1864 May 13th

May 13 1864 Friday

Battle of Spotsylvania, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Inconclusive)

Battle of Proctor’s Creek, VA

Battle of Resaca, GA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Red River Campaign

Atlanta Campaign – Resaca

James River Campaign

Virginia Overland Campaign – Spotsylvania

Sheridan’s Richmond Raid

Crook’s West Virginia Raid

Averell’s Second West Virginia Raid

Arkansas. Confederate operation north of the Arkansas River began.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Cypress Creek in Perry County involving Confederate Brigadier-General Joseph Orville Shelby.

Arkansas. The Union 2nd Cherokee Regiment assisted in a successful Union attack on a Confederate camp at Spavinaw.

Georgia. Confederate evacuation of Dalton.

Georgia. Skirmishes at Sugar Valley, Resaca, and Tilton.

Georgia. Skirmish at Smith’s Cross Roads.

Resaca, Georgia, also known as Lay’s Ferry or Oostenaula. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston’s Army of Tennessee completed its evacuation of Rocky Face Ridge and Dalton and occupied the hills north and west of Resaca and north of the Oostenaula River. It was not a naturally strong position. The hamlet of Resaca had to be held as it was on the single-track railroad line which supplied the army. The town was surrounded by farm fields and dense woods. The Confederates held a concave line that ran from the Oostenaula downstream from Resaca on the left to the tributary river Connasauga north of the town on the far right. Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk’s Corps held positions due west of the town, Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps manned the centre, and Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood’s Corps covered the right flank. The Ooostenaula River to the rear presented an obstacle to a rapid withdrawal, but it also provided some security for the flanks.

Early in the day, Union Major-General Oliver Otis Howard (IV Corps) discovered Johnston’s withdrawal from Rocky Face Ridge and started in pursuit southwards along the Western & Atlantic Railroad. At Snake Creek Gap, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman had finally concentrated the Army of the Tennessee, the Army of the Ohio, and most of the Army of the Cumberland, and they deployed for the advance towards Resaca.

At 8 am, Union Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry division and Major-General Joseph Hooker’s XX Corps moved out in support of Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee advance from Snake Creek Gap, west of Resaca. Two miles west of Resaca at Smith’s Cross Road, Kilpatrick’s cavalry encountered Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry. Kilpatrick was wounded and forced to leave the field. Confederate Major-General William Wing Loring’s division contested the Union advance on this front. About two miles further to the northeast, Union Major-General John McAuley Palmer’s XIV Corps also advanced from Snake Creek Gap and his skirmishers discovered strong Confederate defences along Camp Creek, covered by a ridge west of Resaca. Major-General Daniel Butterfield’s division (3/XX) moved up in support of Palmer while two divisions from Schofield’s XXIII Corps (Army of the Ohio) advanced on their left. During the evening, the Union troops tested the strength of the Confederate lines on the left, right, and centre, and scouted aggressively to pinpoint strong points and weak points. They now occupied a semi-circular line facing the Confederates while more troops arrived through Snake Creek Gap to the rear. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Kentucky. Expedition from Louisa to Rock House Creek ended.

Louisiana. Union retreat from Alexandria to Morganza began.

Louisiana. The last of Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter’s flotilla, which had been being trapped by low water in the Red River, dashed through the hurriedly constructed wing dams to safety below the rapids at Alexandria. By mid-afternoon, USS Louisville, USS Chillicothe, and USS Ozark started to steam downriver, convoying the transports of the Red River expedition. This ended one of the most dramatic exploits of the war that saved the Mississippi River Squadron.

The escape of the fleet meant that Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks no longer needed to keep his army at Alexandria to protect the ships, and he began his own sixty-mile escape march to Simsport on the Atchafalaya. Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith’s divisions (Detachment Army of the Tennessee) formed the rear-guard of the column and they put Alexandria to the torch as they departed, the latest in a series of towns along the Red River that they had razed to the ground. The advanced guard was led by Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory and XIX Corps.

Mississippi. Incident at Yazoo City.

Mississippi. Union Brigadier-General John McArthur completed his ten-day expedition to Yazoo City, Mississippi.

Missouri. Skirmish with Confederate guerrillas six miles northeast of Cuba.

North Carolina. The small side-wheel steamer USS Ceres, Acting Master Henry H Foster, and the transport steamer Rockland carrying 100 soldiers, raided along the Alligator River, captured a schooner, and disabled a corn mill supplying the Confederate armies.

Oregon Territory. Incident at Crooked River.

South Carolina. Skirmish on James Island in Charleston Harbour.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Pulaski.

Texas. Incident at White’s Ranch.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Woodstock and Brown’s Ferry.

Virginia. Skirmish at New Market involving Confederate Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden,

Virginia. Union Major-General Philip Sheridan’s cavalry raid reached Bottom’s Bridge on the Chickahominy River from Gaines’ Mill.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General August Valentine Kautz’s cavalry division wrecked parts of the Richmond & Danville Railroad.

