1864 May 18th

May 18 1864 Wednesday

Battle of Yellow Bayou, LA (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Spotsylvania, VA

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Cassville

Virginia Overland Campaign – Spotsylvania

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

Atlantic Ocean. CSS Florida, Lieutenant Charles M Morris, captured and burned the schooner George Latimer with a cargo of flour, lard, bread, and kerosene.

Alabama. Skirmish at Fletcher’s Ferry.

Alabama. The main hull of the ironclad CSS Tennessee had been built on the Alabama River near the town of Selma. Her guns were prepared under the direction of Commander Catesby ap Roger Jones, who had previously commanded the first Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia (ex-USS Merrimack). Launched before her machinery and guns were in place to save weight, CSS Tennessee was towed down to Mobile Bay for completion. CSS Tennessee drew 13 feet, but the bar had only 9 feet of water at high tide. Workers built a set of caissons or “camels”, and fitted them to the sides of the Confederate ironclad ram CSS Tennessee. They were pumped out and barely lifted the ship enough to clear the bar. Once that was done she had to cross the shallow Dog River Bar to get into the lower bay to protect Mobile. The senior Confederate naval officer, Admiral Franklin Buchanan, prepared to take command of the warship in its impending operations.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Clarksville.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Searcy.

Georgia. Skirmish at Pine Log Creek

Georgia. Skirmish at Cassville.

Georgia. Skirmish at Kingston.

Rome, Georgia. Union Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s 2nd Cavalry Division, reinforced by Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis’ infantry division (2/XIV), reached Rome on a raid west of the main Union advance towards Adairsville. They wrecked the iron works, arsenal, and military installations, They also took control of the railroad which had recently carried strong Confederate reinforcements from Alabama. After a brief fight, Confederate Major-General Samuel Gibbs French withdrew his outnumbered division away from Rome.

Georgia. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman ordered Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee and the bulk of Major-General George Henry Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland to march along the main road from Adairsville toward Kingston. Kingston was a junction on the Western & Atlantic Railroad, which turned due east and, after five miles, passed two to three miles south of Cassville. A westward branch of the railroad led to Rome. Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio (XXIII Corps) and XX Corps (Major-General Joseph Hooker) from Thomas’ army deviated to follow an indirect road further east to Cassville as a flank guard. About 100,000 Union soldiers were converging on Kingston

Sherman acted as Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston hoped he would, offering an opportunity for a counterattack against a separate part of the Union armies. Johnston saw a chance to attack Schofield’s smaller easternmost column in detail. During the morning, he described his plan of attack to his Corps commanders, emphasising that the aim was to strike the detached left flank of the Union columns marching from Cassville. Johnston ordered Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood to deploy along a country road a mile or so east of the Cassville Road and to form his Corps for battle facing west, parallel to the road. Hood was to assail the left flank of Schofield’s column in the morning, while it marched along a road about five miles to the east of the main Union force. Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps and Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry were to check the main Union advance to Kingston by presenting a strong rear-guard across the turnpike and railroad. The aim was to suggest that Hardee’s force was the rear-guard of the entire retreating army in order to lure the Union advance forward into the ambush. Confederate Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk’s Corps halted about half a mile north of Cassville between Hood and Hardee to oppose the head of the Union eastern column (Schofield’s) and to pin it for Hood’s flank attack. Once Schofield’s column was defeated in detail and the opposing armies closer in numbers, Hood, Polk, and Hardee could then combine to attack the larger central column.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Wolf River as Union troops moving from Glasgow overran and killed a few Confederates for a loss of two men.

Kentucky. Skirmish in Pike County.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Morganza.

Yellow Bayou, Louisiana, also known as Norwood’s Plantation, Bayou de Glaize, Calhoun Station, or Old Oaks. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks waited to cross the Atchafalaya River while army engineers constructed a bridge at Simsport. Banks learned that Confederate Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor’s force was hovering near Yellow Bayou. Taylor had brought up all his available infantry and cavalry and began to build a semi-circular entrenchment to protect his smaller force until it could be reinforced from Arkansas. He then planned to launch an attack with more equal numbers. Banks ordered Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith to prevent these troops from interfering with the crossing of the river and, if possible, to drive them away. Smith ordered Brigadier-General Joseph Anthony Mower to take two divisions of XVI Corps to attack Taylor.

Mower crossed the bayou with three brigades and drove the Confederates of Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell’s brigade back to their main line. The Confederates counterattacked, forcing the Union forces to give ground in turn. The see-saw action involved about 5,000 men on each side and continued for several hours until the ground cover caught fire, and the smoke and flames forced both sides to retire.

