1864 May 7th

May 7 1864 Saturday

Tunnel Hill, GA

Battle of Port Walthall Junction, VA

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Dalton

James River Campaign

Virginia Overland Campaign – Spotsylvania

Hoke’s North Carolina Operations

Crook’s West Virginia Raid

Averell’s Second West Virginia Raid

Kautz’s Weldon Railroad Raid

USA: The successful experiment of creating the Military Division of the Mississippi to coordinate operations between the Mississippi and the Appalachians, prompted the Union high command to replicate this west of the Mississippi. The Military Division of West Mississippi was established, comprising the Department of the Gulf and the Department of Arkansas. It was also sometimes referred to as the Trans-Mississippi Division. Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby was appointed to command the Military Division of West Mississippi. Canby was an unexpected and diplomatically sound appointment, having been serving as Assistant Adjutant-General to the Secretary of War since 9 November 1863-7 May 1864. His appointment avoided the need to select one of the local commanders, none of whom had shown sufficient merit or success to justify their assignment. Canby had a distinguished career in the US Regular Army and had served extensively in the frontier states and territories.

Alabama. Skirmish near Florence.

Arkansas. Reconnaissance to Fayetteville ended.

Georgia. Skirmish near Nickajack Gap.

Georgia. Skirmish at Varnell’s Station.

Georgia. In response to Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston’s request for reinforcements, the Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General James Cantey reached Dalton from Rome. Cavalry scouts alerted Johnston to large numbers of Union troops moving to the southwest of his position towards Resaca. Cantey’s brigade began to entrench and set up its defences at Dalton.

Tunnel Hill, Georgia. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston’s Army of Tennessee was south of Chattanooga, Tennessee, holding a strong position running north and south along the steep Rocky Face Ridge near Dalton and eastwards across Crow Valley. It was too strong to be taken by assault, so Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman drew up a plan to turn the position from the west. Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee with 24,000 men, preceded by Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s 3rd Cavalry division, was ordered to move through Ship’s Gap and Villanow to Snake Creek Gap in order to execute the outflanking manoeuvre in the direction of the Western & Atlantic Railroad at Resaca. Major-General George Henry Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland with 61,000 men was ordered to advance straight ahead towards Mill Creek Gap, Dug Gap, and Dalton, to hold the Confederates frontally. Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio (XXIII Corps) with 13,500 men advanced due south along the railroad towards Varnell’s Station, halfway between his base at Red Clay and Dalton, to demonstrate against the Confederate northern or right flank. Major-General John McAuley Palmer’s XIV Corps (Cumberland) drove the Confederate outposts away from Tunnel Hill and pushed them two miles back to Buzzard Roost, the lofty crest of Mill Creek Gap. The Confederates did not have time to destroy the vital railroad tunnel. The Union campaign to capture Atlanta, which featured an unbroken series of skirmishes and manoeuvres lasting almost five months, had begun.

ORDER OF BATTLE: TUNNEL HILL, GA

Union Military Division: of the Mississippi: Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman
Department of the Cumberland: Major-General George Henry Thomas
Army of the Cumberland: Major-General George Henry Thomas
IV Corps, Cumberland: Major-General Oliver Otis Howard
1st Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Major-General David Sloan Stanley
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Major-General Charles Cruft
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Walter Chiles Whitaker
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Colonel William Grose
2nd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General John Newton
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Colonel Francis T Sherman 
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General George Day Wagner
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Charles Garrison Harker
3rd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Thomas Joseph Wood
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General August Willich
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General William Babcock Hazen3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Samuel Beatty
XIV Corps, Cumberland: Major-General John McAuley Palmer
1st Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Richard William Johnson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General William Passmore
Carlin
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General John Haskell King
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Colonel Benjamin Scribner
2nd Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General James Dada Morgan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Colonel John G Mitchell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps, Cumberland: Colonel Daniel McCook
XX Corps, Cumberland: Major-General Joseph Hooker
1st Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Joseph Farmer Knipe
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Colonel James S Robinson
2nd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General John White Geary
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Colonel Charles Candy
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Colonel Adolphus Buschbeck
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Colonel David Ireland
3rd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Major-General Daniel Butterfield
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Colonel John Coburn
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps, Cumberland: Colonel James Wood
Department of the Tennessee: Major-General James Birdseye McPherson
Army of the Tennessee: Major-General James Birdseye McPherson
XV Corps, Tennessee: Major-General John Alexander Logan
1st Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus1st Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Charles Robert Woods
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Colonel James A Williamson
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Hugo Wangelin
2nd Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Giles Alexander Smith
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps, Tennessee: Colonel John M Oliver
XVI Corps (Left Wing): Major-General Grenville Mellen Dodge
2nd Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Thomas William Sweeny
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Elliott Warren Rice
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Patrick E Burke
4th Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General James Clifford Veatch
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General John Wallace Fuller
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General John Wilson Sprague
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XVI Corps, Tennessee: Colonel William T C Grower
XVII Corps: Major-General Francis Preston Blair
3rd Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Mortimer Dormer Leggett
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Manning Ferguson Force
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Robert K Scott
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Adam G Malloy
4th Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Walter Quintin Gresham
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Colonel William L Sanderson
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Colonel George C Rogers
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps, Tennessee: Colonel William Hall
Department of the Ohio: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
Army of the Ohio: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
XXIII Corps, Ohio: Major-General John M Schofield
1st Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Brigadier-General Alvin Peterson Hovey
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Colonel Richard Barter
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Colonel John McQuiston
2nd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Brigadier-General Henry Moses Judah
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Brigadier-General Nathaniel Collins McLean
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Brigadier-General Milo Smith Hascall
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Colonel Silas A Strickland
3rd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox, Colonel James W Reilly
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Colonel James W Reilly
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps, Ohio: Colonel Robert K Byrd
Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi: Brigadier-General Washington Elliott
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook
1st Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel Joseph B Dorr
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel Oscar Lagrange
3rd Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel Louis Watkins
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard
1st Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel Robert Minty
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel Eli Long
3rd Cavalry (Lightning) Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel John T Wilder
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
1st Cavalry Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Klein
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Smith
3rd Cavalry Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps: Colonel Eli Murray

