1864 November 28th

November 28 1864 Monday

Battle of Buckhead Creek, GA (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Waynesboro, GA

New Creek, VA

Siege of Petersburg

Hood’s Invasion of Tennessee

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Arkansas. Expedition from Brownsville to Fairview began.

Colorado Territory. As the conflict between Indians and white settlers and soldiers raged in Colorado, many of the Cheyenne and Arapaho, including the bands of Cheyenne chiefs Black Kettle and White Antelope, were resigned to negotiate peace. The chiefs sought to maintain peace in spite of pressures from all sides. They were told to camp near Fort Lyon on the eastern plains, where their people would be regarded as friendly. Black Kettle, a chief of a group of around 800 mostly Northern Cheyenne, reported to Fort Lyon in an effort to establish peace. After having done so, he and his band, along with some Arapaho under Chief Niwot, camped out at nearby Sand Creek, less than 40 miles north. The more militaristic Dog Soldiers, who had been responsible for many of the raids on settlers, were not part of this encampment. Assured by the US Government’s promises of peace, Black Kettle sent most of his warriors to hunt, leaving only around 60 men with the women and children in the village. Most of the men left behind were too old or too young to hunt. Black Kettle flew an American flag over his lodge, since officers said that this would show he was friendly, and it would prevent attacks by US soldiers. Setting out from Fort Lyon, Union Colonel John Milton Chivington and his 800 troops of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, 3rd Colorado Cavalry, and a company of the 1st New Mexico Infantry marched to Black Kettle’s campsite. During the night, soldiers and militia drank heavily and celebrated in advance of their anticipated victory.

Georgia. Incident at Davisboro (Davidsboro).

Waynesboro, Georgia. Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler caught up with two lagging Union cavalry regiments of Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s Union cavalry division as it sought to move from the Left Wing to the Right Wing of the advance through Georgia. The Confederate cavalry attacked their camp, chased them back to the main Union force, preventing Kilpatrick from destroying the Briar Creek trestle bridge. Kilpatrick’s men destroyed a mile of track in the area instead and then moved southwest to join up with the army. Kilpatrick discovered for certain that the Union prisoners of war at Camp Lawton had been removed to other unknown sites. Wheeler arrived in Waynesboro and almost captured Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, who was with the 9th Michigan Cavalry. Kilpatrick’s force retreated away from the Confederate brigades of Colonel George Gibbs Dibrell, Brigadier-General William Young Conn Humes, and Brigadier-General Robert Houston Anderson, towards Buckhead Creek.

Buckhead Creek, Georgia, also known as Buck Head Creek, or Reynolds’ Plantation. As Union Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s main force crossed Buckhead Creek, Colonel T T Heath’s 5th Ohio Cavalry and two guns fought a rear-guard action and deterred the pursuers of Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler before burning the bridge behind them. Wheeler soon crossed and followed, but a Union brigade posted behind barricades at Reynolds’ Plantation halted the Confederates’ drive and eventually forced them to retire. Other skirmishes took place at Thomas’ Station, Jones’ Plantation, and Brown’s Cross Road. Kilpatrick encamped near Buckhead Creek for the night and proposed to rejoin the main army at Louisville. Casualties of the engagements during Kilpatrick’s raid were recorded as 46 Union men and 600 Confederates. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Kansas. Skirmish at Cow Creek.

Missouri. Incident at Fulton.

South Carolina. A Union expeditionary force under Major-General John Porter Hatch left Hilton Head and steamed up the Broad River in transports to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad near Pocataligo. Hatch disembarked at Boyd’s Landing and marched inland.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Shelbyville

Tennessee. Incident at Maury’s Mill.

Tennessee. Skirmish at the Duck River.