Spotsylvania, Virginia, or Spotsylvania Court House. By 3 am, the Confederates completed their desperate efforts to construct a new line of entrenchments across the rear of the Mule Shoe salient at Spotsylvania. General Robert Edward Lee quietly withdrew his forces in small groups to take cover behind it during the night. The corpse-ridden Mule Shoe was left to the Union forces and the fighting petered out by dawn. Both sides were utterly exhausted, and the Union troops did not attempt to push forward to the new Confederate defence line.

The new Confederate line, without a vulnerable salient, was stronger than ever before and Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant looked for a new direction to continue his operations. He discounted a move by the Confederate left flank as the absence of his cavalry would expose him to a surprise counter-attack. Therefore, he planned a route around the Confederate right flank. Grant moved V Corps in a night march from the right of the line at Spotsylvania to the left, in order to attack and pin the Confederate right flank at dawn. The VI Corps was to disengage in turn and follow the march of V Corps, passing behind it to extend the envelopment further east. Continuous heavy rains slowed the march and the troops were not in position in time to make the planned attack at 4 am. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Inconclusive)

Proctor’s Creek, Virginia, also known as Drewry’s Buff or Fort Darling. A Union column from Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler’s army at Bermuda Hundred struck the right flank of the Confederate line south of Drewry’s Bluff, carrying a line of works at the Wooldridge House. The Confederates were forced back to the main defences at Drewry’s Bluff and Fort Darling. Butler remained cautious, giving Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard time to concentrate his forces. Union gunboats under Union Rear Admiral Samuel Powhatan Lee arrived at Chafin’s Bluff to provide support to Butler’s advance. The flotilla could not proceed further upriver because of the ironclad monitors; deep draught.

West Virginia. Skirmishes at Newport, Pound Mountain Gap, Salt Pond Mountain, Salt Ponds, Gap Mountain,

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General George Henry Gordon assumed command of the District of Florida, succeeding Brigadier-General William Birney.

Gordon, George Henry / Massachusetts / Born 19 July 1823 Charlestown, Massachusetts / Died Framingham, Massachusetts 30 August 1886
USMA 1 July 1846 43/59 Mounted Rifles-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / US Mounted Rifles 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 January 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 August 1853 / Resigned USA 31 October 1854 / Colonel USV 2nd Massachusetts Infantry 25 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 12 June 1862 to rank from 9 June 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Major-General USV 9 April 1865 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA San Juan Bridge 21 December 1847
1st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 28 August 1861-10 October 1861 / 3rd Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-14 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 14 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-27 May 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Shenandoah 18 June 1862-26 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 16 September 1862-17 September 1862 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1862-20 October 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 20 October 1862-26 October 1862 / Gordon’s Brigade Morell’s Division Defences of the Upper Potomac October 1862-February 1863 / Reserve Division Department of Virginia 1 May 1863-4 May 1863 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 4 May 1863-15 July 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 17 July 1863-5 August 1863 / Gordon’s Division South Folly Island Department of the South 16 August 1863-24 October 1863 / Gordon’s Division South Folly Island Department of the South 28 November 1863-15 January 1864 / Gordon’s Division X Corps Department of the South 15 January 1864-28 January 1864 / District of Florida 13 May 1864-2 June 1864 / Forces White River Department of Arkansas 19 July 1864-1 August 1864 / Forces Mobile Bay Department of the Gulf 1 August 1864-31 August 1864 / District of Eastern Virginia 11 February 1865-24 August 1865 / Department of South Carolina 27 June 1865-10 September 1865 / Department of South Carolina 16 October 1865-9 November 1865

USA: Brigadier-General William Birney assumed command of the District of Hilton Head, succeeding Colonel William Watts Hart Davis.

Birney, William / Alabama / Born 28 May 1819 Huntsville, Alabama / Died Forest Glen, Maryland 14 August 1907
Captain USV 1st New Jersey Infantry 22 May 1861 / Major USV 4th New Jersey Infantry 27 September 1861 / Colonel USV 13 January 1863 / Colonel USV 22nd USC Infantry 22 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 4 June 1863 to rank from 22 May 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / CIA Alexander’s Bridge, Virginia 27 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862
District of Florida 20 April 1864-13 May 1864 / District of Hilton Head 13 May 1864-2 June 1864 / District of Florida 2 June 1864-4 August 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 27 August 1864-1 September 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 1 September 1864-5 October 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 5 October 1864-20 October 1864 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 29 October 1864-3 December 1864 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-21 February 1865 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 27 March 1865-10 April 1865

USA: Francis Fessenden confirmed Brigadier-General USV 13 May 1864 to rank from 10 May 1864.