Confederate Department of Tennessee: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of Tennessee: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Chief of Artillery: Brigadier-General Francis Asbury Shoup
I Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee
Cheatham’s Division, I Corps: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Maney’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General George Earl Maney
Wright’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps: Colonel John C Carter
Strahl’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Otho French Strahl
Vaughn’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Cleburne’s Division, I Corps: Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Polk’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Lucius Eugene Polk
Lowrey’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Mark Perrin Lowrey
Govan’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Daniel Chevilette Govan
Granbury’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Hiram Bronson Granbury
Walker’s Division, I Corps: Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker
Jackson’s Brigade, Walker’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General John King Jackson
Gist’s Brigade, Walker’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General States Rights Gist
Stevens’ Brigade, Walker’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Clement Hoffman Stevens
Mercer’s Brigade, Walker’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Hugh Weedon Mercer
Bate’s Division, I Corps: Major-General William Brimage Bate
Lewis’ Brigade, Bate’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Joseph Horace Lewis
Smith’s Brigade, Bate’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Thomas Benton Smith
Finley’s Brigade, Bate’s Division, I Corps: Brigadier-General Jesse Johnson Finley
II Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood
Hindman’s Division, II Corps: Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Deas’ Brigade, Hindman’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Zachariah Cantey Deas
Manigault’s Brigade, Hindman’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Arthur Middleton Manigault
Tucker’s Brigade, Hindman’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General William Feimster
Tucker
Wathall’s Brigade, Hindman’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Edward Cary Walthall
Stevenson’s Division, II Corps: Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Brown’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General John Calvin Brown
Cumming’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Alfred Cumming
Reynolds’ Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Alexander Welch Reynolds
Pettus’ Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Edmund Winston Pettus
Stewart’s Division, II Corps: Major-General Alexander Peter Stewart
Stovall’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Marcellus Augustus Stovall
Clayton’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Henry De Lamar Clayton
Baker’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Alpheus Baker
Gibson’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps: Brigadier-General Randall Lee Gibson
Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Joseph Wheeler
Martin’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Major-General William Thompson Martin
Allen’s Cavalry Brigade, Martin’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General William Wirt Allen
Iverson’s Cavalry Brigade, Martin’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Alfred Iverson
Kelly’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General John Herbert Kelly
Anderson’s Cavalry Brigade, Kelly’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General Robert Houston Anderson
Williams’ Cavalry Brigade, Kelly’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General John Stuart Williams
Hannon’s Cavalry Brigade, Kelly’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Moses W Hannon
Dibrell’s Cavalry Brigade, Kelly’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Colonel George Gibbs Dibrell
Humes’ Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Brigadier-General William Young Humes
Ashby’s’ Cavalry Brigade, Humes’ Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Henry Marshall Ashby
Harrison’s Cavalry Brigade, Humes’ Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Tennessee: Colonel Thomas H Harrison
Roddey’s Independent Cavalry Command Brigadier-General Philip Dale Roddey
III Corps (“Army of Mississippi”): Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk
Loring’s Division, III Corps: Major-General William Wing Loring
Featherston’s Brigade, Loring’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
Adams’ Brigade, Loring’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General John Adams
Scott’s Brigade, Loring’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Thomas Moore Scott
French’s Division, III Corps: Major-General Samuel Gibb French
Ector’s Brigade, French’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Matthew Duncan Ector
Cockrell’s Brigade, French’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Francis Marion Cockrell
Sears’ Brigade, French’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Claudius Wistar Sears
Walthall’s Division, III Corps: Major-General Edward Cary Walthall
Quarles’ Brigade, Walthall’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General William Andrews Quarles
Reynold’s Brigade, Walthall’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Daniel Harris Reynolds
Cantey’s Brigade, Walthall’s Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General James Cantey
Gholson’s Brigade, Walthall’s Division, III Corps: Colonel John McQuirk
Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson
Armstrong’s Cavalry Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Frank Crawford Armstrong
Ross’ Cavalry Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Ferguson’s Cavalry Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Samuel Wragg Ferguson

Louisiana. Incidents at Alexandria, Bayou Teche, Bayou Lamourie, and the Red River Road.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Bayou Boeuf.

Louisiana, Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor reported to General Edmund Kirby Smith that the Union Red River expedition had been cut off from its supplies along the Red River. The entire region had been cleared of any kind of forage or subsistence that might aid the Union garrison at Alexandria. Taylor waited for the arrival of Smith and three divisions from their campaign at Camden and the Saline River, in order to deliver the final defeat on Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss banks and his stranded fleet.