Frustrated by the late arrival of his superior General Edmund Kirby Smith with three divisions of infantry from Arkansas that might have permitted a complete victory, Taylor nursed a growing resentment and contempt for Smith that soured their subsequent relations. He held his ground and chafed at his enforced inactivity.

Union casualties were reported as 350 men (or 267 to 360) and Confederate as 608 men (or alternatively, 452 to 500). (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Missouri. Union reconnaissance to Carthage began.

Missouri. Union reconnaissance to Neosho began.

Missouri. Incident at Cuba.

New York. The scandal-mongering journalist Joseph Howard perpetrated the “Gold Hoax”. He published articles in two New York newspapers a bogus proclamation of a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer on 26 May. He added an announcement of the anticipated draft of 400,000 men to make up the heavy Union losses in Louisiana, Georgia, and Virginia. The forgery was soon detected and the newspapers were shut down. Howard was arrested and held for three months although the newspapers reopened within three days. While the scandal passed over quickly, the ensuing outrage forced a postponement of the announcement of a genuine draft of 300,000 new recruits.

Tennessee. Incident at Dandridge.

Virginia. Incidents at Fredericksburg and Guiney Station

Virginia. Skirmish at Haxall’s Landing.

Virginia. Skirmish at City Point.

Virginia. Skirmish at Foster’s Plantation.

Virginia. Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard had bottled up Union Major-General Benjamin Butler’s Army of the James in its fortifications at Bermuda Hundred. Beauregard submitted a new grandiose strategic plan to General Braxton Bragg. He offered to take his 15,000 men to attack Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s army, if General Robert Edward Lee would move his Confederate Army of Northern Virginia to cooperate with him along the Chickahominy River.

Virginia. The Union Army of the Potomac was being continually strengthened by reinforcements and replacements drawn from the defences of Washington to replace the heavy losses of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania. These included the Irish Legion (a brigade of 2,000 men), and 7,500 heavy artillerymen retrained as infantry who became the new 4th Division of II Corps. A brigade of heavy artillerymen trained as infantry under Colonel John Howard Kitching was also attached to V Corps. The Union army thus received 30,000 fresh men over ten days whereas the Confederates received less than half that number.

Spotsylvania, Virginia, or Spotsylvania Court House. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered a surprise attack at dawn from the Mule Shoe salient against the Confederate left flank. The difficulty of moving through the wrecked and confused defences delayed the attack by the Union II Corps and VI Corps until 8 am. All remaining chance of surprise had been lost and the Confederates were alerted in advance to the point of attack, so they stationed 29 guns at the base of the Mule Shoe. After a brief advance resulted in heavy losses, the effort was called off as an obvious failure at 10 am. A sentiment began to spread among the Union troops that mishandling and brute force were squandering their lives in a series of futile assaults.

The two Union Corps returned to their starting points after their repulse. This latest costly stalemate persuaded Grant that Confederate General Robert Edward Lee’s men could not be dislodged from their Spotsylvania lines. He prepared to shift his army once again by his left flank, heading southeast along roads to a new field which were not blocked by defensive works. During the night, Union Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside’s IX Corps marched onto the left of VI Corps, and II Corps was drawn into reserve behind it near Anderson, a little over a mile to the rear. This was the starting point for Grant’s next planned movement to Milford Station. The main line was still held by V Corps and VI Corps to persuade the Confederates that the army was not about to move.

Estimates vary as to the casualties throughout the battles at Spotsylvania Court House. Since crossing the Rappahannock, the Union army had lost 36,065 men in the Wilderness and at Spotsylvania (17,666 and 18,399 respectively). The Confederate losses were nearer to 18,000 men (8,000 at the Wilderness and over 10,000 at Spotsylvania).

Union Organisation

USA: Richard Delafield confirmed Brigadier-General USA 18 May 1864 to rank from 22 April 1864 Chief of Engineers.

Delafield, Richard / New York / Born 1 September 1798 New York City, New York / Died Washington, District of Columbia 5 November 1873
USMA 24 July 1818 1/23 Engineers / Cadet USMA 4 May 1814 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 24 July 1818 / 1st Lieutenant USA 29 August 1820 / Captain USA 24 May 1828 / Major USA 7 July 1838 / Superintendent of USMA 1 September 1838-15 August 1845 / Superintendent of USMA 8 September 1856-23 January 1861 / Superintendent of USMA 28 January 1861-1 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 6 August 1861 / Colonel USA 1 June 1863 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 18 May 1864 to rank from 22 April 1864 / Retired USA 8 August 1866 / Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Chief of Engineers 22 April 1864-8 August 1866

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
      • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
      • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
      • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
      • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
        • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
      • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
      • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
      • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
      • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
        • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
        • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
    • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
      • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Lafayette McLaws assumed command of the Defences of Savannah, succeeding Major-General Samuel Jones.

