1864 May 30th

May 30 1864 Monday

Battle of Old Church, VA (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, VA (CWSAC Major Battle – Inconclusive)

Atlanta Campaign – Dallas

Virginia Overland Campaign – Cold Harbor

Arkansas. Expedition to Batesville began.

Arkansas. The Union transport Clara Ames and her cargo of cotton were captured and burned near Gaines Landing after she was disabled by artillery fire.

Georgia. Incidents at Allatoona, Dallas, and Burned Church.

Georgia. The Union Army of the Cumberland reported its strength. Army level headquarters, reserves and the post of Chattanooga accounted for over 4,600 men. Including headquarters and all arms of service, the IV Corps had over 18,100 men, the XIV Corps had over 21,700 men, the XX Corps had over 18,500 men, the Cavalry had about 9.650 men. Engineers accounted for nearly 2,900 men, while various unassigned troops and garrison commands added a further 7,500 men to the largest element of the Union troops advancing into northern Georgia.

Kentucky. Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan launched a new cavalry raid into Kentucky, against the Union supply lines.

Louisiana. Union expedition from Morganza to the Atchafalaya River began.

Louisiana. Skirmish near Morganza.

Louisiana. Skirmish near Livonia.

Missouri. Skirmishes at Honey Creek and Mill Creek in which Union troops killed two Confederate guerrillas.

North Carolina. USS Keystone State, Commander Crosby, and USS Massachusetts, Acting Lieutenant William H West, captured the blockade running British steamer Caledonia at sea south of the Cape Fear River. During a three hour chase, the steamer’s cargo of bacon, leather, and medical supplies were thrown overboard.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Greenville.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry division skirmished with Confederate cavalry at Hanover Court House and Ashland.

Virginia. Skirmish at Armstrong’s Farm.

Virginia. Skirmish at Newtown.

Virginia. Intelligence of an impending Confederate naval assault in the James River below Richmond reached the Union forces. A deserter from CSS Hampton called John Loomis reported that three ironclads and six wooden gunboats, all armed with torpedoes, had passed the obstructions at Drewry’s Bluff and were below Fort Darling, awaiting an opportunity to attack. The three ironclads were CSS Virginia II, Commander John K Mitchell, CSS Richmond, Lieutenant William H Parker, and CSS Fredericksburg, Commander Thomas R Rootes.

Virginia. The Union 2nd Division and 3rd Division of X Corps (Army of the James) were sent to reinforce Major-General William Farrar Smith’s XVIII Corps at Cold Harbor. These fifteen regiments (two of which were made up of black soldiers) were sent from the Bermuda Hundred lines and reorganised into a new division. They were brigaded alongside seven regiments from Brigadier-General Edward Ward Hinks’ division and six other US Colored Troops regiments and were renamed the new 3rd Division, XVIII Corps. The Union reinforcements travelled overnight down the James River and up the York River and disembarked at White House Landing in the morning. If they moved due west from White House to Cold Harbor, three miles southeast of Bethesda Church and beyond Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s left flank, the new Union line would extend too far south for the Confederate right wing to oppose it.

