1864 May 3rd

May 3 1864 Tuesday

Bayou Robert Road, LA

Red River Campaign

Arkansas Campaign

Hoke’s North Carolina Operations

Crook’s West Virginia Raid

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln and his Cabinet discussed the alleged massacre of surrendered and unarmed Union troops, most of them black volunteers, by Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest and his command at Fort Pillow on 12 April 1864.

Arkansas. Expedition to Camden and Little Rock ended.

Arkansas. Confederate guerrillas captured a Union wagon train at Richland Creek.

Arkansas. Union Major-General Frederick Steele’s column reached Little Rock and ended his unsuccessful campaign in Arkansas. The region north of the Saline River was as muddy and inhospitable as it was south of the river and the expedition reached Little Rock without rations and utterly exhausted.

Arkansas. After two days of rest, Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith put his army back on the road to march from the Saline River via Camden back to the Red River in Louisiana. The three divisions of Major-General John George Walker, Major-General Thomas James Churchill, and Brigadier-General Mosby Monroe Parsons prepared for their third offensive campaign in a month. Their march back to Alexandria was a race against time as the Union fleet was struggling to escape down the shallow river, and to extricate the accompanying army of Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks before the Confederates could arrive.

Colorado Territory. In a skirmish at Cedar Bluff, Union soldiers killed 25 and wounded 40 Cheyenne Indians.

Georgia. Skirmish at Catoosa Springs.

Georgia. Skirmish at Red Clay.

Georgia. Skirmish at Chickamauga Creek.

Georgia. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman received orders to move with the Army of the Cumberland, the Army of the Ohio, and the Army of the Tennessee, towards Atlanta the following day. The decisive campaign of the western theatre was launched.

Sherman’s three armies numbered about 110,000 men with 254 guns compared to the 45,000 men and 138 guns of the Confederate Army commanded by General Joseph Eggleston Johnston. However, Sherman would be forced to keep back many of his troops to protect his lengthening supply lines. If Confederate Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk were free to bring his 19,000 men and 50 guns from Alabama to reinforce Johnston, the odds would be more even. Polk’s availability depended on Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks completing the Red River campaign and making a rapid movement to begin operations against Mobile and Selma, Alabama. If either city was threatened, Polk would have to remain in Alabama.

Sherman’s armies were faced by the Confederate Army of Tennessee at Dalton and along the Oostenaula River, which flowed for forty miles to the Etowah River, and then the same distance to Rome where they joined and became the Coosa. The key point of the Confederate line was Rocky Face Ridge, a steep high mountain range twenty miles long, protecting Dalton and the railroad beyond on the western side of the Oostenaula valley. The Western & Atlantic Railroad cut through Rocky Face Ridge at Mill Creek Gap. Johnston deployed his two corps of 20,000 men each to guard Mill Creek Gap and the crest of Rocky Face Ridge. They also strongly defended Dug Gap, five miles south of the main pass. Rocky Face Ridge was strengthened by earthworks and fortifications and Mill Creek Gap was made more defensible by forming an artificial lake created by dams in the railroad culverts. The crest of Mill Creek Gap was protected by elaborate defences and was known by the name of Buzzard Roost. The open northern end of the Oostenaula valley offered comparatively easier terrain for a Union advance and this was guarded by 5,000 cavalrymen under Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler.

