mark Perrin Lowrey, Brigadier-General Daniel Chevilette Govan, and Brigadier-General Hiram Bronson Granbury. Colonel Tyree Harris Bell’s cavalry brigade supported them on their right, although they were short of ammunition and made little contribution. Whereas Cheatham was expecting Cleburne to drive north into Spring Hill, Hood’s intention was to use Cleburne’s men to sweep toward the turnpike and wheel left to intercept Schofield’s arriving units. The attack was, therefore, less effective against Bradley’s fortified position on their right and front, allowing only Lowrey’s brigade to engage them initially. After Lowrey requested assistance, Cleburne led Govan’s brigade forward, wheeling them into a northern alignment against Bradley’s right flank. The attack by Govan and Lowrey outflanked Bradley and his men fled in disorder. Cleburne’s two brigades chased them vigorously, and they were stopped short of the turnpike only by heavy fire from eighteen guns of the IV Corps artillery, placed earlier by Stanley on a knoll north of the creek. The Confederates, having left most of their artillery at Columbia, were unable to reply with their own guns.
Although the Union defenders gave up some ground, they managed to hold on to Spring Hill and kept the road open for the withdrawal of the army. By this time, Major-General John Calvin Brown’s division of Cheatham’s Corps had crossed Rutherford Creek and was being moved into position by Cheatham for another attack on Spring Hill on Cleburne’s right. In the gathering darkness, the sounds of Brown’s guns would be the signal for Cleburne’s men to renew their attack. Brown did not attack, however. His brigade commander on the right, Brigadier-General Otho French Strahl, reported that there were Union troops in position on his right flank and front and that Forrest’s cavalrymen, who were promised to protect his right flank, did not seem to be present. Since his last brigade under Brigadier-General States Rights Gist had not yet arrived to join the attack, Brown decided to consult with his corps commander before proceeding in a situation of apparent jeopardy. The opportunity was lost.
Cheatham was at that time still attempting to find Bate, who had been redirected further south by Hood without his knowledge, in order to steer his division into the combined attack. Bate’s men advanced for about 3,000 yards in battle formation before his skirmishers approached the pike at about 5.30 pm, a journey that had consumed over two hours in the twilight. Bate’s Division missed the Union line and almost reached the Columbia Pike. At about 5:30 pm, Bate’s sharpshooters under Major Thomas D Caswell, fired on a Union column approaching from their left. These men were Ruger’s division, leading the vanguard of Schofield’s main body. But before Bate could engage Ruger’s men in battle, an officer from Cheatham’s staff arrived to insist that Bate must follow Cheatham’s original orders and rejoin Cleburne’s attack. Later that night, Bate reported his contact with the Union column but Cheatham discounted the importance of that encounter. In the meantime, Brown sent two staff officers to find Cheatham and halted his troops while he awaited a decision about his exposed right flank. By the time Cheatham and Brown were able to speak, at around 6:15 pm, the battlefield was in total darkness, and the two officers decided that an assault without knowing the condition of their right flank might be disastrous. Cheatham rode off to Hood’s headquarters to consult with the army commander.
Hood was furious that the attack had not proceeded as he intended and that the turnpike was still open. Cheatham insisted that he now needed assistance from Stewart to protect his right flank, so Hood dispatched a staff officer to find Stewart. After taking a wrong turn, Stewart ended up at Forrest’s headquarters at the Caldwell house. There he conferred with Forrest about the positions of the army, when suddenly one of Cheatham’s staff officers arrived and directed in Hood’s name that Stewart’s corps move to support Brown’s attack. After Stewart’s column retraced its route, he arrived at Brown’s command post but was confused about the apparent disagreement in orders he was receiving, so he travelled back to Hood’s headquarters for clarification. Only one of his four divisions (that of Major-General Edward Johnson who was attached temporarily from Lee’s Corps) managed to lock onto the left flank of Bate’s division, adjoining the turnpike south of the town. Stewart next informed Hood that because his men were tired and had been on the move for twenty hours since daylight. As it was now 11 pm, he had ordered his other three divisions to go into bivouac while they waited. The commanders were reluctant to rouse the troops for an attack in unfamiliar terrain on a moonless night. The main body of the Confederate army was still two miles further north and well back from the turnpike, but their extreme flank was within a few hundred yards of the Columbia Pike.
