1864 June 2nd

June 2 1864 Thursday

Bethesda Church, VA

Atlanta Campaign – Dallas

Virginia Overland Campaign – Cold Harbor

Forrest’s Second Tennessee Raid

Sturgis’ Operation against Forrest

Morgan’s East Kentucky Raid

Arkansas. Union gunboats convoying transports on the western rivers continued to be harassed by Confederate field artillery along the banks. USS Louisville, Lieutenant-Commander Owen, sustained severe damage in an exchange at Columbia.

Florida. Incident at Camp Milton.

Georgia. Incidents at Raccoon Bottom, Marietta, and Ackworth.

Georgia. The Confederate raiders of Lieutenant Thomas P Pelot ventured out into Ossabaw Sound and spotted the USS Water Witch, which was lit up by flashes of lightning, and rowed silently toward her in an attempt to capture the ship.

Kentucky. Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan’s raiders passed through Pound Gap into Kentucky. Unknown to Morgan, the Union force of Brigadier-General Stephen Gano Burbridge had left Prestonburg and was marching rapidly towards Mount Sterling to head off the Confederate raiders.

Louisiana. Incident at Davis Bend.

Mississippi. A landing party from USS Cowslip, Acting Ensign Canfield, captured five sloops and one steam boiler, destroyed six large boats, four salt works, and three flatboats, during a raid up Biloxi Bay.

Mississippi. Confederate Colonel Colton Green engaged the Union steamers USS Adams and USS Monarch on the Mississippi River.

North Carolina. USS Victoria, Acting Master Alfred Everson, chased the blockade running steamer Georgiana McCaw aground near Wilmington and destroyed her with large a cargo of provisions.

South Carolina. USS Wamsutta, Acting Master Charles W Lee, chased the blockade running British steamer Rose aground at Pawley’s Island, with a small cargo including liquor, and destroyed her.

Tennessee. Union Brigadier-General Samuel Davis Sturgis’ column left Colliersville in heavy rain, heading for northern Mississippi.

Virginia. Operation at Bermuda Hundred ended.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Haw’s Shop, McClellan’s Bridge, McGee’s Mills, Salem Church, Sumner’s Upper Bridge, Barker’s Mills, Totopotomoy River, and Bermuda Hundred.

Bethesda Church, Virginia, also known as Cold Harbor. Although the attacks of the previous day had been unsuccessful, Union Major-General George Gordon Meade believed that an attack early in the day could succeed if he were able to mass sufficient forces against a weak point in Confederate General Robert Edward Lee’s line. Meade and Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant decided to attack the enemy’s right flank around Cold Harbor. They knew that Confederate Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson’s I Corps had been heavily engaged and seemed shaky. It was unlikely that Anderson’s men had found the time to build substantial defences. A successful attack would drive this Confederate right wing southwards into the Chickahominy River.

Meade ordered Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps to shift southeast overnight from Totopotomoy Creek and to assume a position to the left of Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright’s VI Corps. Once Hancock was in position, Meade would attack the Confederate right from Old Cold Harbor with three Union corps in line. This provided an attacking force of 31,000 men from Hancock’s II Corps, Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright’s VI Corps, and Major-General William Farrar Smith’s XVIII Corps. As he was convinced that Lee was moving troops from his left to fortify his right, Meade ordered Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren (V Corps) and Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside (IX Corps) to attack Lee’s left flank in the morning, providing at least a diversion but perhaps also offering a prospect of success against a moving enemy.

Hancock’s II Corps reached Cold Harbor from Totopotomoy Creek at about 6.30 am but they were exhausted after a long overnight march. Grant agreed to let the men rest and postponed the attack until 5 pm. After Hancock departed from Totopotomoy Creek, Lee was free to shift the division of Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge to his far right flank, where he formed on Anderson’s right. Breckinridge and one of Hill’s divisions successfully drove a small Union force off Turkey Hill, which dominated the southern part of the field down to the Chickahominy. Lee also moved two divisions of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s corps, under Brigadier-General William Mahone and Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, beyond Breckinridge to fill the gap between Cold Harbor and the Chickahominy River. Lee also stationed cavalry under Major-General Fitzhugh Lee to guard the army’s right flank. The resulting line of defence now curved along a row of low ridges, five miles in length, with the left flank anchored on the swampy Totopotomoy Creek and the right on the impassable Chickahominy River, making any outflanking moves impossible. The entire Union Army of the Potomac and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia were now concentrated on a five-mile front that extended from Bethesda Church to the Chickahominy.