Progress on the wing dams at Alexandria was approaching completion and the crews of the Union warships begin to lighten their vessels by removing iron armour and all surplus equipment to lighten the draught of the ships. The iron armour was buried in a deep pit to prevent its capture and use by thr Confederates. Anchors, chains, ammunition, and most of the guns (all but eleven light 32-pounders which were spiked and sunk) were loaded onto wagons to be reloaded below the falls.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Benton involving Union Brigadier-General John McArthur and Confederate Brigadier-General William Wart Adams.

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Springfield ended.

North Carolina. CSS Raleigh renewed the engagement at new Inlet, exchanging fire with the wooden steamers USS Howquah and USS Nansemond. Two other steamers, USS Mount Vernon and USS Kansas, also opened fire on the ram, and at 6 am the CSS Raleigh broke off the action. Attempting to cross the bar at the mouth of Cape Fear River, CSS Raleigh grounded and was so severely damaged that the ship had to be destroyed.

North Carolina. USS Connecticut seized the blockade running British steamer Minnie with a cargo of cotton, tobacco, turpentine, and $10,000 in gold. The steamer was renowned as a successful blockade runner.

Virginia. Incidents at the Wilderness, Todd’s Tavern, Stony Creek Station, and Chester Station.

Virginia. The 180-ton sidewheel steamer USS Shawsheen, Acting Ensign Charles Ringot, was disabled, captured, and destroyed by the Confederates in the James River. USS Shawsheen had been ordered to drag the river for torpedoes above Chaffin’s Bluff and had anchored near shore at Turkey Bend shortly before noon. Confederate infantry and artillery surprised the gunboat and a shot through the boiler forced many sailors overboard to avoid being scalded. Confederate Lieutenant-Colonel W M Elliott boarded the ship but reported that USS Shawsheen was irrecoverable. The ship was set on fire and the explosion of the magazine blew it to pieces. The loss of two ships in two days led to greater caution on the part of the US Navy as it supported the advance of the Army of the James towards Richmond.

Virginia. During the morning, Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant was faced with the prospect of attacking strong Confederate earthworks in the impenetrable and confusing Wilderness. Reconnaissance found the Confederates still firmly in place and seemingly unlikely to attack again, preferring to repel charges from behind breastworks rather than making them. Past experience suggested to Confederate General Robert Edward Lee that the Union army might attack again but was more likely to retreat from the trackless battlefield. Reluctant to give up his strong defences and the concealment of the woods, Lee ordered his men to hold their lines and conceded the initiative.

However, Grant chose neither option. He resolved neither to make unnecessary assaults in the dense woodland nor to retreat. Instead, he ordered a forward movement past the right flank of the enemy lines. The Army of the Potomac would continue its advance by its left flank. Moving south along the Brock Road, Grant hoped to reach the crossroads at Spotsylvania Court House, interposing his army between Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia and Richmond. This would force the Confederates to withdraw from the impenetrable Wilderness onto ground more advantageous to the larger Union army. Spotsylvania was an important crossroads, between the Virginia Central Railroad and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad. The town also straddled the main road to Hanover Junction where the two railroads crossed north of Richmond. It was clearly the strategic fulcrum of the next stage of the campaign.

While holding his positions for most of the day, Grant ordered preparations for a night march before the morning of 8May to reach Spotsylvania, which was eight miles to the southeast for the nearest Union infantry and twelve miles distant for the furthest.

At 1 pm, the Union pontoon bridge at Germanna Ford was raised and rebuilt at Ely’s Ford to increase the number of crossings for the ambulances carrying wounded men to the railhead. Union supply wagons rumbled away to the north and east and then, at 3 pm the reserve artillery began to move, ostensibly towards security in the rear, confirming the soldiers’ expectation of yet another ignominious retreat. The artillery was actually gaining a head start for a long detour into safer territory before heading southwards. At 5 pm, Union Major-General George Gordon Meade ordered Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren and his V Corps to begin their march at 8.30 pm along the Brock Road towards Spotsylvania. Warren was instructed to move in silence, aiming first for Todd’s Tavern. Once Warren’s column cleared the rear of Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps, Hancock’s men would follow behind Warren as quietly as possible along the same road. Union Major-General John Sedgwick’s VI Corps would take a more easterly road, following the Orange Turnpike through Chancellorsville and then southwards along a road past Piney Branch Church. That road joined the Brock Road at Alsop, between Todd’s Tavern and Spotsylvania. This position was close to Warren’s rear and put VI Corps within supporting distance of Hancock. Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside’s IX Corps would follow the same route as Sedgwick but would halt at Piney Branch Church in order to screen the reserve artillery and supply trains. As the columns moved out one after another in the early dark, despondency began to spread but when they passed the crossroads leading back to the fords over the Rappahannock and continued southwards rather than north, morale rose, and the onward progress was marked by muted cheers.

The western and southern flanks of the movement were covered by Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan’s Cavalry Corps. During the morning, Sheridan’s cavalry skirmished with Confederate cavalry around Todd’s Tavern and a rear=guard remained there until it was time to bivouac in the evening. Sheridan ordered his division commanders to seize the bridges over the Po River by the following morning in order to block the Confederates’ direct route. Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry division would move directly along the Fredericksburg road southwards through Spotsylvania, while the cavalry divisions of Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg and Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert would approach the bridges from south of the river. Grant and Meade believed the Brock Road to be open, but it was actually patrolled by Confederate cavalry from Major-General Fitzhugh Lee’s division. The Union cavalry was slow in getting moving because Gregg and Torbert did not receive their orders promptly. As they waited for instructions, Warren’s infantry was jammed and stationary along the road behind the cavalry on the Brock Road. Meade arrived in person and gave direct orders for Gregg to follow the Catharpin Road to Corbin’s Bridge, from where he would cover the approaches from Parkers’ Store. Torbert would stay on the Brock Road to clear the route to Spotsylvania while sending one brigade along the Block House to obstruct the route from Shady Grove. It was not until 1 am that Meade got the entire column in motion on the road, and then he went to bring forward Warren’s infantry whilst advising Sheridan of his new instructions to the cavalry.

