1864 June 1st

June 1 1864 Wednesday

Old Cold Harbor, VA
Hanover Court House, VA

Atlanta Campaign – Dallas
Virginia Overland Campaign – Cold Harbor
Forrest’s Second Tennessee Raid
Sturgis’ Operation against Forrest
Morgan’s East Kentucky Raid

Go to June 2 1864

Great Britain. CSS Georgia was sold in Liverpool after serving as a Confederate commerce raider for over a year. During its cruise, it captured or destroyed nine vessels.

Alabama. Incident at Decatur.


Confederate Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Major-General Stephen Dill Lee
Gulf District: Major-General Dabney Herndon Maury
District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Colonel John S Scott
District of Northern Alabama: Brigadier-General Jones Mitchell Withers
District of West Tennessee: Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest
Chalmers’ Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers
McCulloch’s Brigade, Chalmers’ Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Colonel R
Neely’s Brigade, Chalmers’ Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Colonel J J Neely
Buford’s Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Brigadier-General Abraham Buford
Lyon’s Brigade, Buford’s Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Colonel Edward Crossland
Bell’s Brigade, Buford’s Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Colonel Tyree Harris Bell
Gholson’s Brigade, Buford’s Cavalry Division (Alabama & East Mississippi): Colonel John McGuirk
Roddey’s Cavalry Division, (Alabama & East Mississippi): Brigadier-General Philip Dale Roddey
Adams’ Cavalry Division, (Alabama & East Mississippi): Brigadier-General William Wirt Adams

Arkansas. USS Exchange, Acting Master James C Gipson, a 210-ton wooden paddle-wheel steamer, engaged two Confederate batteries on the Mississippi River near Columbia. USS Exchange passed by the lower battery and then the second battery opened a destructive crossfire. Having rounded a sand bar, the ship could not back down and had to run by the upper battery. The port engine was struck and USS Exchange remained under fire for about forty-five minutes while the ship crept slowly out of range of the Confederate guns. The engine then stopped entirely but the Confederate artillery of Colonel Colton Greene did not reappear to resume the attack. USS Exchange was badly damaged in the encounter and Gipson was wounded.

Georgia. Incidents at Dallas, Marietta, and Burned Church.

Georgia. Skirmish near Marietta as Union Major-General George Stoneman’s cavalry moved to capture Allatoona Pass.

Georgia. Skirmish near Kingston.

Georgia. Frustrated in his failed turning movement across Pumpkin Vine Creek, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman moved his armies east towards the Western & Atlantic Railroad in order to restore his regular supply lines. Sherman continued to probe for a way around Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston’s strong lines between Dallas and New Hope Church. The first elements of Sherman’s armies reached Big Shanty on the railroad and the remainder joined them over the following two weeks.

Georgia. The Union cavalry divisions of Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard and Major-General George Stoneman occupied Allatoona Pass. This enabled the US Military Railroad teams to resume their repairs along the Western & Atlantic Railroad across the Etowah River and through Ackworth. An operational railroad through the pass would allow reinforcements and supplies to reach the Union armies directly by rail. Although Ackworth was less than ten miles of the Union army’s previous positions at New Hope Church, the rugged terrain and heavy rain hindered further progress without first restoring the supply line. A downpour continued for seventeen days, turning all the roads into quagmires, and forcing both armies to issue reduced rations.

Georgia. The USS Water Witch was reported to be anchored in Ossabaw Sound and the Confederate raiders of Lieutenant Thomas P Pelot CSN rowed out in their seven boats to capture it. They failed to find the ship in the darkness and returned to shore before daylight.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Pound Gap involving Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan.

Louisiana. Incident at Atchafalaya River.

Louisiana. The conclusion of the Red River campaign permitted the transfer of Union forces from the Department of the Gulf to serve in other theatres such as Georgia, Arkansas, and Virginia. There were also changes in the high command and a reorganisation of the XIX Corps. Eventually, the 3rd Division and the Corps D’Afrique would be retained in Louisiana, while the 1st Division and 2nd Division of XIX Corps would be transferred to Virginia.


Union Military Division of West Mississippi: Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory
1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Benjamin Stone Roberts
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel George Lafayette Beal
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General James Winning McMillan
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel L D H Currie
2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Henry Warner Birge
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Edward Leslie Molineux
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Jacob Sharpe
3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Albert Lindley Lee
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Robert Alexander Cameron
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Frederick William Moore

Mississippi. Union Brigadier-General Samuel Davis Sturgis’ Expedition from Memphis, Tennessee, to Ripley began, against Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest.

Missouri. Raid on New Market.

Missouri. Skirmish near Arnoldsville.

