1864 May 15th

May 15 1864 Sunday

Resaca, GA

Battle of New Market, VA (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Resaca

James River Campaign

Virginia Overland Campaign – Spotsylvania

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

Crook’s West Virginia Raid

Averell’s Second West Virginia Raid

Alabama. Union troops engaged a Confederate force at Centre Star, fourteen miles from Florence. They captured 35 men and forced the Confederates to withdraw across the Tennessee River.

Arkansas. Skirmish near Dardanelle involving Confederate Brigadier-General Joseph Orville Shelby.

Georgia. Incidents at Calhoun, Gideon’s Ferry, Lay’s Ferry, and Oostenaula River.

Georgia. Skirmish at Tanner’s Bridge on Armuchee Creek.

Georgia. Skirmish near Rome.

Resaca, Georgia. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman gave orders in the morning that Major-General George Henry Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland should press the Confederate rear along the Western & Atlantic Railroad, while Major-General James Birdseye McPherson set out with the Army of the Tennessee to cross the Oostenaula River at Lay’s Ferry, using his newly arrived pontoon train. McPherson’s next objective was the Confederate railroad supply line at Calhoun. Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio was ordered to march further upstream to cross the Oostenaula at Field’s Ferry, in an attempt to find the unprotected right flank of the Confederates. To balance the sizes of the three columns, Major-General Joseph Hooker’s three divisions of XX Corps (Cumberland) were attached temporarily to Schofield’s Army, who now had 30,000 men. Dividing his columns onto several widely separated roads increased the speed of Sherman’s advance, without putting them beyond mutually supporting distance.

While a diversionary force occupied Confederate attention at Resaca, Brigadier-General Thomas William Sweeny’s division (2/XVI) headed across the Oostenaula towards Calhoun in order to threaten the railroad and the Confederate line of communications further south. They were preceded by the cavalry division of Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick who had made an initial crossing on 14 May 1864. Sherman also ordered Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s cavalry division to ride on a wide envelopment down the right bank of the Oostenaula to sever the Western & Atlantic Railroad at Rome. Garrard was ordered to wreck the iron works and military installations in the town and then to advance eastwards along a branch line of the Western & Atlantic Railroad twenty miles south of Resaca. As soon as it was certain that the Confederates had begun to evacuate Resaca, Sherman ordered Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis to take his infantry division on the same route taken by Garrard’s cavalry to strengthen the attack on Rome and then to push on towards Kingston in the Confederate rear.

Despite being informed of these dangerous movements, Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston was advised by Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker that reports of the crossing were exaggerated, and Johnston decided to keep the Army of Tennessee in its strong positions around Resaca for a little longer. Johnston’s anxiety was well-founded because Sherman had decided to exploit the successful crossing at Lay’s Ferry to move the bulk of his force in that direction and that posed a serious threat to Johnston’s army.

As Union activity at Resaca diminished during the day, Johnston decided to repeat his successful counterattack on his right flank with Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood’s Corps. Hood returned to the positions he had reached the previous evening and deployed a battery to cover his advance. The battery was immediately raked with such heavy artillery fire that the four guns had to be abandoned by their crews. They were eventually captured by Union troops, the only guns to be taken by force from Johnston’s army throughout the entire Atlanta campaign. After starting to skirmish heavily ahead of his advance, Hood was told to cancel the doomed attack.

Johnston summoned his three Corps commanders for a council of war at Resaca. He had finally received confirmation late in the day from Walker that the Union had in fact crossed the Oostenaula at Lay’s Ferry in growing force, so Johnston issued orders to evacuate Resaca immediately. Hood’s Corps would cross at the new pontoon bridge above the town, while Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk’s Corps, and Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps would cross the bridge and railroad crossing at the town. Deceptions were conducted to cover the withdrawal and by midnight the artillery and wagons were already crossing towards Cassville. The rest of the army continued to cross during the night and the railroad bridge south of Resaca was burned at 3.30 am. Casualties for the three days of fighting around Resaca were estimated at 2,747 or 3,500 men for the Union and at 2,600 or 2,800 men for the Confederates.