The approaches to Todd’s Tavern were well guarded but Torbert’s division (temporarily under Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt because of Torbert’s sickness) pushed on to guard the flank between Todd’s Tavern and the column of Hancock’s II Corps marching on the Brock Road. They encountered obstacles of trees felled across the road by the Confederate cavalry skirmishers, who continually harassed their advance in the darkness. Warren’s V Corps only reached Todd’s Tavern at midnight and the obstacles thrown across the Brock Road impeded any further progress of Merritt’s cavalry. Sheridan was annoyed by Meade’s apparent interference and feared that his three cavalry divisions had been exposed to danger by being scattered and dispersed. He ordered Wilson to evacuate Spotsylvania to avoid being isolated.

Although Lee hoped to draw out the fighting in the Wilderness for as long as possible, he nevertheless anticipated a resumption of the Union march. The passivity of the Union lines finally persuaded Lee that the fighting in the Wilderness was over. He ordered Brigadier-General William Nelson Pendleton to cut a new road through the woods south of the Orange Plank Road, and down to Shady Grove Church on the Catharpin Road. The new road would avoid the need for a long march backwards to Parker’s Store before the army could turn south. Even so, Grant’s road to Spotsylvania was shorter, straighter, and easier than Lee’s. He dismissed the thought that Grant would retreat and by early evening he had discerned Grant’s intention to make for Spotsylvania. Confederate observers spotted the southward movement of artillery from the Lacy Field and this provided more positive evidence of Union intentions.

Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry patrols reported that Union cavalry had occupied Todd’s Tavern in strength and this information confirmed the orders Lee had issued at 7 pm for Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s I Corps to march for Spotsylvania at 3 am the following morning. Anderson was ordered to take both of his divisions (Major-General Charles William Field and Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw). As soon as circumstances allowed, Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s II Corps and Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps would follow their route. Anderson pulled out of contact at 9 pm but he was anxious that his troops would get no rest in the burning woods if he waited until 3 am before setting out. He decided to set out earlier at 11 pm along the new road cut through the woods. He marched to Shady Grove Church and then across the Po River towards Spotsylvania. He could not find a convenient place to bivouac overnight along the new road or on the Shady Grove Road and so he decided to press on and allow a rest stop for sleep after reaching Spotsylvania.

Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart’s six cavalry brigades rendered vital support to screen Anderson’s night march. Three cavalry brigades preceded and shielded the army’s marching column from the flank and three more rode ahead to secure the route. Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser took his brigade all the way to Spotsylvania, under orders to hold the crossroads at all costs. Major-General Fitzhugh Lee headed north-westwards up the Brock Road with his two brigades to delay four divisions of enemy infantry and a cavalry division larger than his own.

Virginia. The Union cavalry division of Brigadier-General August Valentine Kautz reached Stony Creek, west of Suffolk, where they burned the 100-foot long railroad bridge twenty miles south of Petersburg.

Port Walthall Junction, Virginia. Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler began to advance out of his entrenched camp at Bermuda Hundred towards the railroad running between Richmond and Petersburg at Port Walthall Junction. He sent forward three brigades with 6,000 men (Colonel Harris Merril Plaisted (3/1/X), Colonel William Brainerd Barton (2/2/X), and Colonel J C Drake (2/3/X) from Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore’s X Corps and one brigade (Brigadier-General Hiram Burnham (2/1/XVIII) from Major-General William Farrar Smith’s XVIII Corps. Seven more brigades continued to strengthen the defences at Bermuda Hundred while three more brigades in Brigadier-General Edward Winslow Hinks’ division of black troops were stationed across the Appomattox at City Point.

The Union forces advanced west along the three-mile spur of the railroad that ran from Port Walthall to the junction, which comprised a neglected depot and a group of dilapidated shacks. They drove back a line of Confederate skirmishers from Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood’s and Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson’s brigades. Hagood had fallen back from the Old Stage Road to the railroad line overnight, using the slight embankment to strengthen his position. At 2pm, Union Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks (1/XVIII) ordered the 8th Connecticut Infantry to spearhead an advance by the four brigades. Their line overlapped the Confederates who had to pull back to while maintaining a strong resistance.