Sherman was obliged to find a way to circumvent or overcome these powerful defences. Union Major-General George Henry Thomas put forward a plan for his Army of the Cumberland to march down the western side of Rocky Face Ridge, and then pass through Snake Creek Gap to the railroad at Resaca, fifteen miles in the Confederate rear. The Confederate army would be held in place by the Army of the Ohio and the Army of the Tennessee, taking over and demonstrating from Thomas’ present positions near Ringgold. Sherman liked the plan but felt that using the Army of the Cumberland, 70,000 strong, would be too slow-moving and easy to detect. He preferred to make the flanking advance with the 25,000 men of the Army of the Tennessee under Major-General James Birdseye McPherson. This choice would not require Thomas’ army to be relieved from the front line as McPherson’s army was in reserve at Chattanooga. McPherson could march secretly behind Taylor’s Ridge, and emerge suddenly at Snake Creek Gap and then advance to Villanow. McPherson’s advance would not be as obvious as a relocation of Thomas’ larger army from the main lines. Meanwhile, on the far left flank, the Army of the Ohio of Major-General John McAllister Schofield would approach from the direction of Knoxville along its own railroad line, creating a major diversion. This plan became the template for several manoeuvres during the coming campaign. The large Army of the Cumberland, on its own as big as the entire Confederate army, would form a strong fulcrum to pin the enemy, while McPherson and Schofield, separately or together provided the smaller but more agile forces to outflank and move around the Confederate flanks.

As the plan was put into motion, Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland held the centre of the line near Ringgold, facing the main Confederate defences at Mill Creek Gap and Dug Gap. McPherson marched to Lee and Gordon’s Mills on Chickamauga Creek, ready for a further march of twelve miles to Resaca and the crossings of the Oostenaula. Schofield’s Army of the Ohio (comprising a single corps of three infantry divisions and a cavalry division) arrived by rail from Knoxville, Tennessee, at Cleveland, Tennessee. They were now at the junction where the East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad branched towards Dalton. They planned to march along the left fork to Red Clay on the Georgia border and then to advance against the Confederate flank east of Rocky Face Ridge. All three Union armies were alerted to march in concert the following morning.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI

Union Military Division of the Mississippi: Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman
Department of the Cumberland: Major-General George Henry Thomas
District of Nashville: Major-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau
Army of the Cumberland: Major-General George Henry Thomas
Reserve Brigade (Cumberland): Colonel Joseph Walter Burke
IV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Oliver Otis Howard
1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General David Sloan Stanley
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Charles Cruft
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Walter Chiles Whitaker
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Grose
2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Newton
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Francis Trowbridge Sherman
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General George Day Wagner
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles Garrison Harker
3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Johann August Ernst von Willich
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Babcock Hazen
XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General John McAuley Palmer
1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Richard William Johnson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Passmore Carlin
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Horace King
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Benjamin Franklin Scribner
2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James Dada Morgan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel John Grant Mitchell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Daniel McCook
3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Absalom Baird
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Basil Turchin
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Ferdinand Van Derveer
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George Peabody Estey
XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Joseph Hooker
1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Joseph Farmer Knipe
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Samuel Beatty
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James Sidney Robinson
2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John White Geary
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles Candy
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Adolphus Buschbeck
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel David Ireland
3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Daniel Butterfield
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Samuel Ross
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James Wood
Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Washington Lafayette Elliott
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Edward Moody McCook
1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel J B Dorr
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Oscar Hugh LaGrange
3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Louis Douglass Watkins
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Robert Horatio George Minty
2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Eli Long
3rd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Abram O Miller
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
1st Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Lieutenant-Colonel R Klein
2nd Brigade3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel C C Smith
3rd Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Eli Huston Murray
Department of the Ohio: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
District of East Tennessee: Brigadier-General Jacob Ammen
District of Kentucky: Brigadier-General Stephen Gano Burbridge
Army of the Ohio: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
XXIII Corps (Ohio) “Army of the Ohio”: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
1st Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Alvin Peterson Hovey
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel R F Barter
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel John Craven McQuiston
2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Henry Moses Judah
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Joseph Alexander Cooper
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Milo Smith Hascall
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel Silas A Strickland
3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel James William Reilly
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Nathaniel Collins McLean
Cavalry Brigade, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel E W Crittenden
Department of the Tennessee: Major-General James Birdseye McPherson
District of Vicksburg: Major-General Henry Warner Slocum
District of Western Kentucky: Brigadier-General Stephen Gano Burbridge
District of West Tennessee: Major-General Cadwallader Colder Washburn
Sub-District of Memphis: Brigadier-General Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Army of the Tennessee: Major-General James Birdseye McPherson
XV Corps (Tennessee): Major-General John Alexander Logan
1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Charles Robert Woods
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel James Alexander Williamson
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Hugo Wangelin
2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Giles Alexander Smith
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
3rd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Eugene Smith
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel J I Alexander
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Green Berry Raum
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Karl Leopold Matthies
4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Harrow
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Reuben Williams
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Charles Carroll Walcutt
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel John Morrison Oliver
XVI Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Francis Preston Blair
Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Grenville Mellen Dodge
2nd Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Thomas William Sweeny
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Elliott Warren Rice
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel P E Burke
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel M M Bane
4th Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Clifford Veatch
1st Brigade, 4th Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Wallace Fuller
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Wilson Sprague
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel John Homer Howe
Right Wing XVI Corps “Detachment, Army of Tennessee” (Tennessee): Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith
XVII Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Francis Preston Blair
3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Mortimer Dormer Leggett
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Manning Ferguson Force
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Robert Kingston Scott
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Adam Gale Malloy
4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Walter Quintin Gresham
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel W L Sanderson
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel George Clarke Rogers
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel W Hall
Cavalry Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General George Stoneman
1st Brigade, Cavalry Division (Tennessee): Colonel Israel Garrard
2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division (Tennessee): Colonel James Biddle

