1864 June 10th

June 10 1864 Friday

Battle of Brice’s Crossroads, MS (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Atlanta Campaign – Kennesaw

Virginia Overland Campaign – Cold Harbor

Forrest’s Second Tennessee Raid

Sturgis’ Operation against Forrest

Hunter’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Sheridan’s Trevilian Raid

Morgan’s East Kentucky Raid

CSA. The Confederate Congress passed the Third Conscription Act, which authorized military service for men from 17 years to 50 years of age, extended from the previous limits of 18 to 45.

Alabama. Incident at Cane Creek.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Lewisburg.

Florida. USS Union, Acting Lieutenant Edward Conroy, took the sloop Caroline as it attempted to run the blockade at Jupiter Inlet.

Georgia. Operations at Kennesaw Mountain began.

Georgia. Operations at Marietta began.

Georgia. Incidents at Lost Mountain, Pine Mountain, Rosswell, and Ackworth.

Georgia. Skirmish at Calhoun.

Georgia. Delayed and weakened by the need for large detachments to guard his lengthy line of communications, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman made a general advance towards Kennesaw Mountain and regained contact with the Confederate Army of Tennessee. He had been reinforced during the approach by Major-General Francis Preston Blair’s XVII Corps with 10,500 men, the 3rd Brigade of Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s cavalry division with 2,500 men, and Brigadier-General John Eugene Smith’s 3rd Division of XV Corps, which was assigned to guard the railroad at Centreville. The XXIII Corps was also strengthened by the arrival of 4,000 men.

Continuous rains prevented any further operations against the Confederate positions for about two weeks. The Confederates used the respite to improve their lines, concentrating Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps around Gilgal Church, Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood’s Corps behind Noonday Creek, and Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk’s Corps in the centre to protect the railroad. Polk was also positioned to defend the wagons roads between Ackworth and Marietta. Confederate cavalry held Lost Mountain and Brush Mountain.

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE ARMY OF TENNESSEE

Confederate Department of Tennessee: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of Tennessee: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
I Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee
II Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood
III Corps (Tennessee) “Army of Mississippi”: Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk
Loring’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Major-General William Wing Loring
Featherston’s Brigade, Loring’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
Adams’ Brigade, Loring’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Adams
Scott’s Brigade, Loring’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Thomas Moore Scott
French’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Samuel Gibbs French
Ector’s Brigade, French’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Matthew Duncan Ector
Cockrell’s Brigade, French’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Francis Marion Cockrell
Sears’ Brigade, French’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Claudius Wistar Sears
Cantey’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Cantey
Reynolds’ Brigade, Cantey’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Daniel Harris Reynolds
Quarles’ Brigade, Cantey’s Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Virgil S Murphy
Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson
Armstrong’s Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Frank Crawford Armstrong
Ross’ Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, III Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Ferguson’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Joseph Wheeler

Kentucky. Demonstration at Frankfort.

Kentucky. Incidents at Cynthiana and Lexington

Kentucky. Skirmish at Benson’s Bridge.

Kentucky. Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan and his raiders entered the town of Lexington. After driving off a small number of Union troops, they torched the stables and, after remounting all his foot-soldiers, set loose about 7,000 horses that were being trained for the Union army. Morgan’s raiders repeated their ill-disciplined depredations they had exhibited at Mount Sterling, plundering the town, robbing citizens, and stealing $10,000 from the bank at gunpoint. Morgan’s next objective was Cynthiana, thirty miles to the northeast, before their ultimate objective of Frankfort.

Maryland. Incident at Point of Rocks.

Mississippi. Incident at Corinth.

Mississippi. USS Elk, Acting Lieutenant Nicholas Kirby, captured the blockade running sloop Yankee Doodle with a cargo of cotton at the middle entrance of the Pearl River in Mississippi Sound.

Brice’s Crossroads, Mississippi, also known as Guntown or Tishomingo Creek. Union Brigadier-General Samuel Davis Sturgis had advanced with a force of 4,800 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and 18 guns from Memphis to intercept and disperse Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry raiders. Sturgis outnumbered Forrest by two-to-one and by almost three to one in guns. Sturgis had little knowledge of the location of Confederate troops in the vicinity and ordered a cautious advance to Guntown. The cavalry division of Union Brigadier-General Benjamin Henry Grierson departed at 5.30 am, but Colonel William Lynn McMillen’s infantry division did not set out until after 7 am.

Forrest expected that boldness and the close terrain, which forced the Union column to move on a narrow muddy road through dense undergrowth and woodland, would even the odds. The Union column had nine miles to cover from Stubbs’ Farm to Brice’s Cross Roads. Most of Forrest’s men had much longer rides (Colonel Tyree Bell with 2,800 men twenty-five from Rienzi, Colonel Edmund Rucker with 750 men, Colonel Hylan Lyon eighteen miles from Booneville with 750 men, and Colonel William A Johnson with 500 men about eight miles from Baldwyn). At Stubbs’ Farm, Sturgis also welcomed back the 400 of his men who had made a flying raid towards Rienzi. He sent a similar number of sick men in forty wagons towards Memphis, to improve his mobility. Forrest predicted that the Union cavalry division would be moving about three hours ahead of the infantry and he devised a plan to attack the cavalry first, with the idea of attracting the enemy infantry to hurry to assist them. The infantry would then be tired by a forced march and the Confederates would drive the entire Union force against the creek to the west.