Fessenden, Francis / Maine / Born 18 March 1839 Portland, Maine / Died Portland, Maine 2 January 1906
Captain USA 19th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Colonel USV 25th Maine 29 September 1862 / Mustered Out USV 10 July 1863 / Colonel USV 30th Maine Infantry 11 January 1864 / Brigadier-General USV 13 May 1864 to rank from 10 May 1864 / Major-General USV 9 November 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / 28th US Infantry 28 August 1866 / Resigned USA 1 November 1866 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 1 November 1866 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 6 July 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Monett’s Bluff 23 April 1864
3rd Brigade Military District of Washington October 1862-31 December 1862 / 1st Brigade Military District of Washington 31 December 1862-2 February 1863 / 1st Brigade Casey’s Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 2 February 1863-17 April 1863 / 1st Brigade Abercrombie’s Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 17 April 1863-28 June 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 15 February 1864-29 March 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 9 April 1864-23 April 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of West Virginia May 1865 / 1st Division Department of West Virginia May 1865-July 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Porter Hatch interim John Gray Foster awaited

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • District of Yorktown: Joseph Bradford Carr
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General John King Jackson arrived to command the Reserve Forces of Florida.

Jackson, John King / Georgia / Born 8 February 1828 Augusta, Georgia / Died Milledgeville, Georgia 27 February 1866
Lieutenant Georgia Militia / Captain Georgia Militia / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 5th Georgia Infantry April 1861 / Colonel PACS May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 January 1862 to rank from 14 January 1862 / Quartermaster 26 April 1865 / Paroled Augusta, Georgia 17 May 1865
1st Brigade Army of Pensacola 27 January 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-2 July 1862 / 3rd Brigade Withers’ Division Reserve Corps Army of Mississippi 2 July 1862-15 August 1862 / 3rd Brigade Withers’ Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 15 August 1862-20 November 1862 / Jackson’s Brigade Withers’ Division Polk’s Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-December 1862 / Jackson’s Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee December 1862-July 1863 / District of the Tennessee 23 February 1863-25 July 1863 / Jackson’s Brigade Cheatham’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 23 September 1863-20 February 1864 / Jackson’s Brigade W H T Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 February 1864-3 July 1864 / Reserve Forces of Florida 30 April 1864-7 September 1864 / District of Florida 30 August 1864-29 September 1864 / Quartermaster Army of Tennessee 26 April 1865

CSA: James Fleming Fagan confirmed Major-General PACS (Special) 13 May 1864 to rank from 25 April 1864.

Fagan, James Fleming / Kentucky-Arkansas / Born 1 March 1828 Louisville, Kentucky / Died Little Rock, Arkansas 1 September 1893
2nd Lieutenant USV 1st Arkansas Mounted Infantry 1847-1848 / Colonel PACS 1st Arkansas Infantry 6 May 1861 / Resigned USA 11 July 1861 / Colonel PACS 6th Arkansas Cavalry July 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 26 September 1862 to rank from 12 September 1862 / Major-General PACS 13 May 1864 to rank from 25 April 1864 / Paroled Washington, Arkansas 20 June 1865 / CIA 14 June 1865
1st Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Trans-Mississippi Army December 1862-January 1863 / Fagan’s Brigade Hindman’s Division District of Arkansas January 1863—23 July 1863 / Price’s Division District of Arkansas 23 July 1863-17 August 1863 / Fagan’s Brigade Hindman’s Division District of Arkansas 17 August 1863-1863 / Fagan’s Cavalry Division District of Arkansas 1863-18 September 1864 / Fagan’s Cavalry Division Army of Missouri 18 September 1864-3 December 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi Department 3 December 1864-15 January 1865 / Cavalry District of Arkansas 1 February 1865-31 March 1865 / District of Arkansas 31 March 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: Robert Plunket Maclay promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 May 1864 to rank from 30 April 1864 unconfirmed

Maclay, Robert Plunket / Pennsylvania-Louisiana / Born 19 February 1820 Armagh, Pennsylvania / Died 20 May 1903 New Roads, Louisiana
USMA 1 July 1840 32/42 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 6th US Infantry 1 July 1840 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8th US Infantry 1 October 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 December 1845 / Captain USA 22 January 1849 / Resigned USA 31 December 1860 / Captain Louisiana Militia 16 December 1861 / Major Louisiana Militia 1 March 1862 / Major PACS Artillery 31 October 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General December 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 May 1864 to rank from 30 April 1864 Trans-Mississippi Unconfirmed / No Record of Parole/ Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1840 / WIA Resaca de la Palma 9 May 1846
3rd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Trans-Mississippi Army September 1864

CSA: Brigadier-General Junius Daniel died of wounds received at Spotsylvania, Virginia.

Daniel, Junius / North Carolina / Born 27 June 1828 Halifax, North Carolina / DOW Spotsylvania, Virginia 13 May 1864
USMA 1 July 1851 33/42 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 /3rd US Infantry 1 July 1851 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 10 November 1851 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 May 1857 / Resigned USA 14 January 1858 / Colonel PACS 14th North Carolina Infantry 3 June 1861 / 45th North Carolina Infantry 14 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 15 September 1862 to rank from 1 September 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USMA 1 July 1851 / WIA Malvern Hill 30 June 1862 MWIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864
3rd Brigade Holmes’ Division Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-July 1862 / 3rd Brigade D H Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond July 1862-11 August 1862 / Daniel’s Brigade French’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 30 August 1862-4 May 1863 / Daniel’s Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 20 May 1863-12 May 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William B Butler interim Henry Alexander Wise awaited

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker interim Thomas Jordan awaited
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel DOW
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
Richard Waterhouse

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