1864 May 4th

May 4 1864 Wednesday

Red River Campaign

James River Campaign

Virginia Overland Campaign – Wilderness

Hoke’s North Carolina Operations

Averell’s Second West Virginia Raid

Crook’s West Virginia Raid

Great Britain. The CSS Georgia arrived in Liverpool from Bordeaux, ready for service as a Confederate commerce raider. Confederate Commander James Dunwoody Bulloch, agent for the Confederate Navy Department in Europe, took command. The CSS Rappahannock, which was intended to make a rendezvous with the CSS Georgia off Morocco, was detained by the French authorities in Calais.

Alabama. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston learned that the Union armies had moved forward from Ringgold and demanded urgent reinforcements. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis immediately ordered Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk to send a division from his 19,000-man army at Selma. Polk had anticipated the urgency of the situation and decided, in fact, to send all three of his divisions, keeping only a small garrison of 2,000 men under Major-General Stephen Dill Lee to hold Selma. The first division set off for Rome, Georgia, where it would meet trains for transportation by rail to Kingston and then Dalton. This effectively ended the autonomous existence of the self-styled “Army of Mississippi” and it was reincorporated into the Army of Tennessee as Polk’s III Corps.

Arkansas. Incident at Saline River.

Florida. The Union steamers USS Sunflower, Acting Master Edward Van Sice, and USS Honduras, Acting Master John H Platt, and the sailing bark USS J L Davis, Acting Master William Fales, supported the capture of Tampa. The Union ships carried troops and provided a naval landing party for the assault. By 7 am the town was taken with the capture of 40 prisoners.

Georgia. Skirmish on the Varnell’s Station Road.

Georgia. Major-General George Henry Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland held the centre of the Union line near Ringgold, facing the main Confederate defences at Mill Creek Gap and Dug Gap. Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson marched with the Army of the Tennessee from Lee and Gordon’s Mills on Chickamauga Creek towards Snake Creek Gap. Union Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio marched from Cleveland, Tennessee, to Red Clay on the Georgia border.

Louisiana. Incidents at Mansura, David’s Ferry, Muddy Bayou, Red River Road, Olive Branch Bayou, and Alexandria.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Ashwood Landing.

Louisiana. USS Covington and USS Warner were fired on by Confederate infantry at Dunn’s Bayou, downriver from Alexandria on the Red River.

Louisiana. Confederate Brigadier-General John Patrick Major captured the Union transport City Belle, a few miles from Fort De Russy, with 276 men of the 120th Ohio Infantry aboard. About five hundred Union soldiers fled overboard and swam or waded to the safer northern shore.

Mississippi. Union expedition from Vicksburg to Yazoo City began. Brigadier-General John McArthur commenced a ten-day expedition with troops from the 2nd Division, XVII Corps (previously known as the Provisional or Red River Division) of Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith, which had returned from operations along the Red River.

New Mexico Territory. Union troops were attacked by Apache Indians at Doubtful Canyon near Steen’s Peak, while en route from Fort Cummings to Fort Bowie. The Union soldiers reported killing ten and wounding twenty Apaches.

North Carolina. Operations at New Bern and around the Albemarle Sound began.

North Carolina. Skirmish on the Trent Road, south of the Trent River.

Tennessee. The findings of a Confederate investigation into the operations at Knoxville were announced. Charges of improper performance by Major-General Lafayette McLaws, Brigadier-General Evander McIvor Law, and Brigadier-General Jerome Bonaparte Robertson, were effectually dismissed by the inquiry. Lieutenant-General James Longstreet, who brought the charges, was humiliated by the rebuff. Law remained in command of his brigade, but Robertson was still held in doubt as a commander and remained without orders until he was sent later to command the Reserve Forces of Texas. McLaws was taken from serving in Longstreet’s command and travelled to a new assignment in Georgia.

Virginia. Expedition to James River began.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Spotsylvania Tavern and Chancellorsville.

