1864 May 22nd

May 22 1864 Sunday

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Dallas

Virginia Overland Campaign – North Anna River

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

Arkansas. Reconnaissance in northern Arkansas ended.

Arkansas. The Confederates surprised and captured a group of Union soldiers at Devall’s Bluff, as they were making their way to Des Arc.

Florida. USS Ottawa was fired upon by Confederate shore batteries near Palatka. The ship suffered some damage but no casualties before compelling a Confederate battery at Brown’s Landing to withdraw.

Georgia. Incidents at Dallas and Cassville.

Georgia. After a three-day rest to accumulate supplies at Kingston, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman resumed his advance on Atlanta from Kingston and Cassville. He was unwilling to attack the impregnable Confederate defensive position at Allatoona Pass and he began a march by his right flank across the Etowah River towards Dallas. He loaded twenty days of supplies in wagons and headed away from the railroad, intending to swing widely to cut the railroad behind the Confederates before his own supplies ran out. Dallas was twenty miles southwest of Allatoona and twenty miles west of Marietta on the railroad.

Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee advanced farthest to the west towards Van Wert before returning eastwards in the direction of Dallas on the armies’ right flank. Major-General George Henry Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland advanced in the centre from Kingston through Euharlee and Stilesboro. Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio (XXIII Corps) advanced on Thomas’ left through Burnt Hickory. All three armies would have to cross Pumpkin Vine Creek before reaching Dallas (McPherson), New Hope Church (Thomas), and Pickett’s Mills (Schofield). The country was rugged, densely wooded and largely trackless and uncultivated. In desperate circumstances, the army might eke its rations out to last up to thirty days but the prospects of foraging for food were poor, so Sherman gambled that his threat to the Confederates’ rear and supply lines would force them to retreat, allowing Sherman to reinstate his own supply line in good time.

The advance on a twenty-mile front was easily detected by the Confederate cavalry. In response, Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston decided to move part of his army from the strong line at Allatoona towards Dallas and New Hope Church. Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood’s Corps remained in the trenches at Allatoona, while Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps moved to the good ground east of Dallas, and Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk’s Corps occupied New Hope.

Louisiana. Incident at Old River.

Louisiana. The three divisions of the “Detachment, Army of the Tennessee” led by Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith during the Red River campaign were finally released to return to their own army in Georgia. A month after the deadline date for their return set by Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman, they boarded transports and set off for Vicksburg.

Maryland. USS Crusader, Lieutenant Peter Hays, captured the schooner Isaac L Adkins at the mouth of the Severn River, with a cargo of corn and oats.

Mississippi. Confederates engaged a Union force near Mount Pleasant, fourteen miles from Tupelo, killing twelve men and capturing five more.

South Carolina. Demonstration at James Island.

Texas. USS Kineo, Lieutenant-Commander John Waters, seized the blockade running British schooner Sting Ray (or Stingaree) off Velasco. The prize crew put on board the schooner was served liquor by the Captain, became drunk, and was overwhelmed by the original crew. The schooner was then grounded by its crew on the Texas coast, where the Union sailors were taken prisoner by Confederate troops.

Virginia. Operation at North Anna River began.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Dabney’s Ferry (Dabney’s Ford or Dabney’s Mills) on the North Anna River,
Hanover Junction, Jericho Bridge, Mount Carmel Church, Ox Ford, Quarles’ Mills, and Sexton’s Station.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant changed the base of operations and supply of the Army of the Potomac from Belle Plain to Port Royal.

Virginia. Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps had led the way for the Army of the Potomac towards the North Anna River along the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad from Milford Station. Hancock was now followed on the same route by IX Corps. The V Corps and VI Corps marched further to the west through Guiney’s Station and then southwards along the Telegraph Road.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee abandoned his strong positions around Spotsylvania Court House and attempted to head off the Union march to the North Anna River. For the first time in the campaign, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee received sizeable reinforcements, including Major-General George Edward Pickett’s division from Richmond and an extra brigade from the Howlett Line defences. Most of Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge’s command also arrived from the Shenandoah Valley. These forces added about 8,500 men to the Army of Northern Virginia.

During the morning around 8 am, Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s II Corps crossed the North Anna River and began to entrench across the path of the Union advance at Hanover Junction. Ewell protected his crossing at Chesterfield Bridge and the railroad crossing half a mile below it. Confederate Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s I Corps arrived around noon to strengthen the new line along the North Anna River as far as Ox Ford, the only point where the right or southern bank was higher than the left. The new Confederate position was skilfully laid out behind the steep southern bank of the North Anna River and well-fortified with earthworks. It was a five-mile line that formed an inverted “V” shape, sometimes called a “hog snout line”, with its apex on the river at Ox Ford, the only properly defensible river crossing in the area. On the western line of the V, reaching southwest to New Market, was the area assigned to III Corps of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill, which was still on the march. Anderson’s I Corps and Ewell’s II Corps were on the eastern side, attenuating their line as far to the southeast as Hanover Junction. Breckinridge’s two brigades were already waiting at Hanover Junction and these were now deployed between Anderson and Ewell. Pickett’s division expected to rejoin its official parent I Corps for the first time in ten months, although Pickett was convalescing from a breakdown. However, Lee assigned the division temporarily to III Corps when Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill arrived a day later after his longer and more westerly march guarding the army’s wagon trains. Hill had moved along a safer route through Chilesburg and then to the Virginia Central Railroad near Beaver Dam Station. Hill was assigned the positions stretching from Ox Ford to a point about two miles further upstream.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE POTOMAC