Tennessee. Union Brigadier-General Samuel Davis Sturgis’ Expedition from Memphis to Ripley, Mississippi, began, against Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest had temporarily interrupted his activities to recruit and reorganise his cavalry crops around Tupelo, Mississippi. He set out with about 2,200 men and six guns to enter Middle Tennessee with the intention to destroy the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, the main artery carrying men and supplies to Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman in Georgia. Sherman’s long and fragile supply and communication through Tennessee were in serious jeopardy because of constant raids by Forrest’s cavalry raids.
Sherman ordered Brigadier-General Samuel Davis Sturgis to track down and destroy Forrest’s cavalry or at least put a halt to his depredations. Sturgis collected a force of 3,000 cavalrymen and 4,800 infantrymen (in total around 8,300 men with 22 guns) for the operation. Supplies were accumulated for twenty days of operations and loaded in 250 wagons. Colonel William Lynn McMillen commanded the infantry division, comprising two brigades of white soldiers and one brigade of US Colored Troops who vowed vengeance for the massacre at Fort Pillow. Sturgis’ own cavalry division was commanded by Brigadier-General Benjamin Henry Grierson with his two brigades under Colonel George Waring and Colonel Edward Francis Winslow. Many of Grierson’s men carried modern repeating carbines and the entire expedition was well-equipped. The expedition left Memphis and reached Colliersville, as it headed towards Mississippi via Ripley and Fulton.

Virginia. Archy Jenkins, a black refugee from Richmond, confirmed warnings of an impending Confederate naval attack to Union officers in the James River. He described a large fire raft that was being built to attack the Union fleet.

Virginia. Incidents at Bottom’s Bridge and Mallory’s Cross Roads.

Virginia. The Confederate division of Major-General George Edward Pickett was officially re-assigned to Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s I Corps, after its lengthy detachment to the region around Richmond. The two other divisions of I Corps were commanded by Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw (formerly McLaws’ division) and Brigadier-General Charles William Field (formerly Hood’s or Law’s Division). Kershaw had the brigades of Colonel John W Henagan vice Kershaw, Brigadier-General Benjamin Grubb Humphreys, Brigadier-General William Tatum Wofford, and Brigadier-General Goode Bryan. Field had the five brigades of the late Brigadier-General Micah Jenkins, Brigadier-General George Thomas Anderson, Brigadier-General Evander McIvor Law, Brigadier-General John Gregg, and Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning.

Hanover Court House, Virginia, also known as Ashland. The Union cavalry division of Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson attempted to destroy the railroad junction at Hanover Court House. Union Colonel George Henry Chapman’s brigade was assigned to destroy the two bridges over the South Anna while Colonel John Baillie McIntosh’s brigade covered them from Ashland and tore up the tracks. Confederate cavalry divisions under Major-General Wade Hampton and Major-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee arrived and engaged them closely. Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser’s Confederate brigade from Hampton’s division attacked McIntosh from the east and then Major-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry attacked from the south. Chapman sent the 1st Maine Cavalry across the South Anna as reinforcements but McIntosh was forced back to Hanover Court House, where the division encamped overnight. The bridges were successfully destroyed despite Confederate interference.