Virginia. Skirmish at Bermuda Hundred.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General George Edward Pickett was ordered to travel to Hanover Junction where his scattered division would be reassembled to reinforce the Army of Northern Virginia.

Virginia. Operations began on the south side of the James River as Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler and the Army of the James set out on river transports from Yorktown to attack Richmond from the east and south. Butler’s force comprised Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore’s X Corps, recently transferred from its unsuccessful operations around Charleston, South Carolina, and Major-General William Farrar Smith’s XVIII Corps. These troops embarked in transports at Yorktown and proceeded up the James River towards City Point. The fleet counted over two hundred vessels and it stretched for ten miles down the river, escorted by five ironclads and other warships.

The XVIII Corps counted 15,972 men present for duty and 36 guns in three divisions, commanded by Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks (1/XVIII), Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel, later Brigadier-General John Henry Martindale (2/XVIII), and Brigadier-General Edward Winslow Hinks (3/XVIII US Colored Troops). Gillmore’s X Corps had three divisions under Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry (1/X), Brigadier-General John Wesley Turner, later under Brigadier-General Charles Devens (2/X), and Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames (3/X). and counted as present for duty 16,812 infantry and 1,114 artillerymen with 46 guns. Garrisons from Brigadier-General Edward Augustus Wild’s Brigade, including the 1st USCT Infantry, 7th USCT Infantry, and 10th USCT Infantry were left as garrisons at Wilson’s Wharf, Fort Powhatan, and City Point.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered Major-General George Gordon Meade to move his Army of the Potomac across the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers, and to advance against the right flank of Confederate General Robert Edward Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. This operation was the largest element of Grant’s massive, coordinated campaign involving all the Union armies. The Army of the Potomac had massed 120,000 men for the overland advance on Richmond, and it faced about 64,000 Confederates in its front.

The Union Cavalry Corps of Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan preceded the advance, splashing across Ely’s Ford and Germanna Ford in the dark to establish bridgeheads on the south bank. Engineer troops followed to lay two pontoon bridges at each ford for the passage of the infantry, artillery, and supply trains. A fifth pontoon bridge was then commenced two miles above Ely’s Ford at Culpeper Mine Ford, to provide sufficient crossing points for the army to cross and move rapidly southwards. Meade intended VI Corps, V Corps, and II Corps to cross quickly and hold back any Confederate advance until the army’s lengthy supply trains were safely across the river. The army would then resume its progress to engage in a major battle, expected to be either at Mine Run or in the Wilderness region, or preferably from the Union perspective, somewhere south of the Wilderness.

Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps crossed at Ely’s Ford during the darkness and it camped near Chancellorsville, five miles from the river before noon. It was followed by the wagons and mules of the army’s main supply trains. Meanwhile, Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s V Corps crossed at Germanna Ford and marched six miles to the southeast, halting at Wilderness Tavern. Warren was five miles west of Hancock near the vital intersection of the Germanna Plank Road and the Orange to Fredericksburg Turnpike. Union Major-General John Sedgwick’s VI Corps followed Warren and camped before sundown along the road from the ford behind Warren’s column. Grant reached the ford at about midday and was pleased to see that the movement was efficient and rapid and had not faced interference from the Confederates. Having crossed the river successfully and without hindrance, at 1.15 pm Grant called for Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside’s IX Corps to join the army from its positions guarding the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. At about 6 pm, Grant ordered the march to be resumed at 5 am in the morning.

On the Confederate side, General Robert Edward Lee ordered his Army of Northern Virginia to intercept the advancing Union forces while it was still embroiled in the Wilderness. Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s II Corps marched eastwards on the Orange Court House Turnpike, reaching Robertson’s Tavern, where they camped about three to five miles from the Union troops of V Corps. Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps followed Ewell along the Orange Plank Road and stopped at the hamlet of New Verdiersville. These two corps would attempt to pin the Union troops in the Wilderness region but were ordered to avoid a general engagement until the entire army could be united. This required Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s I Corps to arrive on a long march from the southeast to make a blow against the enemy’s flank.