Hood reluctantly accepted the situation and told Stewart to head in the direction of Franklin in the morning after the men had rested. Cheatham was also alerted to resume his advance towards Spring Hill at daylight. Hood was not overly anxious as the sound of artillery from Columbia during much of the day implied that the Union army was still caught in the trap and would still be at his mercy in the morning. During the night, the rest of Schofield’s command passed from Columbia through Spring Hill to Franklin. Ruger’s division led the way, passing the campfires of the Confederate bivouacs at 7 pm, and traversing the crossroads unscathed by midnight. They were followed at 11 pm by Cox’s Division and then by Wood’s Division. The last part of the Union column from Columbia passed at 3 am as Kimball’s Division arrived from its blocking position at Rutherford Creek.
The passage of the Union army did not go entirely unnoticed by some Confederate soldiers, but no concerted effort was made to block the pike. A private soldier woke up the commanding general at 2 am and reported he saw a strong Union column moving north, but when Johnson sent forward skirmishers to investigate they found the road empty, presumably because they scouted the area during a gap in the marching Union column. Hood did nothing beyond sending a dispatch to Cheatham to fire on any passing traffic and awaited the dawn to resume his operation.
Confederate errors and prevarication squandered an astonishingly successful manoeuvre and allowed all of Schofield’s command to pass unhindered from Columbia through Spring Hill and to the Harpeth River while the Confederate commanders slept. As the Union army kept on marching, the lengthy supply trains moved into the gap between Wood’s and Kimball’s Divisions. Before dawn broke, Wagner’s Division became the rear guard. It had been the first to arrive at Spring Hill and was the last to leave. By the time Wagner got his men on the road at the rear of the column, the head was already arriving at the vital crossings of the Harpeth River, only twenty miles from Nashville. Forrest’s cavalry harassed the rear of the column, but they were brushed away. The Union pontoon train had been abandoned at Columbia, meaning that Schofield was now trapped south of the Harpeth River until more pontoon wagons could be sent from Nashville. His infantry could wade across, but the artillery, supply trains, and equipment would have to be left behind.
Casualties in the botched engagement at Spring Hill were low, in all about 350 men for the Union and 500 Confederates, but the consequences of the missed opportunity were immeasurable. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Virginia. Incident at New Hope Church.

Virginia. USS Onondaga, Commander William A Parker, and USS Mahopac, Lieutenant-Commander Edward E Potter, engaged the Confederate guns of Howlett’s Battery on the James River for three hours.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Charles Town.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews, Paymaster-General of the US Army, retired and was succeeded by Colonel Benjamin Wilson Brice.

USA: Colonel Benjamin Wilson Brice was appointed Paymaster-General of the US Army.

USA: Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher assumed command of the District of Etowah, succeeding Major-General James Blair Steedman.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: Thomas Francis Meagher
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Ohio: George Stoneman temporary
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana awaited
    • District of West Tennessee: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
    • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) Andrew Jackson Smith
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Jennings Landram
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: Albert Sigel temporary

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Thomas Scott Mather
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: Henry Horatio Wells temporary
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: Cuvier Grover
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Edward Needles Hallowell
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Philip Perry Brown
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
  • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XVIII Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Fourth Sub-District of the District of South Carolina was discontinued.

CSA: Robert Bullock promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 December 1864 to rank from 29 November 1864.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Military Division of the West: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary
  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
      • Sub-District of Northern Mississippi: William Wirt Adams
    • Gulf District: Danville Leadbetter
    • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Braxton Bragg

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Richard Waterhouse

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