1864 May 14th

May 14 1864 Saturday

Resaca, GA

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Resaca

James River Campaign

Virginia Overland Campaign – Spotsylvania

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

Crook’s West Virginia Raid

Averell’s Second West Virginia Raid

Georgia. Incidents at Lay’s Ferry and Oostenaula River.

Resaca, Georgia. Union forces under Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman continued to probe the Confederate defences north and west of Resaca. Sherman attempted to find a weak point to exploit. In the north and on the Union left flank, Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox’s division (3/XXIII) took some enemy positions on the front of the Army of the Ohio. Brigadier-General Henry Moses Judah’s division (2/XXIII) on Cox’s right advanced across difficult terrain but was driven back by heavy enfilade fire from the west. Judah’s performance in the battle was questioned and within four days he had been relieved of command.

Uniom Brigadier-General Absalom Baird’s Division (3/XIV) advanced under fire down a slope and crossed Camp Creek but was disorganised by heavy undergrowth and fell back with severe losses. West of Resaca, Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee also attacked across Camp Creek and took some works on the high ground west of the town, securing a lodgement near the railroad.

At about 6 pm the Confederate Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood counterattacked against Cox on the northern flank with the divisions of Major-General Alexander Peter Stewart and Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson and drove it back for half a mile. The attack was halted by Union reinforcements, but the Confederates made enough progress for General Joseph Eggleston Johnston to order its resumption by Hood the following day. By nightfall, the prospects seemed less promising as several Union batteries had been deployed on the high ground by Camp Creek.

Long-range artillery fire was already harassing the rear of the Confederate army and threatened the crossings of the Oostenaula. Johnston ordered the construction of a pontoon bridge a mile upstream from the permanent bridges in case they were damaged. Johnston also learned that the Union IV Corps, which had been demonstrating at Dalton, had rejoined the Union army following a direct line of march along the Western & Atlantic Railroad. This reinforcement led Johnston to cancel his orders for Hood’s attack and Hood was called back to his original defences.

Georgia. Union Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry division was sent five miles downriver from Resaca to build two pontoon bridges at Lay’s Ferry. The cavalry were to be followed across the Oostenaula by Brigadier-General Thomas William Sweeny’s Division (2/XVI). Late in the evening, Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston received word of a possible crossing at Lay’s Ferry. This move threatened to cut the railroad behind the main position at Resaca and Johnston decided it must be evacuated. He detached the division of Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker for a night march to oppose the crossing while the rest of the army prepared for a withdrawal across the Oostenaula.

Louisiana. Incidents at Alexandria and Natchitoches.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Wilson’s Landing.

Louisiana. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks’ expeditionary force crossed the Choctaw Bayou swamps. There was a skirmish at Wilson’s Landing, but the progress of the retreat was not slowed. As the ships of Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter’s gunboat fleet neared the mouth of the Red River, they met constant resistance from Confederate shore batteries and riflemen. USS St Clair engaged a battery near Eunice’s Bluff, until the transports it was convoying were out of danger, and then continued downriver.

Maryland. Expedition to Point Lookout ended.

Mississippi. Incident at Vaughan Station.

Virginia. Expedition to Rappahannock River ended.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Spotsylvania Court House, Chula Depot, Clover Hill Junction, Flat Creek Bridge, Proctor’s Creek, Drewry’s Bluff, and Fort Darling.

Virginia. Skirmishes at New Market and Rude’s Hill.

Virginia. Union Major-General Franz Sigel’s column reached Mount Jackson at the terminus of the Manassas Gap Railroad in the Shenandoah Valley. This was just seven miles from the key objective of New Market which dominated the road through the Massanutten Mountain, a nearly impassable feature which would protect his left flank all the way south to Staunton. Sigel sent his cavalry two miles ahead to secure the crossing of the North Fork of the Shenandoah River. They came under harassing fire from a Confederate battery on a hill a mile beyond the river crossing and began an artillery duel. Sigel told them to disengage and to await the arrival of his infantry in the morning to force the crossing.

