1864 May 23rd

May 23 1864 Monday

Jericho Mill, VA

Battle of North Anna, VA

Horse Landing, FL

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Dallas

Virginia Overland Campaign – North Anna River

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

USA. Union Major-General Don Carlos Buell mustered out of service. Buell had spent eighteen months awaiting orders in Indianapolis, hoping that a military commission would understand his failure to defeat the Confederates in Kentucky. He claimed that he had not pursued Confederate General Braxton Bragg because he lacked supplies. Exoneration never came, and Buell left military service although he was offered a command at the express recommendation of Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant. Buell declined on the grounds that it would be a degradation to serve under Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman or Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Edward Canby because he outranked them both as a Major-General in the US Volunteers. He was currently the ninth in seniority among Major-Generals of US Volunteers.

California. Skirmish with Indians at Grouse Creek.

Horse Landing, Florida. USS Columbine, Acting Ensign Sanborn, was captured after an engagement with Confederate batteries and riflemen at Horse Landing, near Palatka. USS Columbine, a 130-ton side-wheeler operating in support of Union force, lost steering control and ran onto a mud bank, where she was wrecked by accurate Confederate fire. The ship was surrendered after some twenty men were killed and wounded. The Confederates destroyed the ship to avoid recapture by USS Ottawa, Lieutenant-Commander S Livingston Breese, which was involved in the same operation. USS Ottawa had been fired upon the night before and suffered some damage but no casualties before compelling the Confederate battery at Brown’s Landing to withdraw.

Georgia. Skirmish at Dallas.

Georgia. Skirmish at Stilesboro.

Georgia. Confederate Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson formed a cavalry screen along Pumpkin Vine Creek while the infantry of the Army of the Tennessee took up positions to cover the crossings of the creek leading towards Dallas and Atlanta. During the early morning, Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood’s Corps evacuated Allatoona Pass and marched to rejoin the two other corps.

Missouri. Expedition to Carthage ended.

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Neosho ended.

Missouri. Reconnaissance from Warrensburg began.

South Carolina. Demonstration at James Island.

Virginia. Incident at Quarles’ Mill.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant and the head of the Army of the Potomac reached the North Anna River at about midday. As his troops arrived from Milford Station and Guiney’s Station, he ordered them to fan out along the river to find suitable crossing points. Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren arrived first with his V Corps and was sent upstream towards Jericho Mills and Jericho Bridge. Soon afterwards, Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock deployed his II Corps facing Chesterfield Bridge and the railroad bridge. Grant devised a plan for Hancock to pin the Confederate centre while he attempted a double envelopment, crossing both upstream and downstream in order to overstretch his weaker opponent. He learned that Warren had crossed successfully during the afternoon and repelled a sharp counterattack. Warren was ordered to entrench overnight but to resume his advance in the morning to the south and east, and to attack the Confederate left. Hancock would cross at the Chesterfield Bridge, which he had seized in the late evening, to attack the Confederate right. Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside’s IX Corps was still on the road and was directed to head for Ox Ford to exert pressure in the centre. When Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright’s VI Corps arrived, it would cross at Jericho Bridge to add strength and impetus to Warren’s attack.

Jericho Mills, Virginia, also known as Jericho Bridge, or Ox Ford. Confederate Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps arrived to complete the concentration of the Army of Northern Virginia along the North Anna River and deployed west of Ox Ford. They rested, concealed in woodland three miles short of Hanover Junction, at Anderson Station. The first Union troops arrived the same day and looked for a crossing point at the undefended Jericho Mills, a few miles above the fortified Confederate line and northwest of the key point of Ox Ford. Confederate guns engaged the approaching columns at Ox Ford and were bombarded in return by increasing numbers of Union batteries. The artillery duel extended to the Chesterfield Bridge and the railroad crossing further east as more and more Union troops arrived.

Union Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s V Corps had been ordered to cross at Jericho Mills three to four miles upstream while Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps faced the main enemy line. After driving back enemy outposts Brigadier-General Joseph Jackson Bartlett’s brigade (3/1/V) waded across the river and established a bridgehead at Jericho Mills. The stream had high banks which shelved down in a series of rocky steps. A pontoon bridge was constructed with great difficulty but Warren’s infantry had crossed by 4.30 pm.

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee had scouted the area but only visited in person a crossing further upstream where only skirmishers were demonstrating. He decided not to trouble Hill’s resting troops, believing that reports of the Union crossing amounted to no more than a feint. When he finally ordered Hill forward it was too late to secure the main crossing point. Hill’s Corps hastily dug in along the Virginia Central Railroad. At 6 pm, Hill sent Confederate Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox’s division in a counter-attack against Brigadier-General Charles Griffin’s division (1/V) in the Union centre. Brigadier-General John Pegram’s brigade delivered a firm blow against elements of Union brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford’s Division (3/V). Griffin’s division was hit hard by the brigades of Brigadier-General James Henry Lane and Brigadier-General Samuel McGowan. Wilcox also struck at Union Brigadier-General Lysander Cutler’s division (4/V) as it moved into position on the Union right flank. Cutler’s wing, just arriving in line, was hit by the Georgians of Brigadier-General Edward Lloyd Thomas’ and Brigadier-General Alfred Moore Scales’ brigade (temporarily commanded by Colonel William L Lowrance) broke Cutler’s line. The Union troops fled to the rear but their path of retreat led to the bluffs overlooking the North Anna. Warren’s V Corps was rescued from a significant defeat by his artillery, commanded by Colonel Charles Shiels Wainwright, who placed twelve guns on a ridge and subjected the Confederates to a plunging fire. Although Cutler was driven back against the other two divisions of V Corps, the Confederate attack was disjointed and failed to turn the retreat into a rout.