Old Church, Virginia, also known as Matadequin Creek. With the armies stalemated along the Totopotomoy Creek line, Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan’s cavalry began probing to the east and south. A squadron of the 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry from the brigade of Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin moved from Old Church Tavern to a more defensible position at Matadequin Creek. Knowing the importance of the nearby road intersection at Old Cold Harbor, six miles from Richmond, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee dispatched Brigadier-General Matthew Calbraith Butler’s brigade of 2,000 troopers north from Cold Harbor to determine whether the intersection was threatened. During the afternoon, Butler’s brigade reached the crossroads and they pushed back the Pennsylvania squadron. Although two more Union squadrons were sent in to retake the position, the bulk of the Confederate brigade arrived and pushed the Union troopers back to the Creek. Devin ordered the rest of his brigade to the Creek, and also the Reserve Brigade, under Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt, as well as two regiments under Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer. In time, Union Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert ordered his entire division to join the action. The growing engagement was fought entirely dismounted, with some of the Union troops having the firepower advantage of repeating carbines. Butler’s inexperienced Confederate cavalry yielded ground to the superior numbers of the Union division and finally broke, fleeing back toward Cold Harbor. The Union troopers pursued them until they were within a mile and a half of Cold Harbor, and they bivouacked for the night. The route was now open for the Union army to reach the important crossroads of Cold Harbor. From the Old Church engagement, Lee determined that Union cavalry had definite designs on the Old Cold Harbor crossroads, which led to a road network offering easy access to Richmond, Lee’s base of supply and the capital of the Confederacy. Total casualties were estimated as 900 men. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia, also known as Totopotomoy River, or Bethesda Church, Crump’s Creek, Shady Grove Road, Shady Grove or Hanovertown. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant and the Army of the Potomac completed its crossing of the Pamunkey River and deployed along the northern and eastern banks of the Totopotomoy River, ten miles outside Richmond. They were faced by the defences constructed by the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, which had begun to arrive two days earlier. Grant decided to move once more by his left flank to Cold Harbor, preceded by cavalry. Located outside the swampy bottomlands of Totopotomoy Creek and the Chickahominy River, the crossroads of Cold Harbor was where the roads from Bethesda Church and White House Landing met. If the Union army could move quickly enough it could force the Confederates to fight with their backs to Powhite Creek two miles to the west or Beaver Dam Creek, three miles further upstream. With more reinforcements in XVIII Corps transferred from the Army of the James arriving at White House Landing, Grant would have five Corps concentrated for a push west into Richmond, without any more major rivers to block the way.

Confederate cavalry under Major-General Fitzhugh Lee was sent to recapture the crossroads at Cold Harbor, in order to block the open route to Richmond and to hold the crossroads until reinforced. No infantry could be spared from the Totopotomoy Creek lines, so Lee sent an urgent and insistent demand to General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard to send reinforcements from his army south of the James River to fill the breach. Beauregard prevaricated and put the onus on the War Department. Lee appealed directly to President Jefferson Finis Davis to avert disaster by sending immediate and explicit orders to Beauregard to comply. Davis demanded that Beauregard must send at least the division of Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke at once by rail to Cold Harbor. Before midnight, Lee learned that Hoke’s division of four brigades would be on their way before morning. Beauregard had been forced to give up 7,000 of his 12,000 men from Bermuda Hundred. by the time Hoke’s division left Bermuda Hundred, 16,000 men of the Union Army of the James had already been withdrawn and transferred to the Cold Harbor front.

The Union Army of the Potomac pressed closer to Totopotomoy Creek and searched for a suitable point to cross. The mass of the Union army faced Confederate Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s I Corps in the centre, but the right flank extended beyond the Confederate II Corps of Major-General Jubal Anderson Early. Cavalry screened the Confederate III Corps of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill to the Union left.

Two brigades from Union II Corps under Brigadier-General John Rutter Brooke (4/1/II) and Brigadier-General Joshua Thomas Owen (2/2/II) forced a crossing of Totopotomoy Creek in two places further downstream from Anderson against the division of Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge. Supported by Major-General David Bell Birney’s division (2/II), they captured the first line of Confederate trenches and rifle pits, but the advance halted at the main line of defence. The divisions of Brigadier-General Francis Channing Barlow (1/II) and Brigadier-General John Gibbon (2/II) arrived and pushed up to the main Confederate line.

The Union VI Corps turned south to come in to support the far right flank of the Union II Corps but bogged down in swampy land near Crump’s Creek without getting into position to attack. They were ordered to move against the Confederate left held by Hill’s III Corps. The Union IX Corps manoeuvred into position on the left of the II Corps, but they arrived too late to add any weight to the attack, although they did drive back Confederate pickets on the Shady Grove Road.

In the meantime, the Union division of Brigadier-General Charles Griffin (2/V) moved forward near Bethesda Church on the far left flank of the Union army. The divisions of Brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford (3/V) and Brigadier-General Lysander Cutler (1/V) from Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s V Corps followed. The whole of V Corps began to probe westwards along Shady Grove Road.

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee interpreted these probes and advances as a continuation of Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s strategy to move around his right flank and across the Chickahominy River to the southeast. He ordered Major-General Jubal Anderson Early’s II Corps, which was entrenched across Warren’s path, to attack the V Corps with the assistance of Anderson’s Corps. Early planned to send the division of Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes on a flanking march along Old Church Road, which led from Mechanicsville across Beaver Dam Creek. Early would then turn north at Bethesda Church and follow paths that his cavalry had cut through the underbrush to smash into Warren’s rear.