Confederate Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge was at Lacy Springs, twelve miles further to the south, with his two infantry brigades, some militia, and cadets from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) alongside the cavalry of Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden. He ordered Imboden to take his cavalry immediately to the crossing and to hold it until nightfall, and then to fall back south of New Market, where Breckinridge would join him at daybreak.

Virginia. The Union V Corps of the Army of the Potomac reached its intended positions on the left of the Union line at Spotsylvania at around 6 am, two hours behind the intended time for an attack on the Confederate right flank. The heavy rains and muddy roads made it impossible to deploy effectively for an attack and the two armies took advantage of a day without serious fighting. The Union VI Corps struggled to extend the Union line much farther beyond the V Corps.

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee moved his I Corps under Major-General Richard Heron Anderson from his left flank at Spotsylvania to the right flank to counter the march by the Union V Corps and VI Corps into that sector. The Confederate line was extended to Snell’s Bridge on the Po River.

Virginia. Union Major-General Philip Sheridan’s Cavalry Corps crossed the Chickahominy River and went into bivouac at Haxall’s Landing. They remained here for three days while Sheridan established communications with Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler’s Army of the James at Bermuda Hundred. Sheridan’s raid was especially significant for his destruction of the Confederates supply depots at Beaver Dam Station and Ashland Station, which seriously disrupted supplies to the Army of Northern Virginia.  At a cost of 625 men killed, wounded, and missing, Sheridan’s raid had liberated 400 Union prisoners and taken 300 Confederate prisoners as well as inflicting heavy losses, among them two generals killed, one of them being the celebrated Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart. Stuart was once described by an opponent as “the greatest cavalry officer ever foaled in America”.

Virginia. Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard arrived at Drewry’s Bluff at 3 am. The Union Army of the James had already taken the outer works of the vital stronghold and Beauregard proposed to counter-attack to recapture them and then begin the destruction of the Union force. Unfortunately, his ambitious plan required the immediate transfer of 10,000 men from General Robert Edward Lee’s army, which he expected to fall back to the defences of Richmond as a result. He also demanded the immediate return of Major-General Robert Ransom’s two brigades from the Richmond defences. He believed that he could complete the defeat of Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler, and then return victoriously with these troops to defeat the Army of the Potomac before Richmond fell.

Confederate General Braxton Bragg rode from Richmond to hear more about Beauregard’s expansive project. Bragg agreed with President Jefferson Finis Davis that the plan was unfeasible. Lee had no safe way of disengaging and retreating sixty miles through the Union cavalry to Richmond with the consequent loss of the Virginia Central Railroad and all connection with the Shenandoah Valley. Bragg returned to Beauregard to convey the rejection in person but was able to offer the return of Ransom’s two brigades. Beauregard then began to plan a less ambitious but equally aggressive operation to accomplish Butler’s defeat.

Virginia. Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler’s Army of the James continued to move nrothwards along the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad towards the powerful Confederate forts at Drewry’s Bluff. The Confederate defences were now held by about 18,000 men in the divisions of Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke and Major-General Robert Ransom.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General August Valentine Kautz’s cavalry division wrecked parts of the Southside Railroad, west of Petersburg.

Union Organisation

USA: Horatio Gouverneur Wright confirmed Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864.

