1864 May 19th

May 19 1864 Thursday

Harris’ Farm, VA

Cassville, GA

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Cassville

Virginia Overland Campaign – Spotsylvania

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

Arkansas. Skirmish at Fayetteville.

Arkansas. Skirmish near Norristown.

Florida. Operation on St John’s River began.

Florida. Skirmishes at Saunders and Welaka on St John’s River.

Georgia. Incident at Kingston.

Cassville, Georgia. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s three armies closed in on Kingston, which Sherman believed to be the new position held by Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston’s Army of Tennessee.

For his part, Johnston was ready to spring a surprise flank attack from east of Kingston that he hoped might prove decisive in turning back the advance of his opponent. The morale of the Confederate army was high and the commanders were optimistic of success. Confederate Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood deployed his Corps east of the Cassville Road and formed for battle facing west, while Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk’s Corps deployed perpendicular on his left as a blocking force across the main road to Kingston. Beyond Polk’s left, further to the south and west, Confederate Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps and Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry retreated southwards along the turnpike and then eastwards along the railroad from Kingston, luring the Union armies into an ambush.

At 10.20 am, Hardee reported that he was being closely pressed towards Kingston by the Union Army of the Cumberland and that he would soon find it difficult to avoid a general engagement. Johnston sent word to Hood and Polk to begin their advance immediately. The message to attack was carried by his Chief-of-Staff, Brigadier-General William Whann Mackall, with a warning that Hood should not swing so widely as to lose contact with Polk on his left. Hood moved forward promptly but when Mackall arrived he found him inexplicably retreating to Cassville. As Hood was moving into position, he had unexpectedly found Union soldiers marching on to his right rear. These troops were part of Union Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook’s Union cavalry brigade (2/1/Cav) and Major-General Daniel Butterfield’s division of XX Corps. They had taken the wrong road and accidentally found themselves five miles east of the main column and approaching unintentionally on Hood’s right rear. This was a substantial threat as these previously undetected enemy forces would have arrived in a position to attack the exposed flank and rear of Hood’s Corps as it advanced. Johnston was astonished at the news since cavalry scouts had not detected this Union column. After a brief skirmish, Hood was forced to fall back to join Polk’s right flank and the carefully planned attack had to be abandoned. Hardee’s Corps made a spirited defence but was greatly outnumbered and had to give ground.

With the opportunity of a surprise flank attack ruined by Butterfield’s stray Union division, Johnston was forced to concentrate his army again in a new defensive position. The army withdrew to a wooded ridge east of and overlooking the valley where Cassville lay. Hood and Polk arrived first and Hardee gradually disengaged to form on their left. Finally aware of his close escape, Schofield pulled his Army of the Ohio back together and pushed towards Kingston along his assigned side-route. The Union Army of the Cumberland and Army of the Tennessee marched on his right flank along the main road and the Western & Atlantic Railroad.

Both sides were deployed in their new positions by sundown and their artillery began a long-range duel. The Confederate leaders held a council of war, although its outcomes are disputed. Johnston felt that the current position was defensible and he was willing to remain in place. Polk and Hood disagreed, stating that Union batteries had already taken up a position to enfilade the vulnerable part of the ridge where their two Corps connected. They argued that the army must either retreat immediately or launch an attack at dawn to recapture the threatened sector. Hardee sided with Johnston, suggesting that an attack by the Union armies across a broad open valley against their strong position on a wooded ridge offered a chance to deliver a costly repulse. Johnston finally decided to fall back across the Etowah, mainly because he felt the uncertainty of two of his three Corps commanders would be conveyed to the troops and weaken their resistance. The Confederates withdrew across the Etowah River under cover of darkness without interference from the Union armies. The retreat was disorderly and poorly executed, with delays occurring at the bridges over the Etowah. The railroad bridge over the Etowah River was destroyed behind the army.

The next available defensive position for the Confederates was in the Allatoona Mountains, eleven miles southeast of Cassville. The cancellation of the attack and the sudden, inept withdrawal undermined the growing confidence among the Confederate rank and file.

Louisiana. Union Colonel Joseph Bailey built an improvised bridge of boats over the 600-yard wide Atchafalaya River near Simsport. By anchoring steamers in the river and nailing them together with planks, an adequate bridge was laid for Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks’ supply trains to cross securely. The wagon train was followed overnight by the artillery and ambulances. Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor advanced from Yellow Bayou to resume the fighting, but he found that the stronger Union army was already escaping to safety across the bridge.