The thick underbrush prevented the Union Army from discerning the proximity of the Confederates. Adding to the confusion, Meade received an erroneous report that Confederate cavalry was operating in his Army’s rear, riding eastwards in the direction of Fredericksburg. The erroneous report suggested that the Confederate cavalry was assembling for a Grand Review at Hamilton’s Crossing the following day. Grant and Meade agreed that Sheridan could take two of his three cavalry divisions to deal with that perceived threat, leaving only one cavalry division to scout for the main army. In fact, The Confederate cavalry of Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart had abandoned all thought of a Grand Review at Hamilton’s Crossing and was already on the road westwards from Fredericksburg, passing the southern fringes of the Wilderness in order to guard the right flank of Lee’s army.

During the morning, Ewell’s Confederate II Corps marched along the Orange Turnpike, nearest the river, from Locust Grove. At this point, they were within five miles of the Union V Corps. Hill’s Confederate III Corps was on the Orange Plank Road, which diverged from Ewell’s route between one and three miles along its course, and he approached to within three miles of Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry Union at Todd’s Tavern. Longstreet Confederate I Corps had the longest march to make, from Gordonsville and Mechanicsville. He moved at 9 am to join the army with his two divisions, crossing the North Anna at Brock’s Bridge due east of Gordonsville and then joining the Catharpin Road at Richard’s Shop. Longstreet halted overnight at Brock’s Bridge but from that point onwards he would be marching parallel to Ewell’s and Hill’s two corps on the southernmost of their three roads. Longstreet estimated his time of arrival at Richard’s Shop as noon the following day. His progress would determine the timing of Lee’s counterattack, tentatively set for Friday morning. To pin the Union army in place, Ewell was ordered to move eastwards and to demonstrate in such a way as to hold the Union army in the Wilderness. Hill would cover his right flank as soon as he could arrive then both would await Longstreet before making a general advance.

Lee accompanied Hill’s Corps as it passed through Orange Court House at noon. Hill left Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s Division to hold the Rapidan crossings while he continued onwards with his other two divisions. Hill camped overnight at Verdiersville with the divisions of Major-General Henry Heth and Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, eleven miles from Orange Court House and nine miles from Parker’s Store. Ewell attempted to match the pace of Hill’s march. Despite their proximity, neither army seemed aware that the other was so close by because of the dense woodlands.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Callaghan’s Station

West Virginia. Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell left Logan Court House, fifty miles southwest of Gauley Bridge, with 2,000 cavalrymen to raid the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad. He was to cooperate with Brigadier-General George Crook and his infantry column. Averell planned to join forces with Crook at Dublin Station. He headed for Wyoming Court House, skirmishing with the 8th Virginia Cavalry from Saltville along the way.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General John McNeil assumed command of the District of La Fourche, succeeding Colonel Nicholas Wyckoff Day.

McNeil, John / Canada / Born 14 February 1813 Halifax, Nova Scotia / Died St Louis, Missouri 8 June 1891
Captain Missouri Militia 1861 / Colonel USV 3rd Missouri Infantry 8 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 17 August 1861 / Colonel 2nd Missouri Militia Cavalry 3 June 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 4 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Major-General Missouri Militia 27 February 1865-8 April 1865 / Resigned USV 12 April 1865 / Brevet Major-General USA 12 April 1865
Northeastern Division District of Missouri 5 June 1862-19 September 1862 / District of Southwest Missouri 15 July 1863-19 October 1863 / District of La Fourche 4 May 1864-9 June 1864 / District of Port Hudson 23 June 1864-6 August 1864 / District of Rolla 23 August 1864-4 October 1864 / 3rd Brigade Cavalry Division Department of the Missouri 4 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Brigade Cavalry Division Department of the Missouri 19 October 18964-8 November 1864 / District of Rolla 15 November 1864-28 November 1864 / District of Central Missouri 27 February 1865-12 April 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Joseph Bradford Carr assumed command of the District of Yorktown, succeeding Major-General William Farrar Smith.