Wright, Horatio Gouverneur / Connecticut / Born 6 March 1820 Clinton, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 July 1899
USMA 1 July 1841 2/52 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 28 February 1848 / Captain USA 1 July 1855 / ADC (S P Heintzelman) June 1861-July 1861 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 September 1861 / Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 Negated 12 March 1863 Revoked 24 March 1863 / Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 November 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Colonel USA 4 March 1879 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 30 June 1879 / Retired USA 6 March 1884 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8 November 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 12 May 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Norfolk 20 April 1861 Exchanged 24 April 1861 WIA Spotsylvania 9 May 1864 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
3rd Brigade Port Royal Expedition 19 September 1861-15 March 1862 / 1st Division Department of the South April 1862-July 1862 / Department of the Ohio 19 August 1862-25 March 1863 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 23 May 1863-16 December 1863 / District of Western Kentucky 25 March 1864-4 April 1864 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 23 April 1864-9 May 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 9 May 1864-6 August 1864 / Washington Defence Force 12 July 1864-6 August 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 6 August 1864-16 October 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 18 October 1864-19 October 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 19 October 1864-6 December 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 6 December 1864-16 January 1865 / VI Corps Potomac 11 February 1865-28 June 1865 / Department of Texas 27 June 1865-6 August 1865 / Chief of Engineers USA 30 June 1879-6 March 1884

USA: Andrew Jackson Smith confirmed Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864.

Smith, Andrew Jackson / Pennsylvania / Born 28 April 1815 Bucks, Pennsylvania / Died St Louis, Missouri 30 January 1897
USMA 1 July 1838 36/45 Dragoons-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 March 1845 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / Major USA 13 May 1861 / 1st US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd California Cavalry 2 October 1861 / Resigned USV 3 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 9 May 1864 / Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 7th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Resigned USA 6 May 1869 / Missouri Militia 1877 / Colonel USA Retired 22 January 1889 to rank from 5 January 1889 / Brevet Colonel USA 10 April 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Cavalry Department of the Missouri 11 February 1862-11 March 1862 / Cavalry Department of the Mississippi 11 March 1862-11 July 1862 / 1st Division Army of Kentucky 7 October 1862-13 November 1862 / 10th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 November 1862-18 December 1862 / 1st Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 10th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-7 August 1863 / 6th Division District of Columbus 7 August 1863-25 January 1864 / 3rd Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 25 January 1864-7 March 1864 / Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee 7 March 1864-10 March 1864 /Right Wing XVI Corps Department of the Gulf 10 March 1864-22 May 1864 / Right Wing XVI Corps District of West Tennessee 23 May 1864-7 November 1864 / Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) 5 December 1864-18 February 1865 / XVI Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-20 July 1865 / District of Alabama 17 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Missouri 12 September 1867-2 March 1868

USA: John Frederick Hartranft confirmed Brigadier-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864.

Hartranft, John Frederick / Pennsylvania / Born 16 December 1830 Fagleysville, Pennsylvania / Died Norristown, Pennsylvania 17 October 1889
Lieutenant-Colonel Pennsylvania Militia 20 April 1861 / Colonel USV 4th Pennsylvania Infantry 20 April 1861 / Colonel 4th Pennsylvania Militia 21 April 1861 / ADC (W B Franklin) 21 July 1861 / Mustered Out USV 27 July 1861 / Colonel USV 51st Pennsylvania Infantry 16 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Major-General Pennsylvania Militia 1879-1889 / Brevet Major-General USV 25 March 1865 Medal of Honor 21 July 1861 / WIA Petersburg 17 June 1864
2nd Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Virginia February 1863-March 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio April 1863-May 1863 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 21 May 1863-5 June 1863 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 16 November 1863-26 January 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 20 April 1864-28 August 1864 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 28 August 1864-1 September 1864 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 2 September 1864-13 September 1864 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 30 September 1864-9 October 1864 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 9 October 1864-25 October 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 25 October 1864-28 November 1864 / Hartranft’s Brigade IX Corps Army of the Potomac 28 November 1864-15 December 1864 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 15 December 1864-24 April 1865 / 3rd Division IX Corps Department of Washington 24 April 1865-3 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • District of Yorktown: Joseph Bradford Carr
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General William Henry Chase Whiting assumed temporary command of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