Louisiana. USS General Price, Acting Lieutenant Richardson, engaged a Confederate battery on the banks of the Mississippi River at Tunica Bend. The Confederates had been firing on the transport steamer Superior and were forced to evacuate their position. Richardson put ashore a landing party who burned a group of buildings used by the Confederates to launch attacks against river shipping.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General Stephen Dill Lee advised the postponement of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s raid into middle Tennessee after strong Union forces from Memphis were observed moving to block his route.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Dandridge.

Virginia. Skirmish at Spotsylvania Court House.

Virginia. Incident at United States Ford.

Virginia. Finally conceding that he could not drive the Confederates from their lines at Spotsylvania, Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant issued orders for a new advance. He decided to send Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps on a night-time march as far as the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad six miles to the east. They would then follow the railroad southwards down the far side of the Mattapony River to Milford Station, well beyond the Confederate flank and threatening their rear. Grant intended to detach Hancock sufficiently to tempt Confederate General Robert Edward Lee into an offensive move against the isolated Corps. Such a move would draw Lee out of his entrenchments at Spotsylvania and render him vulnerable to attack. Hancock would have a twenty-mile head start but the other three Corps of the Army of the Potomac (V Corps, VI Corps, and IX Corps) were alerted to march rapidly to catch the Confederates on the march if they attacked Hancock.

Virginia. Union Major-General David Hunter relieved Major-General Franz Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley with orders to resume the advance to Staunton and Charlottesville that Sigel had abandoned after his ignominious defeat at New Market.

Virginia. An ambitious offensive plan proposed by Confederate General Pierre Gustave Beauregard backfired when President Jefferson Finis Davis replied that if Beauregard could spare 15,000 men for such an operation, he could easily spare 10,000 men to reinforce General Robert Edward Lee’s hard-pressed army.

Harris’ Farm, Virginia. A Confederate counterattack was led by Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell with the remaining 6,000 men of his depleted II Corps in an attempt to turn the Union right flank at Harris Farm, near Spotsylvania Court House. He could take only six guns across the churned up ground but was assisted by two brigades of cavalry under Major-General Wade Hampton. Ewell’s aim was to determine whether Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant and the Army of the Potomac were moving away from Spotsylvania. After passing across some abandoned trenches, they reached the Ny River at about 3 pm. The mud was too deep for the six guns to be dragged across the river, but Hampton was able to take his four lighter guns across, using doubled teams. Ewell’s force crossed the Ny River and found the Union right flank a mile beyond the river. This was the right flank division of Union Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s V Corps, protecting the removal of the Union II Corps of Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock.

Hancock sent a strongly reinforced division to support Warren. It comprised Brigadier-General Robert Ogden Tyler’s large brigade of heavy artillerymen recently pressed into service as infantry. They were accompanied by three weakened brigades from Major-General David Bell Birney’s division (3/II). Around 3.30 pm, the two sides engaged in skirmishing. Confederate Brigadier-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur’s division then attacked but was repulsed and subjected to a dangerous counterattack. Tyler’s heavy artillerymen were reinforced by Colonel John Howard Kitching’s brigade of converted heavy artillerymen and Colonel Richard Neville Bowerman’s Maryland brigade. The Union 1st Maryland Infantry was prominent in the Union victory. Two hours of fighting threatened to obliterate this segment of Ewell’s Corps. Prompt support from Colonel John S Hoffman with the remnants of Major-General Edward Johnson’s division, and the horse artillery of the Cavalry Corps, enabled Ewell to hold out until darkness when he could withdraw back over the Ny River. The Union commanders were encouraged that the heavy artillerymen fought effectively and with determination, and that the reluctant conscripts who were filling the ranks in increasing numbers could also be relied upon, at least in defence. The Confederates lost about 900 men. The inexperienced Union troops lost 1,535 men killed and wounded but took 472 prisoners, an untypically large haul.

West Virginia. Averell’s Expedition to Virginia & Tennessee Railroad ended.