The Confederate defenders were outnumbered more than two-to-one and began to retire to await reinforcements. Reinforcements were unforthcoming because the destruction of the Nottoway and Stony Creek bridges had severed the railroad to Weldon, but Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill did arrive unaccompanied by troops to add his belligerence and experience to the defence. Hill had been serving as an aide-de-camp to General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard after being relieved of command in the Army of the Tennessee. Pickett was pleased to concede command of his two thin brigades to Hill, who conducted a masterly reargued action until they were safely across Swift Creek. The Union soldiers halted and dismantled the railroad for a distance of 500 yards and also cut the telegraph wires before withdrawing at 4pm. Total casualties were 289 men for the Union and 184 men for the Confederates. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: PORT WALTHALL JUNCTION, VA

Union Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler
Army of the James: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler
X Corps: Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore
1st Division, X Corps (James): Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, X Corps (James): Colonel Harris Merril Plaisted
2nd Division, X Corps (James): Brigadier-General John Wesley Turner
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, X Corps (James): Colonel William Brainerd Barton
3rd Division, X Corps (James): Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, X Corps (James) Colonel J C Drake
XVIII Corps (James): Major-General William Farrar Smith
1st Division, XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
2nd Division, 1st Division, XVIII Corps (James): Brigadier-General Hiram Burnham

Confederate Department of North Carolina And Southern Virginia: Major-General George Edward Pickett vice General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Pickett’s Division, North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Hagood’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood
Johnson’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division, North Carolina and Southern Virginia attached: Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson

Union Organisation

USA: The Military Division of West Mississippi was established, comprising the Department of the Gulf and the Department of Arkansas. It was sometimes referred to as the “Trans-Mississippi Division”.

USA: Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby was appointed to command the Military Division of West Mississippi, arriving on 11 May 1864.

USA: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby promoted Major-General USV 7 May 1864.

Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg / Kentucky-Indiana / Born 9 November 1817 Piatt’s Landing, Kentucky / KIA Siskiyou, California 11 April 1873
USMA 1 July 1839 30/31 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1839 / Regt Adjutant 24 March 1846-3 March 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / Major USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Colonel USA 19th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 11 April 1862 to rank from 31 March 1862 / Major-General USV 7 May 1864 / Brigadier-General USA 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Brevet Captain Assistant Adjutant-General 3 March 1847 / Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA White River 8 November 1864
Department of New Mexico 14 May 1861-3 July 1861 / District of New Mexico 3 July 1861 / Department of New Mexico 9 November 1861-26 August 1862 / Military Division of West Mississippi 7 May 1864-16 November 1864 / Assistant Adjutant-General (Secretary of War) 9 November 1863-7 May 1864 / Military Division of West Mississippi 25 November 1864-17 May 1865 / Army of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-3 June 1865 / Department of the Gulf 17 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 3 June 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Louisiana 27 June 1865-28 May 1866 / Department of Texas 27 June 1865-28 May 1866 / Department of Washington 13 August 1866-31 August 1867 / Second Military District 27 August 1867-28 July 1868 / Department of Washington 14 August 1868-12 November 1868 / Fifth Military District 4 November 1868-5 March 1869

USA: The Department of Arkansas was subordinated to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball retained temporary command of the Department of Arkansas.

USA: VII Corps (Arkansas) transferred with the Army of Arkansas to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball retained temporary command of VII Corps (Arkansas).

Kimball, Nathan / Indiana / Born 22 November 1822 Fredericksburg, Indiana / Died Ogden, Utah 21 January 1898
Captain USV 2nd Indiana Infantry 4 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 23 June 1847 / Captain USV 14th Indiana Infantry 23 April 1861 / Colonel USV 7 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1862 to rank from 15 April 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 1 February 1865 / WIA Buena Vista 23 February 1847 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862
1st Brigade Lander’s Division Army of the Potomac 2 March 1862-13 March 1862 / Lander’s Division Army of the Potomac 6 March 1862-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-22 March 1862 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 22 March 1862-23 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 23 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-10 May 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 10 May 1862-26 June 1862 / Kimball’s Brigade II Corps Army of the Potomac 15 July 1862-10 September 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 10 September 1862-13 December 1862 / District of Jackson 20 March 1863-28 May 1863 / Kimball’s Division XVI Corps Department of the Tennessee 3 June 1863-4 August 1863 / 2nd Division XVI Corps Department of Arkansas 13 September 1863-30 November 1863 / 2nd Division VII Corps Department of Arkansas 13 February 1864-25 April 1864 / Department of Arkansas 22 March 1864-22 May 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 22 March 1864-21 May 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 22 May 1864-4 August 1864 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 4 August 1864-19 September 1864 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 27 November 1864-16 February 1865 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 16 March 1865-1 August 1865

USA: The District of Northern Arkansas transferred with the Department of Arkansas to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Colonel Robert Ramsey Livingston (1st Nebraska Cavalry) retained command of the District of Northern Arkansas.

Livingston, Robert Ramsey / Canada / Born 10 August 1827 Montreal, Canada / Died Plattsmouth, Nebraska 28 September 1888
Captain USV 1st Nebraska Cavalry 11 June 1861 / Major USV 1 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 22 April 1862 / Colonel USV 4 October 1862 / Mustered Out USV 10 July 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 21 June 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Southeast Missouri 3 December 1862-February 1863 / District of Northern Arkansas 30 November 1863-6 January 1864 / District of Northeastern Arkansas 6 January 1864-1 June 1864 / Eastern Sub-District District of Nebraska 29 September 1864-30 January 1865 / Eastern Sub-District District of the Plains 8 April 1865-July 1865

USA: The District of the Frontier transferred with the Department of Arkansas to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General James Gilpatrick Blunt retained command of the District of the Frontier.