On the northern end of the battlefield, Warren’s V Corps linked up with Burnside’s IX Corps near Bethesda Church. Confederate Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early’s II Corps was joined by Major-General Henry Heth’s division (from Hill’s Corps) for a probing attack towards Bethesda Church. Burnside was advised to attack Early’s unprotected flank on Shady Grove Road, but he demurred. In the afternoon, the Confederate divisions of Major-General Robert Edward Rodes and Major-General John Brown Gordon attacked just as Burnside was withdrawing the XI Corps and his covering rear-guard was driven back with the loss of many prisoners. The advance also surprised and captured some skirmishers from the exposed right flank of Warren’s V Corps. A counter-attack was launched with Brigadier-General Charles Griffin’s Union division (2/V) which had already assembled at Bethesda Church for its southward march. They forced Rodes back to his starting point. Heth’s Confederate division struck Brigadier-General Thomas Greely Stevenson’s division of IX Corps, but it held out until divisions under Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox and Brigadier-General Robert Brown Potter (also from IX Corps) were deployed to block the advance. Confederate Brigadier-General George Pierce Doles was killed by a sharpshooter in the fighting near Bethesda Church. The fighting subsided and Heth’s division and Early’s three attacking divisions entrenched for the night along Shady Grove Church Road.

Grant’s main attack that had already been postponed until 5 pm was re-scheduled once again as heavy rain started in the afternoon and continued through the night, ending a day of unbearably hot temperatures. The Union attack was re-scheduled for dawn so that the troops could rest and feed well for what promised to be the decisive attack of the campaign. Grant had drawn every available Confederate soldier onto his front, in a position just ten miles from Richmond that they could not dare to yield, and Grant felt confident that a single massive hammer blow would finally shatter its deteriorating morale. Neither Grant nor Meade gave any specific orders for the next morning’s attack, leaving it to the Corps commanders to choose their objectives and to coordinate with each other. The only guidance was that the main blow should fall on the left flank. No senior commander had managed to reconnoitre the Confederate positions in detail. Smith and Wright conferred and each concluded that there was no practical plan of attack available except to go forward in a mass an hope to carry the defence by weight of numbers and momentum.

Certain that a major attack was imminent, Lee took advantage of the delays to strengthen his line by calling forward every available man he could scrape together. His engineers used their time to construct some of the most ingenious temporary defences the war had yet witnessed. Experience throughout the summer had accelerated their understanding, techniques, and speed, in producing impregnable earthworks in minimal time. Barricades of earth and logs were erected. Artillery was posted with converging fields of fire on every avenue of approach, and range stakes were driven into the ground to improve accuracy. Lines were built to zigzag intricately, with reserve lines and other lines protecting flanks and to offer enfilades. At the same time, every contrivance was used to hide the strength of the defences so that the Union army was not deterred completely from making an assault. Heavy skirmish lines suppressed the Union’s ability to determine the full strength or exact locations of the Confederate entrenchments. Skirmishing continued throughout the night with little consequence for the fighting to come. The Confederates now had 60,000 men in a single connected and fortified line, confident of secure flanks, facing five Union corps numbering 110,000 men.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Covington.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Northern Alabama was established in the Department of the Cumberland, comprising the vicinity of Decatur, Huntsville and Stevenson, Alabama, and Pulaski in Tennessee.

USA: Brigadier-General Robert Seaman Granger assumed command of the District of Northern Alabama.

Granger, Robert Seaman / Ohio / Born 24 May 1816 Zanesville, Ohio / Died Washington, District of Columbia 25 April 1894
USMA 1838 28/45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 14 March 1839 / Captain USA 8 September 1847 / Major USA 5th US Infantry 9 September 1861 / Brigadier-General Kentucky Militia 2 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 20 October 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11th US Infantry 12 June 1865 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / 16th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Colonel USA 21st US Infantry 16 August 1871 / Retired USA 10 December 1873 / Brevet Colonel USA 9 October 1862 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Lavaca, Texas 25 April 1861 Exchanged 15 August 1861
38th Brigade 12th Division Army of the Ohio 23 October 1862 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 January 1863-29 March 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 April 1863-6 May 1863 / 4th Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 28 May 1863-8 June 1863 / 3rd Division Reserve Corps Army of the Cumberland 8 June 1863-9 October 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 2 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 1st Brigade 4th Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-2 June 1864 / District of Northern Alabama 2 June 1864-10 September 1865 / District of Northern Alabama 27 June 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Benjamin Henry Grierson assumed command of the District of West Tennessee, succeeding Brigadier-General Cadwallader Colden Washburn.