Whiting, William Henry Chase / Mississippi / Born 22 March 1824 Biloxi, Mississippi / DOW Fort Columbus, New York 10 March 1865
USMA 1 July 1845 1/41 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 March 1853 / Captain USA 13 December 1858 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Major ACSA Engineers 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General 12 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Inspector-General North Carolina Militia 21 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 5 March 1863 to rank from 28 February 1863 / MWIA Fort Fisher 15 January 1865
Chief Engineer Defences of Charleston 6 March 1861-12 April 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General Defences of Charleston 12 April 1861-May 1861 / Chief Engineer Army of the Shenandoah 22 June 1861 / 1st Brigade X Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-26 December 1861 / Whiting’s Division Army of the Potomac 27 December 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-May 1862 / 1st Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia May 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-July 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862 / District of Cape Fear 17 July 1862-18 August 1862 / Sub-District of Cape Fear 18 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Sub-District of Cape Fear 8 November 1862-14 July 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 July 1863-23 September 1863 / District of the Cape Fear River and the Defences of Wilmington 26 September 1863-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Whiting’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-15 January 1865 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 September 1864-16 November 1864

CSA: Richard Taylor confirmed Lieutenant-General PACS 14 May 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864.

Taylor, Richard / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 27 January 1826 Louisville, Kentucky / Died 12 April 1879
Military Secretary (Z Taylor) 1846-1848 / Colonel PACS 9th Louisiana Infantry 7 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 October 1861 / Major-General PACS 28 July 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 14 May 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / CIA Citronelle, Mississippi 8 May 1865
8th Brigade Army of the Potomac July 1861 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-5 February 1862 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 8th Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 14 March 1862-26 June 1862 / 8th Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-28 July 1862 / District of West Louisiana 20 August 1862-10 June 1864 / Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 15 August 1864-22 November 1864 / Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 12 December 1864-4 May 1864 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 23 January 1865-24 February 1865 / Army of Tennessee 23 January 1865-22 February 1865

CSA: John Brown Gordon promoted Major-General PACS 14 May 1864.

Gordon, John Brown / Georgia / Born 6 February 1832 Upson, Georgia / Died Miami, Florida 9 January 1904
Captain PACS 6th Alabama Infantry 15 April 1861 / Major PACS 14 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 26 December 1861 / Colonel PACS 28 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 November 1862 Unconfirmed / Brigadier-General PACS 11 May 1863 to rank from 7 May 1863 / Major-General PACS 14 May 1864 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Shepherdstown 25 August 1864 WIA Fort Stedman 25 March 18645
2nd Brigade 4th Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-28 June 1862 / 1st Brigade D H Hill’s Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 28 June 1862-1 July 1862 / Gordon’s Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 11 April 1863-8 May 1864 / Gordon’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 May 1864-22 May 1864 / Johnson’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 22 May 1864-13 June 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 13 June 1864-9 December 1864 / II Corps Northern Virginia 9 December 1864-6 April 1865 / Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 6 April 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: Birkett Davenport Fry promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 14 May 1864 to rank from 24 May 1864.

Fry, Birkett Davenport / Virginia / Born 24 June 1822 Kanawha, Virginia / Died Richmond, Virginia 21 January 1891
1st Lieutenant USA 24 February 1847 / US Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 / Regt Adjutant 15 June 1847-26 August 1847 / Discharged USA 31 August 1848 / Colonel PACS 13th Alabama Infantry 19 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 14 May 1864 to rank from 24 May 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 2 May 1863 WIA & CIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 Exchanged 5 April 1864
Archer’s Brigade A P Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 May 1864-4 May 1863 / 3rd Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 1 July 1863-3 July 1863 / Fry’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 11 May 1864-14 May 1864 / Fry’s Brigade Ransom’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 May 1864-17 May 1864 / Fry’s Brigade B R Johnson’s Division Defences of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Fry’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 21 May 1864-9 June 1864 / Fry’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 9 June 1864-14 September 1864 / District of Northern Georgia 21 March 1865-April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting temporary

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker interim Thomas Jordan awaited
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
Birkett Davenport Fry
Richard Waterhouse

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