Union General-in-Chief: Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
IX Corps (Potomac): Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside
1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Hewitt Ledlie
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel G P Robinson
Provisional Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Elisha Gaylord Marshall
2nd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Robert Brown Potter
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Irwin Curtin
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Simon Goodell Griffin
3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Frederick Hartranft
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel William Humphrey
Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
II Corps (Potomac): Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Francis Channing Barlow
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Nelson Appleton Miles
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel R Byrnes
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel C D MacDougall
4th Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Rutter Brooke
2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Gibbon
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel H B McKeen
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joshua Thomas Owen
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Alfred Smyth
4th Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel James Patrick McIvor
3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Bell Birney
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Wilberforce Egan
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel E Walker
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Gershom Mott
4th Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel William R Brewster
V Corps (Potomac): Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Griffin
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Romeyn Beck Ayres
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Jacob Bowman Sweitzer
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Jackson Bartlett
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Hayes Lockwood
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Peter Lyle
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel James Lawrence Bates
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Richard Neville Bowerman
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Martin Davis Hardin
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Washington Fisher
4th Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Lysander Cutler
1st Brigade, 4th Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel W W Robinson
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel John William Hofmann
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Heavy Artillery Brigade, 4th Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Howard Kitching (as infantry)
VI Corps (Potomac): Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Allen Russell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel William Henry Penrose
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Emory Upton
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Lawrence Eustis
4th Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Nelson Cross
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Hewson Neill
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton
4th Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Oliver Edwards
3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel William Snyder Truex
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Benjamin Franklin Smith
Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin
Reserve Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Eugene Davies
2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Irvin Gregg
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson
1st Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Baillie McIntosh
2nd Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel George Henry Chapman

Virginia. Union Major-General Philip Sheridan’s Cavalry Corps arrived at Aylett’s Station on the Mattapony River and was reunited with the Union Army of the Potomac after its extended raid to Richmond and the James River.

Front Royal, Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-Colonel John Singleton Mosby and his raiders learned from prisoners taken at Guard Hill that the garrison at Front Royal consisted of 200 soldiers of the 15th New York Cavalry. At daybreak, six Confederates opened fire to distract the garrison while the rest of the raiders charged into the Union camp. The Union troops panicked and fled into the nearby woods. The Confederates captured sixteen prisoners and 75 horses.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Frederick Steele assumed command of the Department of Arkansas, succeeding Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball.

USA: Major-General Frederick Steele assumed command of VII Corps (Arkansas), succeeding Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball.

Steele, Frederick / New York / Born 14 January 1819 Delhi, New York / Died San Mateo, California 12 January 1868
USMA 1 July 1843 30/39 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 March 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 June 1848 / Regt Adjutant 6 September 1849-5 February 1855 / Captain USA 5 February 1855 / Major USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Iowa Infantry 23 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 January 1862 to rank from 29 January 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 26 August 1864 / Colonel USA 20th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered USV 1 January 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1839 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 4 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
2nd Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861 / Steele’s Brigade 5th Division Western Army September 1861 / District of Southeast Missouri 1 March 1862-10 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Southwest 9 May 1862-29 August 1862 / Army of the Southwest 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / 1st Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862 / 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-13 December 1862 / 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-27 July 1863 / Army of Arkansas 27 July 1863-22 December 1864 / Department of Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / Department of Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 3 February 1865-8 February 1865 / Pensacola Column Army of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-17 May 1865 / Western District of Texas 27 June 1865-20 July 1865 / Department of the Columbia 7 October 1866-29 April 1867

USA: The District of Morganza was established in the Department of the Gulf.

USA: Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory assumed command of the District of Morganza.

Emory, William Hemsley / Maryland / Born 7 September 1811 Poplar Grove, Maryland / Died Washington, District of Columbia 1 December 1887
USMA 1 July 1831 14/33 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1831 / Resigned USA 30 September 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 24 April 1851 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / 1st US Cavalry 26 May 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 9 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1862 / Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 27 October 1863 / Major-General USV 25 September 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 1 July 1876 / Retired USA 1 July 1876 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1831 Brevet Captain USA 6 December 1846 Brevet Major USA 9 January 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 10 October 1857 Brevet Colonel USA 27 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USV 23 July 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
1st Brigade Cavalry Reserve Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 6 July 1862-10 August 1862 / Defences of Baltimore 10 August 1862-September 1862 / Emory’s Division Department of the Gulf September 1862-December 1862 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 3 January 1863-2 May 1863 / Defences of New Orleans 2 May 1863-25 August 1863 / 4th Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 30 July 1863-25 August 1863 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 4 September 1863-17 September 1863 / 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 13 December 1863-2 May 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 2 May 1864-2 July 1864 / District of Morganza 22 May 1864-16 June 1864 / Detachment XIX Corps Army of the Shenandoah 15 July 1864-6 August 1864 / XIX Corps Shenandoah 6 August 1864-8 December 1864 / XIX Corps Shenandoah 28 December 1864-20 March 1865 / Department of West Virginia 22 April 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Washington 17 August 1867-28 July 1868

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Morganza: William Hemsley Emory
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Richard Waterhouse

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