McLaws, Lafayette / Georgia / Born 15 January 1821 Augusta, Georgia / Died Savannah, Georgia 24 July 1897
USMA 1 July 1842 48/56 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 6th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 16 March 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 24 August 1851 / Resigned USA 23 May 1861 / Major ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster 18 April 1861-June 1861 / Colonel PACS 10th Georgia Infantry 17 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 25 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 23 May 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 / WIA Texas 1845
1st Brigade Army of the Peninsula 3 October 1861-10 November 1861 / 2nd Division Army of the Peninsula 10 November 1861-10 April 1862 / McLaws’ Division Magruder’s Command Army of Northern Virginia 12 April 1862-May 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing I Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-July 1862 / McLaws’ Division defences of Richmond July 1862-26 August 1862 / McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 August 1862-20 September 1863 / I Corps Northern Virginia 20 September 1863-17 December 1863 / Defences of Savannah 18 May 1864-17 December 1864 / Third Sub-District of South Carolina 1 August 1864-17 October 1864 / Fifth Sub-District of South Carolina 17 October 1864-22 January 1865 / McLaws’ Division Army of Tennessee January 1865-26 May 1865 / Fifth Sub-District of South Carolina 10 April 1865-10 May 1865

CSA: Joseph Brevard Kershaw promoted Major-General PACS 1 June 1864 to rank from 18 May 1864.

Kershaw, Joseph Brevard / South Carolina / Born 5 January 1822 Camden, South Carolina / Died Camden, South Carolina 13 April 1894
1st Lieutenant USV 1st South Carolina Infantry 6 February 1847/ Resigned USV 1848 / Colonel PACS 2nd South Carolina Infantry 22 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 February 1862 to rank from 13 February 1862 / Major-General PACS 1 June 1864 to rank from 18 May 1864 / Paroled Fort Warren, Massachusetts 24 July 1865 / CIA Sayler’s Creek 6 April 1865
1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Potomac 10 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / Kershaw’s Brigade McLaws’ Division Army of Northern Virginia 23 March 1862-June 1862 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia June 1862-July 1862 / Kershaw’s Brigade McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-9 September 1863 / Kershaw’s Brigade McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Army of Tennessee 19 September 1863-19 September 1863 / McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Army of Tennessee 20 September 1863-20 September 1863 / Kershaw’s Brigade McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Army of Tennessee 20 September 1863-5 November 1863 / Kershaw’s Brigade McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee 5 November 1863-17 December 1863 / McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee 17 December 1863-January 1864 / McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee February 1864-12 April 1864 / Kershaw’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 12 April 1864-6 April 1865

CSA: John McCausland promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 May 1864 to rank from 18 May 1864.

McCausland, John / Missouri-Virginia / Born 13 September 1836 St Louis, Missouri / Died Mason, West Virginia 22 January 1927
Colonel Virginia Militia 3 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 36th Virginia Infantry 16 July 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 6 December 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 May 1864 to rank from 18 May 1864 / Paroled Charleston, West Virginia 22 May 1865
2nd Brigade Floyd’s Division Army of Central Kentucky January 1863-3 March 1862 / 4th Brigade Department of Southwestern Virginia 8 May 1862-25 November 1862 / McCausland’s Brigade Trans-Allegheny Department 25 November 1862-27 June 1864 / Cavalry Brigade Ransom’s Division Valley District 27 June 1864-10 August 1864 / Cavalry Brigade Lomax’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 10 August 1864-29 March 1865 / McCausland’s Brigade Rosser’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia 29 March 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General James Byron Gordon died of wounds received at Meadow Bridge, Virginia.

Gordon, James Byron / North Carolina / Born 2 November 1822 Wilkesboro, North Carolina / DOW Richmond, Virginia 18 May 1864
Private North Carolina Militia 1861 / 1st Lieutenant PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry April 1861 / Captain PACS 1st North Carolina Cavalry 8 May 1861 / Major PACS 16 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 9th North Carolina Cavalry 1 March 1862 / Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina Cavalry 23 July 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 29 September 1863 to rank from 28 September 1863 / WIA Auburn 14 October 1863 MWIA Meadow Bridge 12 May 1864
Baker’s Brigade Hampton’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia 9 September 1863-23 April 1864 / Gordon’s Brigade W H F Lee’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia 23 April 1864-12 May 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting temporary
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
      • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon DOW
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Birkett Davenport Fry
Richard Waterhouse

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