West Virginia. The exhausted raiding forces of Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell and Brigadier-General George Crook reached Meadow Bluff near Lewisburg. Crook’s infantry had marched for seventeen days, the last eight of them without an issue of rations, and crossed seventeen mountain ridges. This ended Averell’s failed raid on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General David Hunter was appointed to command the Department of West Virginia, arriving on 21 May 1864, to succeed Major-General Franz Sigel.

Hunter, David / District of Columbia-Illinois / Born 21 July 1802 Washington, District of Columbia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 February 1886
USMA 1 July 1822 25/40 Infantry-Dragoons / Cadet USMA 14 September 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 1 July 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 30 June 1828 / Captain USA 1st US Dragoons 4 March 1833 / Resigned USA 4 July 1836 / Paymaster USA 13 November 1841 / Major USA Paymaster 14 March 1842 / Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Major-General USV 13 August 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 17 April 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Retired USA 31 July 1866 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
Hunter’s Brigade Department of Washington 28 May 1861-30 June 1861 / 2nd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 30 June 1861-21 July 1861 / Hunter’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 4 August 1861-22 August 1861 / 1st Division Western Army 24 September 1861-2 November 1861 / Western Department 2 November 1861-9 November 1861 / Department of Kansas 20 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Department of the South 31 March 1862-5 September 1862 / Department of the South 20 December 1862-3 June 1863 / X Corps South 20 January 1863-12 June 1863 / Assistant Inspector-General 17 April 1864-May 1864 / Department of West Virginia 21 May 1864-8 August 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 21 May 1864-3 July 1864

USA: Brigadier-General John Milton Thayer assumed command of the District of the Frontier, succeeding Major-General James Gilpatrick Blunt.

Thayer, John Milton / Massachusetts / Born 24 January 1820 Bellingham, Massachusetts / Died Lincoln, Nebraska 19 March 1906
Lieutenant Massachusetts Militia / Brigadier-General Nebraska Territory Militia / Major-General Nebraska Militia / Colonel USV 1st Nebraska Infantry 21 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 9 April 1863 to rank from 13 March 1863 / Resigned USV 19 July 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
3rd Brigade 3rd Division District of Cairo 14 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Dost of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 162 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Army of West Tennessee 13 March 1862-June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862/ 3rd Brigade 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-12 December 1862 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-1 August 1863 / 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 27 July 1863-28 July 1863 / District of the Frontier Kansas 6 January 1864-1 February 1864 / District of the Frontier 19 May 1864-1 February 1865 / District of Eastern Arkansas 13 May 1865-5 June 1865

USA: James Barnet Fry confirmed Brigadier-General USA 19 May 1864 to rank from 21 April 1864 Provost Marshal General.

Fry, James Barnet / Illinois / Born 22 February 1827 Carrollton, Illinois / Died 1Newport, Rhode Island 1 July 1894
USMA 1 July 1847 14/38 Artillery-Adjutant-General / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 20 August 20 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 February 1851 / Assistant Adjutant-General 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Army of Northeastern Virginia 31 May 1861-12 November 1861 / Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 3 August 1861 / Colonel USA ADC (G B McClellan) 14 November 1861 / Major USA 22 April 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 December 1862 / Colonel USA Provost Marshal-General 17 March 1863 / Brigadier-General USA Provost Marshal-General 19 May 1864 to rank from 21 April 1864 / Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 3 March 1875 / Retired USA 1 July 1881 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA July 1847 Brevet Captain USA 16 March 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / Brevet Major-General USA (Recalled) 13 March 1865
Chief of Staff Army of Northeastern Virginia 31 May 1861-12 November 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Department of the Ohio 15 November 1861-30 October 1862/ Chief of Staff Department of the Ohio 15 November 1861-30 October 1862 / Provost Marshal-General 17 March 1863-1 July 1881

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
      • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
      • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
      • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
      • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
        • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
      • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
      • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
      • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
      • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
        • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
        • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
    • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
      • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel interim David Hunter awaited
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Samuel Bell Maxey promoted Major-General PACS (Special) 19 May 1864 to rank from 18 April 1864 unconfirmed.