Blunt, James Gilpatrick / Maine / Born 21 July 1826 Trenton, Maine / Died Washington, District of Columbia 27 July 1881
Colonel Kansas Militia 1856 / Private Kansas Infantry / Lieutenant-Colonel 3rd Kansas Infantry July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 April 1862 to rank from 8 April 1862 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 29 July 1865
Department of Kansas 2 May 1862-19 September 1862 / Army of Kansas 16 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Kansas Division Army of the Border 19 September 1862-12 October 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Frontier 12 October 1862-20 November 1862 / District of Kansas 2 November 1862-9 June 1863 / Army of the Frontier 20 November 1862-29 December 1862 / District of the Frontier 9 June 1863-6 January 1864 / District of the Frontier Arkansas 6 January 1864-22 February 1864 / District of the Frontier 23 February 1864-17 April 1864 / District of the Upper Arkansas 2 August 1864-14 October 1864 / District of South Kansas 10 October 1864-31 October 1864 / 1st Division Army of the Border 14 October 1864-8 November 1864 / District of South Kansas 22 November 1864-3 June 1865

USA: The District of Eastern Arkansas transferred with the Department of Arkansas to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford retained command of the District of Eastern Arkansas.

Buford, Napoleon Bonaparte / Kentucky / Born 13 January 1807 Woodford, Kentucky / Died Chicago, Illinois 28 March 1883
USMA 1 July 1827 6/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1823 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1827 / Resigned USA 31 December 1835 / Colonel USV 27th Illinois Infantry 10 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1862 to rank from 15 April 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Expired 4 March 1863 Reverted to Brigadier-General USV / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1827 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
Flotilla Brigade Army of the Mississippi 4 March 1862-24 April 1862/ 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Mississippi 24 April 1862-16 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Mississippi 26 April 1862-25 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Mississippi 20 September 1862-1 November 1862 / District of Eastern Arkansas 19 September 1863-6 August 1864 / District of Eastern Arkansas 28 September 1864-7 October 1864 / District of Eastern Arkansas 10 October 1864-9 March 1865

USA: The Army of Arkansas transferred with the Department of Arkansas to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Major-General Frederick Steele retained command of the Army of Arkansas.

Steele, Frederick / New York / Born 14 January 1819 Delhi, New York / Died San Mateo, California 12 January 1868
USMA 1 July 1843 30/39 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 March 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 June 1848 / Regt Adjutant 6 September 1849-5 February 1855 / Captain USA 5 February 1855 / Major USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Iowa Infantry 23 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 January 1862 to rank from 29 January 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 26 August 1864 / Colonel USA 20th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered USV 1 January 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1839 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 4 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
2nd Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861 / Steele’s Brigade 5th Division Western Army September 1861 / District of Southeast Missouri 1 March 1862-10 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Southwest 9 May 1862-29 August 1862 / Army of the Southwest 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / 1st Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862 / 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-13 December 1862 / 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-27 July 1863 / Army of Arkansas 27 July 1863-22 December 1864 / Department of Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / Department of Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 3 February 1865-8 February 1865 / Pensacola Column Army of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-17 May 1865 / Western District of Texas 27 June 1865-20 July 1865 / Department of the Columbia 7 October 1866-29 April 1867

USA: The Department of the Gulf was subordinated to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks retained command of the Department of the Gulf.

USA: The Army of the Gulf transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks retained command of the Army of the Gulf.

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss / Massachusetts / Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts / Died Waltham, Massachusetts 1 September 1894
Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
Banks’ Division Department of Annapolis May `1861-11 June 1861 / Department of Annapolis 11 June 1861-19 July 1861 / Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-3 March 1862 / V Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / II Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-23 September 1862 / Military District of Washington (Defences of Washington) 7 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Department of the Gulf 8 November 1862-23 September 1864 / Army of the Gulf 15 December 1862-22 September 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 16 December 1862-19 August 1863 / Department of the Gulf 18 March 1865-3 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 22 April 1865-2 June 1865

USA: The District of La Fourche transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General John McNeil retained command of the District of La Fourche.

McNeil, John / Canada / Born 14 February 1813 Halifax, Nova Scotia / Died St Louis, Missouri 8 June 1891
Captain Missouri Militia 1861 / Colonel USV 3rd Missouri Infantry 8 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 17 August 1861 / Colonel 2nd Missouri Militia Cavalry 3 June 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 4 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Major-General Missouri Militia 27 February 1865-8 April 1865 / Resigned USV 12 April 1865 / Brevet Major-General USA 12 April 1865
Northeastern Division District of Missouri 5 June 1862-19 September 1862 / District of Southwest Missouri 15 July 1863-19 October 1863 / District of La Fourche 4 May 1864-9 June 1864 / District of Port Hudson 23 June 1864-6 August 1864 / District of Rolla 23 August 1864-4 October 1864 / 3rd Brigade Cavalry Division Department of the Missouri 4 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Brigade Cavalry Division Department of the Missouri 19 October 18964-8 November 1864 / District of Rolla 15 November 1864-28 November 1864 / District of Central Missouri 27 February 1865-12 April 1865

USA: The Defences of New Orleans transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Major-General Joseph Jones Reynolds retained command of the Defences of New Orleans.