At the same time, the 83rd Pennsylvania Infantry preceded a portion of Brigadier-General Joseph Jackson Bartlett’s brigade down a ravine and struck the right flank of Thomas’s Brigade. Thomas’ men gave way, uncovering Scales’ flank and leaving his men in an untenable position. Hill added Major-General Henry Heth’s division when Wilcox reported facing strong opposition. Seeing that reinforcements from the Heth’s division would not arrive in time, Wilcox ordered his men to withdraw. Wilcox withdrew before Heth could arrive and retreated in heavy rain through the concealment of the surrounding woods. The piecemeal and stuttering Confederate attack failed, after heavy losses to both sides, and left the Union army firmly planted south of the river. The Confederates lost around 730 (or 642) casualties and the Union lost either 377 men or a similar number as the Confederates.

North Anna, Virginia, also known as North Anna River. Although the action at Jericho Mils had ended at sunset, Union efforts to cross the North Anna River did not end with nightfall. Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock launched a sudden assault with two brigades from II Corps against the Confederate bridgehead at Chesterfield Bridge. The defending Confederates were caught by surprise, losing a hundred prisoners before the remainder could scramble across the bridge to the south bank. Their departure was too hasty for them to burn the bridge. Although the Union crossings at Jericho Mills and Chesterfield Bridge posed a serious threat to the Confederate line along the North Anna River, the strength of the attacks confirmed to Confederate General Robert Edward Lee that the Union army had ended its flank march and was preparing for another confrontation. He alerted Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s Corps to be ready to move against any crossing further downstream and planned how to counter the Union crossings along his long front.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Henry Beebee Carrington assumed command of the District of Indiana, succeeding Colonel John Smith Simonson.

Carrington, Henry Beebee (Beebe) / Connecticut-Ohio / Born 2 March 1824 Wallingford, Connecticut / Died Boston, Massachusetts 26 October 1912
Brigadier-General Connecticut Militia 1857 Adjutant-General Ohio Militia 1861 / Colonel USA 18th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Colonel USA 18th US Infantry 1865 Retired USA 15 December 1870 / WIA Fort Laramie March 1867
District of Indiana 23 March 1863-15 April 1863 / District of Indiana 23 May 1864-25 August 1864

USA: Samuel Sprigg Carroll confirmed Brigadier-General USV 23 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864.

Carroll, Samuel Sprigg / District of Columbia / Born 21 September 1832 Takoma Park, District of Columbia / Died Montgomery, Maryland 28 January 1893
USMA 1 July 1856 44/49 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / 9th US Infantry 1 July 1856 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 10th US Infantry 1 October 1856 / 1st Lieutenant USA 25 September 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster 1861 / Captain USA 1 November 1861 / Colonel USV 18th Ohio Infantry 7 December 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 23 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 21st US Infantry 21 January 1867 / Major-General Retired USA 9 June 1869 / Retired USA 9 June 1869 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1856 Brevet Major USA 3 May 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 July 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 5 May 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Cedar Mountain 9 August 1862 WIA Rapidan River 14 August 1862 WIA Bristoe Station 14 October 1863 WIA Wilderness 5 May 1864 WIA Spotsylvania 13 May 1864
1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 10 May 1862-26 June 1862 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-14 August 1862 / 2nd Brigade Military District of Washington September 1862-8 November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Centre Grand Division Army of the Potomac 8 November 1862-12 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac April 1863-July 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 7 September 1863-24 March 1864 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-13 May 1864 / Department of West Virginia 1 March 1865-6 March 1865/ 2nd Division Department of West Virginia March 1865-April 1865 / 4th Provisional Division Army of the Shenandoah April 1865-May 1865 / 1st Division I Veteran Reserve Corps May 1865-December 1865

USA: Major-General Don Carlos Buell mustered out of US Volunteers, and reverted to Colonel USA. He resigned from the US Regular Army a week later.

Buell, Don Carlos / Ohio-Indiana / Born 23 March 1818 Lowell, Massachusetts / Died Airdrie, Kentucky 19 November 1898
USMA 1 July 1841 32/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant 18 June 1846 / Regt Adjutant 15 February 1847-25 January 1848 / Brevet Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 25 January 1848 / Brevet Major USA Assistant Adjutant-General 25 February 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 11 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 21 March 1862 / Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 17 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 23 May 1864 / Resigned USA 1 June 1864 / Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847
Buell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 November 1861 / Department of the Ohio 9 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Army of the Ohio 9 November 1861-24 October 1862 / District of the Ohio 19 March 1862-24 October 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Morganza: William Hemsley Emory
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General William Edmondson Jones was appointed to command the Trans-Allegheny Department, arriving on 25 May 1864.