As the Union V Corps moved forward, Warren became increasingly concerned about the safety of his open left flank. He directed Crawford’s division to move south along a farm track to Old Church Road, where they erected simple breastworks. Crawford sent forward the brigade of Colonel Martin D Hardin, a force of Pennsylvania Reserves whose enlistment was due to expire that very same day. Rodes’ men marched directly into Hardin’s brigade at about noon and quickly routed them. Hardin’s retreat beyond Beaver Dam Creek was contagious and Crawford’s entire division collapsed, exposing the V Corps’ left flank. Unfortunately for the Confederates, Rodes’ men fell into confusion in their pursuit and Rodes hesitated to continue with Early’s aggressive plan while he reformed his lines.  Early called for Rodes to push north into the rear area of Warren’s Corps even though he was unsupported by the rest of Early’s Corps, which was still approaching in column of march. Anderson’s Corps, also ordered to support Early, was delayed and this compounded the hesitation.

Warren began shifting his Corps to face south towards Early’s advance, while Crawford reformed his men at a farm lane. Griffin’s division moved up to support him and the V Corps artillery, under Colonel Charles Shiels Wainwright, arrived and set up several batteries north of Shady Grove Road on Crawford’s left. Griffin’s division dug in on Crawford’s right. The Union position was stabilised while the Confederate attack faltered.

Confederate Brigadier-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur’s division of Early’s Corps arrived and recklessly charged the Union artillery at 6:30 pm. The assault was poorly conceived and Early gave permission only reluctantly. Major-General James Brown Gordon’s division was still deploying off the march and could not support Ramseur’s attack. Rodes’ men were too occupied with protecting the Confederate right flank to assist. Ramseur’s former brigade under Colonel Thomas Fentress Toon was pinned down by Union fire on its open left flank. The only brigade that delivered an effective attack was Brigadier-General John Pegram’s Brigade, now commanded by Colonel Edward Willis. They advanced through a severe crossfire and closed to within 50 yards of the Union position before collapsing with heavy losses. Willis was mortally wounded and the brigade fell back to its starting point.

Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered a general assault across the line to relieve the pressure on Warren, but none of his Corps commanders were able to comply immediately. However, Warren’s men extricated themselves from their predicament without further assistance from the other corps.

The repulse of Ramseur’s division discouraged Early and he ordered his Corps to withdraw a short distance to the west. He blamed Anderson for not arriving in time to assist, but Ramseur’s charge without reconnaissance also contributed to the failure. Anderson’s Corps finally arrived to stabilise the Confederate line and they began to entrench. The only benefit of Early’s attack was that the Union advance between Beaver Dam Creek and Totopotomoy Creek had been headed off. The obvious strength of the Confederate position along Totopotomoy Creek led Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant to plan yet another enveloping move by the left flank towards Cold Harbor.

Estimated casualties were 750 to 1,100 men for the Union and about 1,200 men for the Confederates. Confederate Colonel (posthumously promoted Brigadier-General) James Barbour Terrill was killed at Bethesda Church. (CWSAC Major Battle – Inconclusive)

West Virginia. Reconnaissance to Beverly, Braxton County, Pocohontas County, and Webster County ended.

West Virginia. Union Brigadier-General George Crook’s command set out from Meadow Bluff for Lynchburg, in cooperation with Major-General David Hunter’s simultaneous advance from Strasburg and Cedar Creek.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Nashville was discontinued, and its territory transferred to the District of Tennessee in the Department of the Cumberland.

USA: The District of Tennessee was established in the Department of the Cumberland, comprising the Defences of Louisville & Nashville Railroad, the Nashville & Northwestern Railroad and Nashville, Tennessee.

USA: Major-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau assumed command of the District of Tennessee.