Maxey, Samuel Bell / Kentucky / Born 30 March 1825 Tompkinsville, Kentucky/ Died Eureka Springs, Arkansas 16 August 1895
USMA 1 July 1846 58/59 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8th US Infantry 23 February 1847 / 7th US Infantry 18 July 1847 / Resigned USA 17 September 1849 / Colonel PACS 9th Texas Infantry May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 7 March 1862 to rank from 4 March 1862 / Major-General PACS 19 May 1864 to rank from 18 April 1864 Unconfirmed / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847
Maxey’s Brigade X Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 9 April 1862-July 1862 / 1st Brigade Cheatham’s Division Army of Mississippi July 1862-15 August 1862 / Maxey’s Brigade District of East Louisiana September 1862-May 1863 / Maxey’s Brigade French’s Division Department of Mississippi and West Louisiana 23 May 1863-October 1863 / District of the Indian Territory 11 December 1863-9 January 1864 / Cavalry Division Department of Arkansas 18 April 1864-9 May 1864 / District of the Indian Territory 9 May 1864-21 July 1864 / 2nd Cavalry Division Trans-Mississippi Army 21 July 1864-14 February 1865 / District of the Indian Territory 21 February 1865-1 March 1865 / Maxey’s Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 7 April 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: Clement Anselm Evans promoted Brigadier-General PACS 19 May 1864.

Evans, Clement Anselm / Georgia / Born 25 February 1833 Stewart, Georgia / Died Atlanta, Georgia 2 July 1911
Private Georgia Militia December 1860 / 1st Lieutenant 2nd Georgia Militia 26 January 1861 / Private PACS 31st Georgia Infantry 1861 / Major PACS 18 November 1861 / Colonel PACS 13 May 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 May 1864 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Gaines’ Mill 27 June 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Gettysburg 1 July 1863 WIA Wilderness May 1864 WIA Monocacy 9 July 1864
Evans’ Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia September 1862-October 1862 / Evans’ Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia13 December 1862-11 April 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia / Evans’ Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Evans’ Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 13 June 1864-9 July 1864 / Evans’ Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 25 August 1864-December 1864 / Evans’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia December 1864-9 April 1865

CSA: William Terry promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 19 May 1864.

Terry, William / Virginia / Born 14 August 1824 Amherst, Virginia / Died Wytheville, Virginia 5 September 1888
Lieutenant Virginia Militia 1859-1861 / 1st Lieutenant PACS 4th Virginia Infantry 26 April 1861 / Captain PACS 8 June 1861 / Major PACS 22 April 1862 / Colonel PACS 11 September 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 19 May 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Second Bull Run 28 August 1862 WIA Payne’s Farm 27 November 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864 WIA Winchester 19 September 1864 WIA Fort Stedman 25 March 1865
E Johnson’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 12 May 1864-22 May 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Gordon’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 22 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Gordon’s Division Valley District 13 June 1864-19 September 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Evans’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia December 1864-25 March 1865

CSA: Bryan Grimes promoted Brigadier-General PACS 28 May 1864 to rank from 19 May 1864.

Grimes, Bryan / North Carolina / Born 2 November 1828 Pitt, North Carolina / Died Pitt, North Carolina 14 August 1880
Major PACS 4th North Carolina Infantry 16 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 1 May 1862 / Colonel PACS 19 June 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 May 1864 to rank from 19 May 1864 / Major-General PACS 23 February 1865 to rank from 15 February 1865 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
Grimes’ Brigade D H Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia December 1862-January 1863 / Grimes’ Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 12 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Grimes’ Brigade Rodes’ Division Valley District 13 June 1864-19 September 1864 / Rodes’ Division Valley District 19 September 1864-20 September 1864 / Grimes’ Brigade Rodes’ Division Valley District 20 September 1864-19 October 1864 / Grimes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 9 December 1864-9 April 1865

CSA: Martin Witherspoon Gary promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 June 1864 to rank from 19 May 1864.

Gary, Martin Witherspoon / South Carolina / Born 25 March 1831 Cokesbury, South Carolina / Died Edgefield, South Carolina 9 April 1881
Captain PACS Hampton South Carolina Legion 12 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 16 June 1862 / Colonel PACS 25 August 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 June 1864 to rank from 19 May 1864 / No Record of Parole
Gary’s Cavalry Brigade Department of Richmond May 1864-31 May 1864 / Gary’s Cavalry Brigade Army of Northern Virginia 13 June 1864-January 1865 / Gary’s Brigade Munford’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia January 1865 / Gary’s Brigade F H Lee’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia January 1865-9 April 1865 / Gary’s Brigade Lomax’s Division Hampton’s Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting temporary
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
      • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Richard Waterhouse

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