Grierson, Benjamin Henry / Pennsylvania / Born 8 July 1826 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania / Died Omena, Michigan 1 September 1911
USV ADC (B M Prentiss) 8 May 1861-11 September 1862 / Major USV 6th Illinois Cavalry 24 October 1861 / Colonel USV 12 April 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 3 June 1863 / Major-General USV 29 May 1865 to rank from 27 May 1865 / Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 / Colonel USA 10th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Brigadier-General USA 5 April 1890 / Retired USA 8 July 1890 / Brevet Major-General USV 10 February 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 Brevet Major-General 2 March 18767 / WIA Olive Branch 6 September 1862
3rd Brigade Cavalry Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee November 1862-22 December 1862 / 1st Brigade Cavalry Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee 22 December 1862-20 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division District of Corinth 290 January 1863-9 June 1863 / Cavalry Brigade XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 9 June 1863-24 June 1863 / 1st Brigade Cavalry Division District of Corinth 24 June 1863-24 September 1863 / 1st Brigade Cavalry Division District of Corinth 24 October 1863-27 April 1864 / 1st Brigade Cavalry Division District of Corinth 11 May 1864-20 June 1864 / District of West Tennessee 2 June 1864-27 November 1864 / Cavalry Division District of West Tennessee 20 June 1864-9 November 1864 / 4th Division Cavalry Corps Military Division of the Mississippi 9 November 1864-13 December 1864 / Cavalry Division Cavalry Corps District of West Tennessee 13 December 1864-15 January 1865 / Cavalry Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 1 March 1865-17 April 1865

USA: Brigadier-General John Porter Hatch assumed command of the District of Hilton Head, succeeding Brigadier-General William Birney.

Hatch, John Porter / New York / Born 9 January 1822 Oswego, New York / Died New York, New York 12 April 1901
USMA 1 July 1845 17/41 Mounted Rifles-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1845 / US Mounted Rifles 17 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 / Regt Adjutant 21 November 1847-1 May 1850 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 June 1851 / Captain USA 30 October 1860 / 3rd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 / Major USA 4th US Cavalry 27 October 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 15 January 1873 / 4th US Cavalry 10 April 1873 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 26 June 1881 / Retired USA 9 January 1886 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1845 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain US 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 30 August 1862 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 14 September 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Medal of Honor 14 September 1862 / WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862 WIA Turner’s Gap 14 September 1862
Hatch’s Brigade Cavalry Army of the Potomac 16 December 1861-16 March 1862 / Cavalry I Corps Army of the Potomac 16 March 1862-28 March 1862 / Cavalry V Corps Army of the Potomac 28 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Cavalry Brigade Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Cavalry Brigade II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-27 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia27 July 1862-28 August 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia 28 August 1862-30 August 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-14 September 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 14 September 1862 / District of Florida 28 March 1864-20 April 1864 / Department of the South 1 May 1864-26 May 1864 / District of Hilton Head 2 June 1864-1 August 1864 / District of Florida 4 August 1864-14 November 1864 / 4th Brigade Morris and Folly Islands Department of the South 26 October 1864-14 November 1864 / Northern District of the South 14 November 1864-28 November 1864 / Coast Division District of Florida 23 January 1865-26 February 1865 / Northern District of the South 6 February 1865-27 June 1865 / District of Charleston 23 June 1865-27 June 1865 / District of Charleston 30 June 1865-15 January 1866

USA: Brigadier-General William Birney assumed command of the District of Florida, succeeding Brigadier-General George Henry Gordon.

Birney, William / Alabama / Born 28 May 1819 Huntsville, Alabama / Died Forest Glen, Maryland 14 August 1907
Captain USV 1st New Jersey Infantry 22 May 1861 / Major USV 4th New Jersey Infantry 27 September 1861 / Colonel USV 13 January 1863 / Colonel USV 22nd USC Infantry 22 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 4 June 1863 to rank from 22 May 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / CIA Alexander’s Bridge, Virginia 27 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862
District of Florida 20 April 1864-13 May 1864 / District of Hilton Head 13 May 1864-2 June 1864 / District of Florida 2 June 1864-4 August 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 27 August 1864-1 September 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 1 September 1864-5 October 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 5 October 1864-20 October 1864 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 29 October 1864-3 December 1864 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-21 February 1865 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 27 March 1865-10 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
      • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
      • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
        • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • District of Baton Rouge: Fitz-Henry Warren
      • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
      • District of La Fourche: John McNeil
      • District of Morganza: William Hemsley Emory
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
      • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
      • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
      • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
        • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
        • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
    • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
      • District of St Louis: vacant
      • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
      • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
      • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
      • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Gray Foster
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
    • District of Florida: William Birney
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
    • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
      • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
    • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The First District of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia was extended to include the area between the James and Roanoke Rivers including the north side of the James River at Richmond.