Reynolds, Joseph Jones / Kentucky / Born 4 January 1822 Flemingsburg, Kentucky / Died Washington, District of Columbia 25 February 1899
USMA 1 July 1843 10/39 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 4th US Artillery 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 11 May 1846 / Resigned USA 28 February 1857 / Colonel Indiana Militia 23 April 1861 / Colonel 10th Indiana Militia 27 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Indiana Militia 10 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Indiana Militia 17 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Resigned USV 23 January 1862 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 17 September 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Colonel USA 26th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / 25th US Infantry 8 January 1870 / 3rd US Cavalry 15 December 1870 / Retired USA 25 June 1877 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 Brevet Major-General USA 2 March 1867 / WIA Western Virginia 1861
1st Brigade Army of Occupation July 1861-September 1861 / Cheat Mountain District 24 July 1861-19 September 1861 / 5th Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 11 December 1862-9 January 1863 / 5th Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-8 June 1863 / 4th Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 8 June 1863-9 October 1863 / Chief of Staff Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-3 December 1863 / Defences of New Orleans 6 January 1864-16 June 1864 / 4th Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 25 January 1864-18 February 1864 / District of Morganza 16 June 1864-5 July 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 7 July 1864-7 November 1864 / Military Division of West Mississippi 4 November 1864-25 November 1864 / Reserve Corps Department of the Gulf 5 December 1864-12 January 1865 / Department of Arkansas 22 December 1864-29 August 1865 / Army of Arkansas 22 December 1864-1 August 1865 / VII Corps Arkansas 22 December 1864-1 August 1865 / Fifth Military District 16 March 1868-23 March 1868 / Fifth Military District 28 July 1868-4 November 1868

USA: The District of Key West and Tortugas transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Daniel Phineas Woodbury retained command of the District of Key West and Tortugas.

Woodbury, Daniel Phineas / New Hampshire / Born 16 December 1812 New London, New Hampshire / Died Key West, Florida 15 August 1864
USMA 1 July 1836 6/39 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1836 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 November 1836 / 3rd US Artillery 1 December 1836 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1837 to rank from 1 July 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 3 March 1853 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / ADC (G B McClellan) August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA ADC 28 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 19 March 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Engineers 1 June 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1836 Brevet Colonel USA 1 July 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 December 1862 Brevet Major-General USA 15 August 1864 posthumously
Engineer Brigade Army of the Potomac April 1862 / District of Key West and Tortugas 16 March 1863-12 September 1863 / District of Key West and Tortugas 15 October 1863-30 November 1863 / District of Key West and Tortugas 31 December 1863-15 August 1864

USA: The District of Port Hudson transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Daniel Ullmann retained command of the District of Port Hudson.

Ullmann, Daniel / Delaware / Born 28 April 1810 Wilmington, Delaware / Died Nyack, New York 20 September 1892
Colonel USV 78th New York Infantry 28 April 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 13 January 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / CIA Little Washington 22 August 1862 Exchanged 6 October 1862
2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 10 July 1862-16 July 1862 / Ullmann’s Brigade USCT Port Hudson Department of the Gulf July 1863-22 September 1863 / 1st Division Corps d’Afrique Department of the Gulf 23 September 1863-January 1864 / District of Port Hudson 13 January 1864-22 June 1864 / 1st Division Corps d’Afrique Department of the Gulf January 1864-23 April 1864 / 1st Division USCT Department of the Gulf July 1863-23 November 1864 / District of Morganza 23 November 1864-26 February 1865

USA: The District of Baton Rouge transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Henry Warner Birge retained command of Baton Rouge.

Birge, Henry Warner / Connecticut / Born 25 August 1825 Hartford, Connecticut / Died New York, New York 1 June 1888
Major USV 4th Connecticut Infantry 23 May 1861/ Resigned USV 13 November 1861 / Colonel USV 13th Connecticut Infantry 18 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 19 September 1863 / Resigned USV 18 October 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 25 February 1865
3rd Brigade 4th Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 3 January 1863-10 July 1863 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 10 August 1863-25 January 1864 / District of La Fourche 30 August 1863-31 December 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 15 February 1864-30 April 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf & May 1864-22 June 1864 / District of Baton Rouge 2 May 1864-15 May 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 2 July 1864-5 July 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XIX Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-19 October 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XIX Corps Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 1864-10 November 1864/ 1st Brigade 2nd Division XIX Corps Army of the Shenandoah 8 December 1864-28 December 1864 / 1st Brigade Grover’s Division District of Savannah 6 January 1865-12 February 1865 / District of Savannah 12 February 1865-12 February 1865 / 1st Division X Corps Department of North Carolina 27 March 1865-5 June 1865 / District of Savannah 5 June 1865-26 June 1865 / 1st Division X Corps Department of North Carolina 26 June 1865-4 July 1865

USA: The District of Carrollton transferred with the Department of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Colonel Nelson B Bartram (20th US Colored Infantry) retained command of Carrollton.

Bartram, Nelson B / New York / Born 7 January 1832 Westport, New York / Died 25 December 1886
Captain USV 17th New York 22 May 1861 / Major USV 17th New York December 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 17th New York May 1862 / Mustered Out USV June 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 15th New York Cavalry June 1863 / Colonel USV 20th US Colored Infantry 9 February 1864 / Mustered Out USV 7 October 1865
District of Carrollton 1 May 1864-30 September 1864

USA: XIX Corps (Gulf) transferred with the Army of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory retained command of XIX Corps (Gulf).