Louisiana. Incidents at Snaggy Point, Muddy Bayou, Red River Road, and Alexandria.

Louisiana. The Union transport City Belle was captured on the Red River

Louisiana. Skirmish at Comite Bridge between Bayou Redwood and Olive Branch, near Baton Rouge.

Bayou Robert Road, Louisiana, also known as Alexandria. The Confederates drove Union forces back to within three miles of the Governor Moore plantation near Alexandria.

Mississippi. Incident at Bayou Pierre.

Texas. USS Chocura, Lieutenant-Commander Bancroft Gherardi,  captured the blockade running British schooner Agnes off the mouth of the Brazos River, with a cargo of cotton. Later the same day, USS Chocura overhauled and captured the Prussian schooner Frederick the Second, also laden with cotton, which had run the blockade at the same time as Agnes.

Texas. USS Virginia, Acting Lieutenant C H Brown, captured the schooner Experiment off the Texas coast and destroyed her after removing the cotton cargo.

Virginia. Incident at Sumner’s Bridge.

Virginia. Confederate observers on Clark’s Mountain reported dust and moving lights in the camps of the Union Army of the Potomac north of the Rapidan River. The activity persisted all day, past sunset, and long into the night. When the lights at night were seen to be flickering, obscured by moving columns of men, the information was signalled to the headquarters of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. It could not be discerned whether the movement was eastwards or eastwards but at midnight, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee decided to act. He ordered Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell to prepare his II Corps to march into eastwards into the Wilderness region at daylight.

West Virginia. Union raiders burned the town of Bulltown.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Edward Harland assumed command of the Sub-District of New Bern, succeeding Colonel Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory.

Harland, Edward / Connecticut / Born 24 June 1832 Norwich, Connecticut / Died Norwich, Connecticut 9 March 1915
Captain USV 3rd Connecticut Infantry April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 12 August 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Connecticut Infantry 5 October 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 22 June 1865
2nd Brigade 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 22 July 1862-3 August 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 3 September 1862-2 March 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division IX Corps Army of Virginia 3 August 1862-3 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 21 March 1863-31 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade Getty’s Division XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 31 July 1863-29 December 1863 / Sub-District of the Pamlico 11 March 1864-2 May 1864 / Defences of New Bern 27 July 1864-31 January 1865 / Sub-District of New Bern 31 January 1865-9 February 1865 / 1st Brigade 1st Division District of Beaufort NC 1 March 1865-18 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: Nicholas Wyckoff Day
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Porter Hatch temporary
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: William Watts Hart Davis
    • District of Florida: William Birney
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • District of Yorktown: William Farrar Smith
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
      • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
    • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Richard Waterhouse

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