Louisiana. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks’ expeditionary force reached Marksville and a skirmish occurred at Marksville Prairie (Avoyelles Prairie). The Union command had marched forty of the sixty miles from Alexandria to safety at Simsport and, so far, kept its wagon trains secure from Confederate cavalry raiders.

Louisiana. A landing party from USS Stockdale was fired upon by Confederate cavalry at the mouth of the Tchefuncte River in Lake Pontchartrain. The Confederates were forced to withdraw but two Union officers were captured and one killed.

Louisiana. Confederate troops attacked a Union stockade at Mount Pleasant Landing. They burned the saw-mill and other buildings before being forced to retreat.

Louisiana. As the ships of Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter’s gunboat fleet neared the mouth of the Red River, they continued to be harassed by Confederate shore batteries and riflemen. USS St Clair, Acting Lieutenant Thomas B Gregory, engaged a battery near Eunice’s Bluff. The gunboat exchanged fire with the Confederate guns until the transports were past the danger, and then continued downriver.

Mississippi. Incident at Luce’s Plantation.

North Carolina. USS Kansas, Lieutenant-Commander Pendleton G Watmough, captured the blockade-running British steamer Tristram Shandy east of Fort Fisher, with a cargo of cotton, tobacco, and turpentine.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Spotsylvania Court House, New Market, Proctor’s Creek, Drewry’s Bluff, and Fort Darling.

Virginia. Skirmish at Piney Branch Church.

Virginia. Skirmish near Strasburg.

Virginia. Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler disposed the Army of the James to continue its advance against Drewry’s Bluff. From left to right, he deployed Brigadier-General John Wesley Turner’s division (2/X), Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry’s division (1/X), Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks’ division (1/XVIII), and Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel’s division (2/XVIII). Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman’s brigade (1/2/XVIII) was refused to cover the extreme right flank. After assigning the forces he deemed necessary for defensive security he found that he had no longer had sufficient forces left to advance. Union Major-General William Farrar Smith obtained permission to use just three regiments from Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames’ division, currently held in reserve at Halfway House, in an attack to probe for a vulnerable point on the right flank. Butler still declined the opportunity to advance.

Butler ordered telegraph wire to be strung around tree stumps as an additional defensive obstacle across the front of Brooks’ division and one of Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel’s brigades, but not along Heckman’s front on the right flank. This is generally considered to be the first deliberate use of wire entanglements in warfare although its inadvertent use at Knoxville in late 1863 had already proven its effectiveness.

Virginia. At Spotsylvania, Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps moved from the right flank and beyond VI Corps to the left flank of the Army of the Potomac, in an attempt to extend the line beyond the Confederate defences. The Union and Confederate lines entrenched again for two more days of skirmishing at Spotsylvania. Minor engagements took place around Piney Branch Church as the armies entrenched more securely in their new positions.

Union Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright proposed a new plan to Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant. He suggested that the Confederates must have weakened their left flank to relocate forces to his front, so a rapid reversal of his unsuccessful flank march might reveal an opportunity to attack from his former lines. Grant agreed and decided to add the strength of II Corps to the counter-march. With his experience of the rain-sodden delays of his latest manoeuvres, he allowed two days for the repositioning and set the date of the new attack as 18 May.

New Market, Virginia. Union Major-General Franz Sigel had about 6,500 men in the infantry division of Brigadier-General Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan and the cavalry division of Major-General Julius Stahel, supported by 28 guns. His advance had been delayed by Confederate Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden’s cavalry at the crossing of the North Fork of the Shenandoah River near New Market, but Sigel’s men finally crossed and deployed south of the river across the turnpike leading to New Market. Withdrawing to New Market, Imboden was reinforced at dawn at New Market by Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge, with two brigades under Brigadier-General John Echols and Brigadier-General Gabriel Wharton. Sigel’s position seemed vulnerable to Breckinridge, who resolved to attack with his makeshift army.