Old Cold Harbor, Virginia, also known as Cold Harbor or Bethesda Church. Aware that the Union army had been reinforced by Major-General William Farrar Smith’s XVIII Corps from the immobilised force at Bermuda Hundred, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee decided to recapture Cold Harbor and to strike at the left flank of the Union army as it marched southwards. Lee aimed to land an early blow before his own right flank could be similarly assailed.
On the Union side, Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert’s cavalry division had been reinforced at Cold Harbor by a second cavalry division under Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg, and by artillery. Union Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright’s VI Corps was ordered to reinforce them both but did not move out from Totopotomoy Creek lines until after midnight to undertake the fifteen-mile night march. Union Major-General William Farrar Smith’s XVIII Corps had mistakenly been sent to New Castle Ferry on the Pamunkey River, six miles away, and the inadvertent detour meant that it did not reach Old Cold Harbor in time to assist Torbert.
Lee ordered Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s I Corps to move away from Atlee’s since the threat of an advance around the headwaters of the Totopotomoy Creek had now receded. Anderson moved from the army’s centre to the right wing to join Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke’s division, which had arrived from Bermuda Hundred the previous evening, in order to secure this key sector on the right flank. Anderson set off for a night march with Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw’s division leading. They departed promptly to form on Hoke’s left flank before dawn. Lee planned to use Anderson’s and Hoke’s infantry against the Union cavalry holding Old Cold Harbor, taking possession of the crossroads from the Union cavalry before enemy infantry could arrive. Anderson’s sector was taken over by Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps.
Anderson was given authority over Hoke’s division for the operation, but they did not coordinate their movements effectively. Anderson did not acquaint Hoke fully with his plan and Hoke understood that he was not to begin his assault until the main attack by I Corps was underway. Anderson spearheaded his attack with the veteran brigade formerly commanded by Kershaw but now under the inexperienced Colonel Lawrence M Keitt. Keitt’s own large but green regiment approached the entrenched cavalry of Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt. Armed with Spencer repeating carbines, Merritt’s men delivered a heavy rate of fire, mortally wounding Keitt in the first few volleys and destroying the cohesion of Keitt’s rookies. They gave way immediately and the veteran regiments to either side were also forced to give ground. Hoke obeyed what he understood to be his orders and did not join the attack immediately. The rest of Kershaw’s division was unsettled by the heavy rate of fire of the Union cavalrymen and could not be induced to advance unsupported. A second advance was attempted but it made little progress and was called back by Anderson. The Confederate divisions of Major-General Charles William Field and Major-General George Edward Pickett of Andersons’s Corps arrived too late to intervene.
By 9 am, the lead elements of Wright’s Union VI Corps had arrived at the crossroads and began to extend and improve the entrenchments started by the cavalrymen. The Union cavalrymen were relieved of front-line duty and retired to the east. Although Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant had intended for Wright to counterattack immediately, his men were exhausted from their long march and Wright was unsure of the strength and positions of the enemy. Wright decided to wait until after Smith arrived with his XVIII Corps. Smith’s tired troops finally turned up in the afternoon and entrenched on the right of the VI Corps. They linked up with Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s V Corps whose four divisions held two miles of defences below Old Church Road. Beyond the Old Church Road, Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside’s Union IX Corps extended the defences to Totopotomoy Creek.
These movements left only Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps, supported by Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry division, north of the Totopotomoy. Grant ordered Hancock to march overnight from the far right to the far left of the line to occupy the positions where the cavalry of Gregg and Torbert had withdrawn to screen the two miles gap south of Cold Harbor to the Chickahominy. Hancock was advised that he should be in position by dawn to take part in an early morning attack by all five corps of the army.
At 6:30 pm, Wright’s and Smith’s joint attack that Grant had initially ordered for the morning finally began and both Corps moved forward with six divisions at Cold Harbor. The ostensible aim was to secure better positions from which they could launch another larger attack planned for the morning. Wright’s men made little progress south of the Mechanicsville Road, which connected New and Old Cold Harbor, and recoiled from heavy fire. North of the road Brigadier-General Emory Upton’s brigade of Brigadier-General David Allen Russell’s division also encountered heavy fire from Brigadier-General Thomas Lanier Clingman’s brigade and fell back to its starting point. To Upton’s right, the brigade of Colonel William Snyder Truex of Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts’ division found a gap in the Confederate line by pushing through a swampy, brush-filled ravine, between the brigades of Clingman and Brigadier-General William Tatum Wofford. As Truex’s men charged through the gap, Clingman shifted two regiments around to face them, and Anderson committed Brigadier-General Eppa Hunton’s brigade from his reserve. Truex was surrounded on three sides and was forced to withdraw, although his men managed nevertheless to bring back hundreds of prisoners with them. The fighting petered out by nightfall.
Several Union generals, including Upton and Major-General George Gordon Meade, were furious with Grant for ordering a hasty assault without proper reconnaissance. On the Confederate side, Anderson expressed some reservations about his position and was concerned that he needed reinforcements as the forces opposing him were increasing. Lee sent the division of Major-General John Cabell Breckenridge from an inactive sector at Mechanicsville and they formed on Hoke’s right during the early morning. Lee proposed also to relocate the III Corps of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill to the endangered sector. Two of Hill’s divisions were ordered to make the long march south to go beyond Breckinridge’s right and fix the army’s right flank on the Chickahominy River. Hill’s third division was left behind on the far left flank to guard the flank of Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early’s II Corps.
The Union assault cost about 2,200 casualties, although 750 Confederate prisoners were claimed. Accurate Confederate losses are not known.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Northern Arkansas was discontinued.

USA: Colonel Don Carlos Buell (former Major-General USV) resigned from the US Regular Army.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Fitz-Henry Warren
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
    • District of Morganza: William Hemsley Emory
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: William Birney
  • District of Florida: George Henry Gordon

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Franz Sigel
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier General Henry Alexander Wise arrived to command the First District of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia.

CSA: Joseph Brevard Kershaw confirmed Major-General PACS 1 June 1864 to rank from 18 May 1864.

CSA: Stephen Dodson Ramseur confirmed Major-General PACS (Special) 31 May 1864 to rank from 1 June 1864.

CSA: John Bratton confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 1 June 1864 to rank from 6 May 1864.

CSA: James Conner confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 30 May 1864 to rank from 1 June 1864.

CSA: James Barbour Terrill confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 1 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 posthumously.

CSA: Rufus Clay Barringer promoted Brigadier-General PACS 1 June 1864.

CSA: Adam Rankin Johnson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 6 September 1864 to rank from 1 June 1864 unconfirmed.

CSA: Gustavus Woodson Smith (former Major-General PACS) was appointed Major-General of Georgia Militia.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: John Henry Winder
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: George Bibb Crittenden temporary

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry

James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
Richard Waterhouse

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