Jones, William Edmondson / Virginia / Born 9 May 1824 Washington, Virginia / KIA Piedmont, Virginia 5 June 1864
USMA 1 July 1848 10 /38 Mounted Rifles / Cadet USMA 1 July 1844 / US Mounted Rifles 1 July 1848 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 30 November 1850 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 October 1854 / Resigned USA 26 January 1857 / Captain PACS 1st Virginia Cavalry May 1861 / Major Infantry Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Major PACS May 1861 / Colonel PACS August 1861 / 7th Virginia Cavalry September 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 6 December 1861 / 11th Virginia Cavalry 16 September 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 26 September 1862 to rank from 19 September 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1848 / WIA Orange Court House 2 August 1862
Cavalry Valley District March 1862 / 4th Brigade Cavalry Division Army of Northern Virginia 8 November 1862-9 September 1863 / Valley District 29 December 1862-28 May 1863 / Jones’ Brigade Hampton’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia 9 September 1863-9 October 1863 / Jones’ Brigade Ransom’s Division Trans-Allegheny Department October 1863-February 1864 / Jones’ Brigade Cavalry Division District of East Tennessee February 1864-May 1864 / Jones’ Brigade Cavalry Division Trans-Allegheny Department May 1864-5 June 1864 / Trans-Allegheny Department 23 May 1864-31 May 1864

CSA: The First Sub-District of the District of South Carolina was extended to include the area of the Fifth Sub-District of the District of South Carolina.

CSA: The Fifth Sub-District of the District of South Carolina was discontinued and incorporated into the First Sub-District of the District of South Carolina.

CSA: Brigadier-General Nathan George Evans retained command of the First Sub-District of the District of South Carolina.

Evans, Nathan George / South Carolina / Born 3 February 1824 Marion, South Carolina / Died 23 November 1868
USMA 1 July 1848 36 /38 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1844 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1848 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 30 September 1849 / 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Captain USA 1 May 1856 / Resigned USA 27 February 1861 / Major Assistant Adjutant-General South Carolina Militia January 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Major PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 4th South Carolina Infantry July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 October 1861 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1848
7th Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-12 October 1861 / 4th Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-24 October 1861 / Evans’ Brigade X Division Army of the Potomac 24 October 1861-12 November 1861 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 12 November 1861-12 December 1861 / Third Sub-District of South Carolina 18 December 1861-28 May 1862 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 28 May 1862-19 June 1862 / Evans’ Brigade First Sub-District of South Carolina 19 June 1862-8 July 1862 / 3rd Brigade D R Jones’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 July 1862-9 August 1862 / Evans’ Brigade Hood’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 9 August 1862-6 November 1862 / Evans’ Brigade District of North Carolina 6 November 1862-3 March 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Loring’s Division Army of Mississippi 25 May 1863-June 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Army of Tennessee June 1863-21 June 1863 / Evans’ Brigade French’s Division Army of Tennessee 21 June 1863-3 August 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Second Sub-District of South Carolina 3 August 1863-15 September 1863 / Evans’ Brigade First Sub-District of South Carolina 11 March 1864-21 March 1864 / First Sub-District of South Carolina 21 March 1864-17 October 1864 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 17 October 1864-21 November 1864

CSA: Bushrod Rust Johnson confirmed Major-General PACS 23 May 1864 to rank from 21 May 1864.

Johnson, Bushrod Rust / Ohio-Tennessee / Born 7 October 1817 Belmont, Ohio / Died Brighton, Illinois 12 September 1880
USMA 1 July 1840 23/42 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 29 February 1844 / Resigned USA 22 October 1847 / Lieutenant-Colonel Kentucky Militia 1849‑1851 / Colonel Kentucky Militia 1851‑1854 / Colonel Engineers Tennessee Militia 28 June 1861 / Colonel PACS Engineers 6 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 24 January 1862 / Major-General PACS 23 May 1864 to rank from 21 May 1864 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Escaped 18 February 1862 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
Johnson’s Division Army of Central Kentucky 9 February 1862-16 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of Mississippi March 1862-6 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi May 1862 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Left Wing Army of Mississippi September 1862-20 November 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Tennessee January 1863-20 May 1863 / Johnson’s Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 May 1863-1 September 1863 / Johnson’s Brigade Stewart’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 1 September 1863-20 September 1863 / Johnson’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 1 September 1863-October 1863 / Johnson’s Brigade Stewart’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee October 1863 / Buckner’s Division Department of East Tennessee 26 November 1863-March 1864 / Johnson’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee March 1864-6 May 1864 / Johnson’s Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 6 May 1864-10 May 1864 / Johnson’s Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of Richmond 10 May 1864-17 May 1864 / Johnson’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 17 May 1864-19 October 1864 / Johnson’s Division IV Corps Army of Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-9 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge interim William Edmondson Jones awaited

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell RES
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Richard Waterhouse

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