CSA: William Ruffin Cox confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864.

Cox, William Ruffin / North Carolina / Born 11 March 1832 Scotland Neck, North Carolina / Died Richmond, Virginia 26 December 1919
North Carolina Militia 1861 / Major PACS 2nd North Carolina Infantry 19 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 17 September 1862 / Colonel PACS 20 March 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Rappahannock station 7 November 1863
Cox’s Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-19 September 1864/ Cox’s Brigade Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 19 September 1864-19 October 1864 / Cox’s Brigade Grimes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-9 April 1865

CSA: Thomas Fentress Toon confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864.

Toon, Thomas Fentress / North Carolina / Born 10 June 1840 Columbus, North Carolina / Died Raleigh, North Carolina 19 February 1902
Private PACS 20th North Carolina Infantry 20 May 1861 / 1st Lieutenant PACS 17 June 1861 / Captain PACS 19 July 1861 20th North Carolina / Major PACS June 1862 / Colonel PACS 26 February 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 Expired 7 August 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 WIA Gaines’ Mill 27 June 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864 WIA Fort Stedman 25 March 1865
Toon’s Brigade Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-7 August 1864

CSA: William Gaston Lewis confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864.

Lewis, William Gaston / North Carolina / Born 3 September 1835 Rocky Mount, North Carolina / Died Goldsboro, North Carolina 7 January 1901
2nd Lieutenant PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 21 April 1861 / Major PACS 33rd North Carolina Infantry 17 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 43rd North Carolina Infantry 25 April 1862 / Colonel PACS 22 April 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / Paroled Farmville, Virginia 11 April 1865 / WIA Stephenson’s Depot 20 July 1864 WIA 1864 WIA & CIA Farmville 7 April 1865
Lewis’ Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina 20 April 1864-10 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of Richmond 10 May 1864-14 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Ransom’s Division Department of Richmond 14 May 1864-17 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade B R Johnson’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 21 May 1864-20 July 1864 / Lewis’ Brigade Pegram’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia September 1864-6 February 1865 / Lewis’ Brigade J A Walker’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 6 February 1865-7 April 1865

CSA: Zebulon York confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864.

York, Zebulon / Louisiana / Born 10 October 1819 Avon, Maine / Died Natchez, Mississippi 5 August 1900
Captain PACS 14th Louisiana Infantry April 1861 / Major PACS 2 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 19 February 1862 / Colonel PACS 3 October 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / Paroled North Carolina 6 May 1865 / WIA Williamsburg 5 May 1862 WIA Second Bull Run 29 August 1862 WIA Opequon 19 September 1864
York’s Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-19 September 1864

CSA: Robert Doak Lilley confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864.

Lilley, Robert Doak / Virginia / Born 25 January 1836 Greenville, Virginia / Died Richmond, Virginia 12 November 1886
Captain PACS 25th Virginia Infantry 25 May 1861 / Major PACS 28 January 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 20 August 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / Paroled Staunton, Virginia 23 May 1865 / WIA & CIA Stephenson’s Depot 20 July 1864 Released 24 July 1864
Pegram’s Brigade Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-13 June 1864 / Lilley’s Brigade Ramseur’s Division Valley District 13 June 1864-20 July 1864 / Lilley’s Brigade Reserves Valley District 28 November 1864-April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General George Pierce Doles was killed at Bethesda Church, Virginia.

Doles, George Pierce / Georgia / Born 14 May 1830 Milledgeville, Georgia / KIA Bethesda Church, Virginia 2 June 1864
Lieutenant Georgia Militia / Captain 26 April 1861 / Captain PACS 4th Georgia Infantry 9 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 26 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 November 1862 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862
Doles’ Brigade D H Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 17 September 1862-July 1863 / Doles’ Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1863-2 June 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
    • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: John Henry Winder
    • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: George Bibb Crittenden temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles KIA
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry

James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
Richard Waterhouse

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