Carr, Joseph Bradford / New York / Born 16 August 1828 Albany, New York / Died Troy, New York 24 February 1895
Colonel New York Militia 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd New York Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 September 1862 Expired Unconfirmed 12 February 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 30 June 1863 to rank from 30 March 1863 Expired 30 March 1864 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 30 June 1863 to rank from 30 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Major-General New York Militia 24 January 1867-1887 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
3rd Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 1 June 1862-6 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 25 June 1862-5 September 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 5 September 1862-12 January 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 7 January 1863-8 February 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 8 February 1863-3 May 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 3 May 1863-23 May 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 23 May 1863-5 October 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 9 July 1863-10 July 1863 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 5 October 1863-24 March 1864 / 4th Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-2 May 1864 / District of Yorktown 2 May 1864-16 May 1864 / Defences of Yorktown 16 May-1864-July 1864 / 3rd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 29 July 1864-3 August 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 3 August 1864-3 September 1864 / Carr’s Brigade Army of the James October 1864-June 1865

USA: Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore resumed command of X Corps (James), succeeding Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry.

Gillmore, Quincy Adams / Ohio / Born 28 February 1825 Lorain, Ohio / Died Brooklyn, New York 7 April 1888
USMA 1 July 1849 1/43 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1845 / Engineers 1 July 1851 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5 September 1853 / 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1856 / Captain USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 28 April 1862 revised to rank from 11 April 1862 / Major USA 1 June 1863 / Major-General USV 10 July 1863 / Resigned USV 5 December 1865 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 January 1874 / Colonel USA 20 February 1883 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1849 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11 April 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 30 March 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Chief Engineer Port Royal Expedition August 1861-15 March 1862 / Chief Engineer Department of the South 16 March 1862 / District of Western Virginia 28 September 1862-4 October 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Kentucky Department of the Ohio 14 October 1862-25 January 1863 / District of Central Kentucky 20 January 1863-10 April 1863 / Department of the South 12 June 1863-1 May 1864 / X Corps South 12 June 1863-17 April 1864 / X Corps James 4 May 1864-15 June 1864 / Detachment XIX Corps Department of Washington 7 July 1864-13 July 1864 / Department of the South 9 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of South Carolina 27 June 1865-10 September 1865

USA: Major-General Francis Preston Blair assumed full command of XVII Corps (Tennessee).

Blair, Francis Preston (Jr) / Kentucky-Missouri / Born 19 February 1821 Lexington, Kentucky / Died St Louis, Missouri 8 July 1875
Private USV 1st Missouri Mounted Volunteers 1846 / Mustered Out USV 1847 / Colonel USV 1st Missouri Infantry 26 April 1861 / Colonel USV 1st Missouri Artillery 12 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1862 / Major-General USV 13 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 12 January 1864 Revoked 23 April 1864 / Resigned USV 1 November 1865
1st Brigade 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-13 December 1862 / 1st Brigade 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Tennessee 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-1 April 1863 / 2nd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 4 April 1863-26 July 1863 / XV Corps Tennessee 29 October 1863-11 December 1863 / XVII Corps Tennessee 4 May 1864-22 September 1864 / XVII Corps Tennessee 31 October 1864-8 May 1865 / XVII Corps Tennessee 19 May 1865-19 June 1865 / XVII Corps Tennessee 1 July 1865-18 July 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Willis Arnold Gorman mustered out of the US Volunteers and resumed law practice.