Tennessee. Confederate cavalry under Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest crossed the Duck River upstream (east) of Columbia. Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers had found a crossing at Carr’s Mill seven miles upstream of Columbia, while Brigadier-General Abraham Buford’s cavalry division crossed at Owen’s Ford on the road from Lewisburg to Spring Hill. Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson’s cavalry division crossed at Holland’s ford between Buford’s and Chalmers’ commands. Union cavalry was encountered at Huey’s Mill and they were driven north towards Franklin. The Confederate cavalrymen were across the river by 2 am and preparing to probe the Union positions near Columbia.

Tennessee. During the night, the bulk of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s army prepared to cross the Duck River, three miles above Columbia at Davis’ Ford. According to Hood’s plan, shared with his commanders at a council of war during the evening, the infantry column was to be led by Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham’s Corps, followed by Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s Corps, and one division of Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee’s corps. Only one battery accompanied each corps so that the remaining one hundred guns could be left with Lee who remained with his other two divisions to conduct a vigorous demonstration at Columbia. Lee was ordered to keep the Union army distracted at Columbia while the bulk of the army headed for Spring Hill in the Union rear, an important crossroads twelve miles from Columbia and halfway to Franklin. Occupation of Franklin would secure control of the Harpeth River crossings, just twenty miles from Nashville. As these plans unfolded, the Union army was already on the move, crossing the Duck River from Columbia towards Franklin.

Tennessee. Union Major-General George Henry Thomas directed Major-General John McAllister Schofield to withdraw immediately from Columbia and to head northwards to Franklin. Thomas anticipated the imminent arrival of Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith’s Detachment of the Army of the Tennessee from Missouri, and he wanted to concentrate his forces to defend the line of the Harpeth River at Franklin instead of on the Duck River at Columbia. Smith was delayed and was still distant. Thomas’ conglomerate force included about 7,000 invalids, convalescents, and furlough returnees from Chattanooga.

Schofield completed his crossing of the Duck River at Columbia overnight and was preparing to block any Confederate pursuit. Union Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry had already detected the Confederate movement across the Duck River and sent multiple messages to Schofield at Columbia warning of Hood’s northward advance towards Franklin. Schofield, however, thought that Hood was intending to head west towards Columbia in order to unite with the two divisions who were still demonstrating from south of the river. It was not until dawn the following morning that Schofield finally believed Wilson’s reports, identified the deception represented by Lee’s artillery bombardment at Columbia, and fully understood the dangerous predicament of his army. Wilson’s warning message to Thomas in Nashville was intercepted by Confederate cavalry. The XXIII Corps became Schofield’s rear-guard, guarding the fords on the Duck River, with IV Corps in reserve on the Franklin Turnpike. Brigadier-General George Day Wagner’s 2nd Division of IV Corps was ready to escort the 800-wagon supply train from Columbia to Spring Hill.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance to Stony Creek Station.

Virginia. Expedition from Kernstown to Moorefield, West Virginia, began.

Virginia. Union expedition from Winchester to Fauquier County and Loudoun County began. Union Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt destroyed over $410,000 of property including 230 barns, 8 mills, and a distillery; his troops also seized horses, cattle, sheep, 10,000 tons of hay, and 25,000 bushels of grain.

Virginia. Skirmish at Goresville.

Virginia. The creation of the Veteran Reserve Corps (Army of the Potomac) was authorised to consist of veteran soldiers. Nine regiments were raised but did not complete their organisation in time to serve in the field. The force was disbanded on 11 July 1866.

Virginia. Mysteriously, but rather conveniently, the captured raider CSS Florida sank off Newport News after being damaged during its relocation from Hampton Roads. Subsequent enquiries suggested that the ship had been deliberately scuttled to defuse some of the diplomatic disputes surrounding its illegal capture in Brazil. Two years later, restitution was made to the Brazilian government when a US gunboat fired a 21-gun salute on the Emperor’s birthday. Lieutenant Napoleon Collins USN, who had committed the diplomatic offence at Bahia, was court-martialled and dismissed from the service. The verdict was then set aside by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles and Collins was subsequently promoted to Captain and, much later, to Admiral.