After a long-range artillery duel lasting for an hour, Breckinridge advanced with 4,090 men and 14 guns, reinforced by 247 cadets who had already marched 81 miles in four days from the Virginia Military Institute under Lieutenant-Colonel Scott Shipp (who was replaced by Captain Henry A Wise after Shipp was wounded). Imboden’s cavalry made a horseback charge through woods on the right while the infantry pushed through the town. Sigel’s skirmishers fell back skilfully for about half a mile to occupy a strong position to the left and right of a hill on which a six-gun battery was in action to hold this lynchpin of the position. The Confederates closed to within rifle range of the main Union line on this ridge north of the Bushong farm. The front rank of the Confederate line paused at the split rail fence separating Jacob Bushong’s orchard and a wheat field. Receiving massed fire from Union rifles and artillery, the right flank of the 51st Virginia Infantry, the 30th Virginia Infantry, and the left flank of the 62nd Virginia Mounted Infantry fell back. Noting the confusion in the Confederate line, Sigel ordered a general counterattack. Breckenridge knew he must quickly fill the void in the centre of his line or abandon the field. Reluctantly, Breckinridge sent in the VMI boy cadets to save the situation. Shipp and his 257 VMI cadets blocked the gap along the fence just as the 34th Massachusetts Infantry started its attack. The cadets met the Union charge and turned it back and overran the Union battery. Sigel attempted to retake the guns with a West Virginian regiment, but it refused to advance.

When another Union battery was withdrawn from the line to replenish its ammunition, Breckinridge was quick to exploit the weakness. He ordered his entire force forward and Sigel’s stubborn defence collapsed, falling back to a knoll four miles from New Market, where Confederate guns had disputed his crossing of the river the previous day. Threatened by the Confederate cavalry on his left flank and rear, Sigel ordered a general withdrawal across the river at 4 pm, burning the North Fork Bridge behind him. Sigel retreated down the Valley towards Mount Jackson, which was reached at about 7 pm. The Union force held a good position here for two hours before deciding to make a further retreat.

Union casualties were reported as 831 to 840 men and Confederate casualties as 577 men, including 8 of the VMI cadets killed and 46 wounded. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

West Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Beverly through Braxton County, Pocohontas County, and Webster County began.

West Virginia. Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell’s cavalry caught up with the infantry of Brigadier-General George Crook at Union, halfway between the New River Bridge and Lewisburg. Averell’s troops had completed an arduous flight through Christianburg and along narrow mountain paths to evade encirclement. The raid to the Tennessee & Virginia Railroad and Saltville had achieved little tangible success but it proved that the Union cavalry could now be considered at least the equal of the Confederates in the difficult terrain of southwestern Virginia.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General William Plummer Benton assumed command of the District of Baton Rouge, succeeding Brigadier-General Henry Warner Birge.

Benton, William Plummer / Maryland / Born 25 December 1828 New Market, Maryland / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 14 March 1867
Private US Mounted Rifles 1846-1849 / Mustered Out USV 1849 / Captain USV 8th Indiana Militia 27 April 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Indiana 27 April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 6 August 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Indiana Infantry 5 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 28 April 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 July 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 26 March 1865
Benton’s Brigade Army of the Ohio July 1861 / 1st Division Army of Southwest Missouri October 1862-3 December 1862 / 1st Division Army of Southeast Missouri 3 December 1862-26 March 1863 / 1st Brigade 14th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 28 March 1863-31 March 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 28 July 1863-8 August 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 7 August 1863-15 September 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 25 November 1863-8 February 1864 / XIII Corps Gulf 9 May 1864-11 June 1864 / District of Baton Rouge 15 May 1864-31 May 1864 / District of Baton Rouge 13 June 1864-5 August 1864 / Sub-District of Baton Rouge 6 August 1864-3 October 1864 / District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson 30 October 1864-26 December 1864 / 3rd Division Reserve Corps Department of the Gulf 3 February 1865-18 February 1865 / 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 18 February 1865-28 May 1865 / 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 3 June 1865-20 July 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • District of Yorktown: Joseph Bradford Carr
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting temporary

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker interim Thomas Jordan awaited
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
Birkett Davenport Fry
Richard Waterhouse

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