Rousseau, Lovell Harrison / Kentucky / Born 4 August 1818 Stanford, Kentucky / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 7 January 1869
Captain USV 2nd Indiana Infantry 22 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 23 June 1847 / Colonel USV 3rd Kentucky Infantry 9 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1861 / Major-General USV 22 October 1862 to rank from 8 October 1862 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 / Brigadier-General USA 28 March 1867 / Brevet Major-General USA 28 March 1867
1st Brigade Department of the Cumberland 5 October 1861- 9 November 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1862-11 July 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Ohio 11 July 1862-28 September 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 1st Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-17 January 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 29 March 1863-26 July 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 21 September 1863-10 November 1863 / District of Nashville 10 November 1863-30 May 1864 / m3rd Division XII Corps Department of the Cumberland 2 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 4th Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 February 1865 / District of Tennessee 30 May 1864-28 February 1865 / District of Middle Tennessee 28 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of the Columbia 29 April 1867-4 April 1868 / Department of Louisiana 28 July 1868-7 January 1869

USA: Simon Goodell Griffin confirmed Brigadier-General USV 30 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864.

Griffin, Simon Goodell / New Hampshire / Born 9 August 1824 Nelson, New Hampshire / Died 14 January 1902
Captain USV 2nd New Hampshire Infantry 1 June 1861 / Resigned USV 31 October 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 6th New Hampshire Infantry 28 November 1861 / Colonel USV 22 April 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 2 April 1865
1st Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Virginia February 1863-March 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 21 May 1863-14 June 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 18 August 1863-25 August 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Tennessee 14 June 1863-18 August 1863 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 25 August 1863-19 October 1863 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 2 April 1864-1 May 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 1 May 1864-22 December 1864 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 22 December 1864-January 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 25 February 1865-2 April 1865 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 2 April 1865-22 April 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Washington 22 April 1865-3 May 1865 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Washington 3 May 1865-1 August 1865

USA: Emory Upton confirmed Brigadier-General USV 30 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864.

Upton, Emory / New York / Born 27 August 1839 Batavia, New York / Died San Francisco, California 15 March 1881
USMA 6 May 1861 8/45 Artillery / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 6 May 1861 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Artillery 14 May 1861 / ADC ( D Tyler) July 1861 / Colonel USV 121st New York Infantry 23 October 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Captain USA 22 February 1865 / Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 25th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 18th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 1 July 1870-3 June 1875 / 1st US Artillery 15 December 1870 / 4th US Artillery 16 March 1877 / Colonel USA 1 July 1880 / Resigned USA 15 March 1881 / Brevet Major USA 8 November 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10 May 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 19 September 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 19 October 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 WIA Spotsylvania 10 May 1864 WIA Winchester 19 September 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 1 July 1863-2 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-5 August 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 November 1863-8 July 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-19 September 1864 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 19 September 1864-19 September 1864 / 4th Division Cavalry Corps Military Division of the Mississippi 13 December 1864-26 June 1865 / Upton’s Cavalry Brigade Department of the Cumberland July 1865-September 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Morganza: William Hemsley Emory
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Franz Sigel
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

CSA: James Conner promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 30 May 1864 to rank from 1 June 1864.

Conner, James / South Carolina / Born 1 September 1829 Charleston, South Carolina / Died 26 June 1883
Captain South Carolina Militia April 1861 / Captain PACS Hampton’s South Carolina Legion May 1861 / Major PACS Hampton’s South Carolina Legion 21 July 1861 / Colonel PACS 22nd North Carolina Infantry 13 June 1862 / Judge Advocate 8 October 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 30 May 1864 to rank from 1 June 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Gaines’ Mill 26 June 1862 WIA Fisher’s Hill 13 October 1864
McGowan’s Brigade Wilcox’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-18 August 1864 / Lane’s Brigade Wilcox’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 18 August 1864-29 August 1864 / Conner’s Brigade Kershaw’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 29 August 1864-13 October 1864

CSA: Colonel James Barbour Terrill (posthumously Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was killed at Bethesda Church, Virginia.

Terrill, James Barbour / Virginia / Born 20 February 1838 Warm Springs, Virginia / KIA Bethesda Church, Virginia 30 May 1864
Major PACS 13th Virginia Infantry 23 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 26 February 1862 / Colonel PACS 15 May 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 1 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 posthumously
Pegram’s Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 5 May 1864-30 May 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: John Henry Winder
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: William Edmondson Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
James Conner
Richard Waterhouse

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