New Creek, Virginia, also known as Piedmont. Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser sent Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Payne’s brigade towards New Creek on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad about twenty-two miles west of Cumberland. New Creek was a key railroad station on the Baltimore & Orange Railroad and also an important supply depot for the Union Army. The area was guarded by two blockhouses and a garrison of 800 Union soldiers. Rosser knew that a surprise attack was critical for a successful raid. Twenty Confederates in blue overcoats surprised the Union pickets, who mistook them for friendly forces returning from a scouting mission. The Confederates captured most of the Union soldiers but a few escaped. Rosser pressed his force forward before word got back to New Creek about the Confederates’ presence. Rosser split his force in two. Major E H McDonald and the 11th Virginia Cavalry approached New Creek from the east and cut the railroad and telegraph about half a mile from the station. Rosser took the rest of the force for the main attack. Using captured Union uniforms again, an advance party of Confederates entered the town in front of the rest of the Confederates. They got to within half a mile of the forts before making a charge. The garrison of Fort Kelley was surprised and captured while another detachment of Confederates surprised the Union artillery battery and captured the crews. After defeating the Union forces at New Creek, Rosser sent the 11th Virginia Cavalry to Piedmont, about five miles west of New Creek. After a brisk fight with the small Union garrison, the Confederates were able to dislodge the defenders and burned the machine shops of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. They then returned to rejoin the main Confederate force at New Creek. Rosser managed to capture 400 horses and four pieces of artillery. Overall losses were reported as 700 Union men and 7 guns captured for the loss of 5 Confederates killed and wounded. Alternative reports list 443 Union prisoners.

West Virginia. Expedition from Kernstown, Virginia, to Moorefield began.

West Virginia. Incident at Moorefield.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of the Tennessee was formally discontinued.

USA: The Department of the Mississippi was established and subordinated to the Military Division of West Mississippi. It comprised the state of Mississippi and the parts of Tennessee west of the Tennessee River taken from the Department of the Tennessee.

USA: Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana was appointed to command the Department of the Mississippi, arriving on 8 December 1864.

USA: The District of Vicksburg, comprising the posts of Vicksburg, Natchez, and Davis Bend, was transferred from the Department of the Tennessee to the Department of the Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana assumed command of the District of Vicksburg, succeeding Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith.

USA: The District of West Tennessee was transferred from the Department of the Tennessee to the Department of the Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana assumed command of the District of West Tennessee, succeeding Brigadier-General Benjamin Henry Grierson.

Dana, Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh / Ohio / Born 15 April 1822 Fort Sullivan, Eastport, Maine / Died Portsmouth. New Hampshire 15 July 1905
USMA 1 July 1842 29/56 / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 3 March 1848 / Resigned USA 1 May 1855 / Brigadier-General Minnesota Militia 1857-1861 / Colonel USV 1st Minnesota try 2 October 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 February 1862 to rank from 3 February 1862 / Major-General USV 9 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 27 May 1865 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster Retired 2 August 1894 / Brevet Captain USA 18 April 1847 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
2nd Brigade Stone’s Division Army of the Potomac 20 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 August 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-17 September 1862 / Defences of Philadelphia 26 June 1863-18 July 1863 / 2nd Division Department of the Susquehanna 11 July 1863-15 July 1863 / 2nd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 26 September 1863-3 January 1864 / XIII Corps Gulf 25 October 1863-9 January 1864 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 11 March 1864-3 April 1864 / District of Vicksburg 19 August 1864-28 November 1864 / XVI Corps Tennessee 15 October 1864-7 November 1864 / Department of the Mississippi 8 December 1864-14 May 1865 / District of Vicksburg 28 November 1864-7 December 1864 / District of West Tennessee 28 November 1864-7 December 1864

USA: The Sub-District of Memphis was discontinued.

USA: Colonel Albert Sigel (5th Missouri Cavalry) resumed temporary command of the District of Rolla, succeeding State Colonel John Finis Phillips.