Emory, William Hemsley / Maryland / Born 7 September 1811 Poplar Grove, Maryland / Died Washington, District of Columbia 1 December 1887
USMA 1 July 1831 14/33 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1831 / Resigned USA 30 September 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 24 April 1851 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / 1st US Cavalry 26 May 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 9 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1862 / Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 27 October 1863 / Major-General USV 25 September 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 1 July 1876 / Retired USA 1 July 1876 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1831 Brevet Captain USA 6 December 1846 Brevet Major USA 9 January 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 10 October 1857 Brevet Colonel USA 27 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USV 23 July 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
1st Brigade Cavalry Reserve Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 6 July 1862-10 August 1862 / Defences of Baltimore 10 August 1862-September 1862 / Emory’s Division Department of the Gulf September 1862-December 1862 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 3 January 1863-2 May 1863 / Defences of New Orleans 2 May 1863-25 August 1863 / 4th Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 30 July 1863-25 August 1863 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 4 September 1863-17 September 1863 / 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 13 December 1863-2 May 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 2 May 1864-2 July 1864 / District of Morganza 22 May 1864-16 June 1864 / Detachment XIX Corps Army of the Shenandoah 15 July 1864-6 August 1864 / XIX Corps Shenandoah 6 August 1864-8 December 1864 / XIX Corps Shenandoah 28 December 1864-20 March 1865 / Department of West Virginia 22 April 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Washington 17 August 1867-28 July 1868

USA: XIII Corps (Gulf) transferred with the Army of the Gulf to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler retained command of XIII Corps (Gulf).

Lawler, Michael Kelly / Ireland / Born 16 November 1814 Kildare, Ireland / Died Equality, Illinois 26 July 1882
Captain USV 3rd Illinois Infantry 29 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 21 May 1847 / Captain USV Illinois Mounted Rifles 19 July 1847 / Mustered Out USV 26 October 1848 / Colonel USV 18th Illinois Infantry 30 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 15 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Fort Donelson 15 February 1862
1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 2 May 1862-4 May 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 4 May 1862-September 1862 / 1st Brigade Sub-District of Jackson 18 December 1862-16 April 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 16 April 1863-2 May 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 2 May 1863-28 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 14th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 28 July 1863-15 August 1863 / 4th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 15 August 1863-23 September 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 23 September 1863-19 October 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 19 October 1863-26 October 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 10 March 1864-17 April 1864 / XIII Corps Gulf 27 April 1864-9 May 1864 / 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 23 May 1864-11 June 1864 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 27 June 1864-5 July 1864 / District of Morganza 5 July 1864-5 July 1864 / District of Morganza 8 July 1864-30 October 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 6 July 1864-7 July 1864 / 1st Brigade Reserve Corps Military Division of the Mississippi 5 December 1864-4 February 1865 / District of Baton Rouge 23 March 1865-29 May 1865 / District of East Louisiana 29 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Eastern District of Louisiana 27 June 1865-26 July 1865

USA: August Valentine Kautz confirmed Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1864 to rank from 7 May 1864.

Kautz, August Valentine (Valentin) / Germany-Ohio / Born 5 January 1828 Pforzheim, Baden / Died Seattle, Washington 4 September 1895
USMA 1 July 1852 35/43 Infantry / Private USV 1st Ohio Infantry 8 January 1846 / Mustered Out USV 14 June 1847 / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 4th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 March 1853 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 December 1855 / Captain USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd Ohio Cavalry 2 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1864 to rank from 7 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 34th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 15th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Colonel USA 8th US Infantry 8 June 1874 / Brigadier-General USA 20 April 1891 / Retired USA 5 January 1892 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1852 Brevet Major USA 9 June 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 9 June 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 7 October 1864 / Brevet Major-General USV 28 October 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Grave and Crow Creeks, Oregon Territory 25 October 1855 WIA Muckleshute Prairie, Montana Territory 1 March 1856
Cavalry Brigade District of Central Kentucky 27 April 1863-24 June 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 24 June 1863-6 August 1863 / Cavalry XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 11 August 1863-December 1863 / Cavalry Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 28 April 1863-23 October 1864 / Cavalry Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 5 November 1864-11 March 1865 / 1st Division XXV Corps Army of the James 27 March 1865-4 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby awaited

  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Watts Hart Davis
  • District of Florida: William Birney
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • District of Yorktown: Joseph Bradford Carr
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Richard Heron Anderson assumed temporary command of I Corps (Northern Virginia), succeeding Major-General Charles William Field.

Anderson, Richard Heron / South Carolina / Born 7 October 1821 Stateburg, South Carolina / Died Beaufort, South Carolina 26 June 1879
USMA 1 July 1842 40/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 16 July 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 13 July 1848 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 3 March 1861 / Colonel 1st South Carolina Regular Infantry 28 January 1861 / Major ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 14 July 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Temporary) 31 May 1864 / Discharged PACS 8 April 1865 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Santa Rosa Island 9 October 1861 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Dept of South Carolina 27 May 1861-21 August 1861 / Anderson’s Brigade Army of Pensacola August 1861-12 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 15 February 1862-31 May 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-21 June 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 29 June 1862-1 July 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 July 1862-14 July 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-17 September 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia November 1862-30 May 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-7 May 1864 / I Corps Northern Virginia 7 May 1864-19 October 1864 / IV Corps Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-8 April 1865

CSA: Commander John K Mitchell assumed command of the James River Naval Squadron.

Mitchell, John K / Born North Carolina 1811 /Died 1889
Commander IUSN / Resigned USN / Commander CSN 23 October 1862 to rank from 26 March 1861 / CIA Fort St Philip 1862 Exchanged
New Orleans Navy Yard January 1862-29 March 1862 / Lower Mississippi Squadron 1862 / Bureau of Orders and Details 16 March 1863-6 May 1864 / James River Squadron 7 May 1864-15 February 1865 / CSS Richmond (CSS Virginia II) 7 May 1864-18 February 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk interim Stephen Dill Lee awaited

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Richard Waterhouse

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