Gorman, Willis Arnold / Kentucky / Born 12 January 1816 Flemingsburg, Kentucky / Died St Paul, Minnesota 20 May 1876
1st Sergeant USV 3rd Indiana Infantry 22 June 1846 / Major USV 26 June 1846 / Colonel USV 4th Indiana Infantry 22 June 1847 / Mustered Out USV 28 July 1848 / Colonel USV 1st Minnesota Infantry 29 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 September 1861 / Mustered Out USV 4 May 1864
2nd Brigade Stone’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 February 1862 / Stone’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 February 1862 / Stone’s Division Army of the Potomac 9 February 1862-19 February 1862 /2nd Brigade Sedgwick’s Division Army of the Potomac 19 February 1862-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-June 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac July 1862-29 October 1862 / Army of the Southwest 12 November 1862-11 December 1862 / District of Eastern Arkansas 3 December 1862-14 February 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary

  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
  • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Baton Rouge: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
  • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
  • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIII Corps Gulf: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch temporary

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Watts Hart Davis
  • District of Florida: William Birney
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • District of Yorktown: Joseph Bradford Carr
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Stephen Dill Lee was appointed to command the Department of Alabama and East Mississippi, arriving on 9 May to succeed Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk.

Lee, Stephen Dill / South Carolina / Born 22 September 1833 Charleston, South Carolina / Died Vicksburg, Mississippi 28 May 1908
USMA 1 July 1854 17/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1850 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 October 1856 / Regt Quartermaster 18 September 1857-8 February 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Captain Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General South Carolina Militia 6 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 11 April 1861-June 1861 / Captain Artillery South Carolina Militia June 1861 / Major PACS Artillery November 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS March 1862 / 4th Virginia Cavalry July 1862 / Colonel PACS Artillery 9 July 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 November 1862 / Major-General PACS 3 August 1863 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 23 June 1864 / Expired 23 February 1865 Reverted to Major-General PACS 23 February 1865 to rank from 3 August 1863 / Reappointed Lieutenant-General PACS 11 March 1865 to rank from 23 June 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Baker’s Creek 16 May 1863 CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 13 October 1863 WIA Spring Hill 17 December 1864
Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General Forces in Charleston 6 March 1861-11 April 1861 / Lee’s Division Second District of Mississippi and East Louisiana December 1862-January 1863 / Lee’s Brigade M L Smith’s Division Second District of Mississippi and East Louisiana January 1863-April 1863 / Chief of Artillery Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana May 1863-4 July 1863 / Cavalry Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 16 August 1863-19 May 1864 / Department of Alabama and East Mississippi 4 May 1864-26 July 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 26 July 1864-17 December 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: The “Army of Mississippi” was discontinued.

CSA: III Corps (Tennessee) was re-established from the former and unofficially titled Army of Mississippi. It continued to be referred to unofficially as the “Army of Mississippi” only by its commander, Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk.

CSA: Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk assumed command of III Corps (Tennessee).

Polk, Leonidas / North Carolina / Born 10 April 1806 Raleigh, North Carolina / KIA Pine Mountain, Georgia 14 June 1864
USMA 1 July 1827 8/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1823 / US Artillery 1 July 1827 / Resigned USA 1 December 1827 / Major-General PACS 25 June 1861 / Resigned PACS 6 November 1861 Refused 12 November 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1827 / WIA Columbus, Kentucky 11 November 1861
Western Department 25 June 1861-10 September 1861 / First Geographical Division 2 September 1861-5 March 1862 / Western Department 24 October 1861-3 November 1861 / First Grand Division Mississippi 5 March 1862-28 March 1862 / I Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-14 August 1862 / Right Wing Mississippi 15 August 1862-6 November 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 September 1862-7 November 1862 / Western Department 24 October 1862-2 November 1862 / I Corps Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / I Corps Tennessee 20 November 1862-29 September 1863 / Left Wing Tennessee 19 September 1863-20 September 1863 / Army of Mississippi 23 October 1863-14 June 1864 / Department of Tennessee 22 December 1863-26 December 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 23 December 1863-28 January 1864 / Army of Tennessee 22 December 1863-26 December 1863 / Department of Alabama and East Mississippi 28 January 1864-4 May 1864 / III Corps Tennessee 28 January 1864-14 June 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk interim Stephen Dill Lee awaited

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman MOV
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Richard Waterhouse

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