Sigel, Albert / Germany-Missouri/ Born 13 November 1827 Sinsheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany / Died 16 March 1884
Captain USV 2nd New Jersey 28 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 14 December 1861 / Colonel Missouri Militia Cavalry 19 May 1862 / 13th Missouri Cavalry / 5th Missouri Cavalry 8 February 1863 / Mustered Out USV 8 July 1865
District of Rolla 4 October 1864-2 November 1864 / District of Rolla 28 November 1864 1 December 1864

USA: Colonel Edward Needles Hallowell (54th Massachusetts Infantry) assumed command of the Northern District of the Department of the South, succeeding Brigadier-General John Porter Hatch.

Hallowell, Edward Needles / Born 3 November 1836 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died West Medford, Massachusetts 26 July 1871
Private 4th Battalion Massachusetts Militia April 1861 / 2nd Lieutenant USV 20th Massachusetts Infantry 23 January 1862 / 1st Lieutenant USV 30 January 1862 / ADC (N J T Dana) September 1862 / Captain USV 54th Massachusetts Infantry 30 March 1863 / Major USV 13 May 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1 June 1863 / Colonel USV 1 September 1863 / Mustered Out USV 20 August 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 27 June 1865 / WIA Fort Wagner 18 July 1863
3rd Brigade 1st Division District of Florida 29 February 1864-18 April 1864 / Northern District of the South 28 November 1864-8 December 1864

USA: Colonel Philip Perry Brown (Provost Marshal) assumed command of the District of Hilton Head, succeeding Brigadier-General Edward Elmer Potter.

Brown, Philip Perry (Jr) / New York / Born 8 October 1823 Smithfield, New York / Died 9 April 1881
Colonel USV 157th New York Infantry 19 September 1862 / Provost Marshal May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 12 June 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 13 March 1865 / Colonel USV 7th US Veteran Infantry 15 July 1865 / Mustered Out USV 9 February 1866 / WIA Gettysburg 1 July 1863
2nd Brigade 1st Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 14 July 1863-17 July 1863 / Provost Marshal Department of the South May 1864-10 June 1864 / 3rd Brigade District of Florida 26 October 1864-1 November 1864 /District of Hilton Head 26 October 1864-31 October 1864 / District of Hilton Head 28 November 1864-23 December 1864 / District of Hilton Head 1 January 1865-21 February 1865 / 1st Brigade Provisional Division Department of the South 1 April 1865-21 April 1865 / Provisional Division Department of the South 21 April 1865-12 June 1865

USA: James Blair Steedman confirmed Major-General USV 28 November 1864 to rank from 20 April 1864.

Steedman, James Blair / Pennsylvania / Born 29 July 1817 Northumberland, Pennsylvania / Died Toledo, Ohio 18 October 1883
Army of the Republic of Texas / Major-General Ohio Militia 1857-1861 / Colonel USV 14th Ohio Infantry 27 April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 13 August 1861 / Colonel USV 14th Ohio Infantry 1 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 19 July 1862 to rank from 17 July 1862 / Major-General USV 28 November 1864 to rank from 20 April 1864 / Resigned USV 18 August 1866 / WIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863
3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-28 January 1863 / 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-17 April 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 27 April 1863-15 August 1863 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Army of the Cumberland 15 August 1863-9 October 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-18 October 1863 / District of Etowah 15 June 1864-29 November 1864 / District of Etowah 5 January 1865-22 June 1865 / Department of Georgia 27 June 1865-10 December 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Ohio: George Stoneman temporary
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana awaited
    • District of West Tennessee: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
    • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) Andrew Jackson Smith
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Jennings Landram
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: Albert Sigel temporary

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Thomas Scott Mather
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: Henry Horatio Wells temporary
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: Cuvier Grover
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Edward Needles Hallowell
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Philip Perry Brown
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
  • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XVIII Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Military Division of the West: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary
  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
      • Sub-District of Northern Mississippi: William Wirt Adams
    • Gulf District: Danville Leadbetter
    • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Braxton Bragg

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Richard Waterhouse

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