Union Colonel George Waring’s cavalry brigade approached Brice’s Crossroads on a road that led due south and encountered Confederate scouts between 9.30 am and 9.45 am. The road crossed a swampy area about a mile and a half north of the crossroads and was elevated on a kind of causeway or “defile” about three-quarters of a mile in length. Grierson halted Waring’s brigade and sent a reconnaissance forward. A squadron moved southeast towards Guntown, six miles away on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, where it encountered enemy pickets at about 10.30 am. After travelling for about a mile, Grierson dismounted and deployed his cavalry to hold the crossroads until the infantry arrived with Sturgis. The area was wooded within the radius of about a mile and beyond these woods, there were open fields to the east and south. Waring’s cavalry brigade formed a line to the east and Colonel E F Winslow’s cavalry brigade deployed to the north about a mile from the crossroads, so as to cover these fields.

When Grierson’s message reached Sturgis, he rode forward to join the cavalry after issuing orders for McMillen’s infantry to cover the five-mile gap without undue haste. Sturgis was disturbed by the mile-long causeway that crossed the flooded bottomlands to the crossroads and the narrow bridge over Tishomingo Creek. When he arrived at Brice’s Cross Roads at about noon he found the cavalry heavily engaged and a mass of wagons, ambulances, and guns blocking the road.

Forrest ordered his men to converge around the crossroads. Lyon’s cavalry brigade made the first contact and probed the defences while Forrest waited for his artillery and further troops, who began to arrive after 11.30 am. The Union already had ten guns on the field and were stronger than the Confederate dismounted cavalry who were infiltrating the surrounding woods. While Lyon’s brigade skirmished and demonstrated along the Wire Road from Booneville, Forrest waited for Bell and Rucker and Captain John Morton’s eight guns to arrive. Bell reached the field at about 1 pm, and the artillery soon afterwards. At 1 pm after all of his reinforcements had arrived, Forrest started his attack.

Grierson’s two cavalry brigades were driven back to a second line. Grierson found both his brigade commanders reluctant to hold their ground unsupported and he asked Sturgis to bring up the infantry. Sturgis sent urgently for McMillen to quicken his pace and not to spare the men in coming to the aid of the cavalry. The Union estimates of enemy strength were too pessimistic as the outnumbered Confederates had so far done little more than feint and probe.

The first Union infantry began to arrive between 1.30 pm and at 2 pm, in poor condition after a five-mile forced march in intense heat. McMillen found the Union cavalry in disorder and eager to be relieved. Despite the fatigue of his men, he moved his first two brigades immediately into position under fire. The fighting intensified in the dense underbrush. The first Union infantry brigade briefly gained momentum and attacked the Confederate left flank, but Forrest launched an attack from his extreme right and left wings before the rest of the Union infantry could take to the field.

Confederate Brigadier-General Abraham Buford led the three brigades on the right wing, while Forrest joined Bell’s brigade on the left. Forrest commanded his artillery to unlimber, unprotected, only yards from the Union positions, and they hit the Union line with canister shot at point-blank range. The massive damage caused by Morton’s guns and the strength of the Confederate advance caused Sturgis to reform his line in a tighter semicircle around the crossroads, facing east. Bell’s troops were repelled by McMillen’s second brigade and they broke until Forrest and his personal escort restored order. Buford also encountered strong resistance.

Forrest continued to apply pressure to both ends of Sturgis’ line. At 3:30 pm the Confederate 2nd Tennessee Cavalry assaulted the bridge across Tishomingo Creek. Although this attack failed it caused severe confusion among the Union troops and Sturgis ordered a general retreat. At about 5 pm both Union flanks gave way and the confused retreat degenerated into a growing panic. With the Confederates still pressing, the retreating troops formed a bottleneck at the bridge. When they were compressed onto the narrow causeway, a rout began. Morton’s guns pounded the packed column and then turned four captured guns also on the easy target. After a wagon overturned on the bridge, the chaos increased, and many men took to swimming or wading across Tishomingo Creek. Sturgis attempted to form a rear-guard along the creek, but it soon fractured again into a stampede. Attempts to burn the supply trains were foiled as the fires were extinguished by the pursuing Confederates.

Forrest pressed the pursuit until dark at about 8 pm. His men were increasingly distracted by the opportunity to plunder the abandoned Union wagons and he gave in to the need to let them rest and feed before resuming the pursuit. At midnight, Sturgis met Colonel Edward Bouton near Stubbs’ Farm. Bouton’s brigade of black soldiers had not been heavily engaged as they were at the rear of the column guarding the trains. Bouton deployed and attempted to halt the retreat, but Sturgis had lost confidence in his men and the flight was not stalled even though the Confederates were no longer in close pursuit.

This brilliant tactical victory against long odds cemented Forrest’s reputation as one of the foremost mounted infantry and cavalry leaders of the war. On the other hand, Sturgis’ part in the war was finished. The Union force of 7,800 had been routed by a force less than half their number. Sturgis lost 223 men killed, 394 wounded and 1,623 captured and lost eighteen guns captured. Forrest reported 492 losses from his 3,500 men engaged. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Missouri. Reconnaissance from Sedalia to Renick’s Farm began.

Missouri. Confederate guerrillas in Union uniforms captured and destroyed two railroad cars at St James.

North Carolina.

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE DEPARTMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA AND SOUTHERN VIRGINIA

Confederate Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Johnson’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson
Elliott’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Stephen Elliott
Johnson’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Colonel J M Hughs
Wise’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise
Dearing’s Cavalry Brigade (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Dearing
First District (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise
Second District (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Laurence Simmons Baker
Third District (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Major-General William Henry Chase Whiting
Defences Mouth of Cape Fear (Third District (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Louis Hébert

Texas. Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith replaced Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor with Major-General John George Walker in command of the District of West Louisiana. Smith awaited an executive decision from President Jefferson Finis Davis to resolve the contentious issue of command in the Trans-Mississippi that had been prompted by Taylor’s criticism of the commanding general during the Red River campaign.

Virginia. Incidents at Louisa Court House and Staunton.

Virginia. Skirmish at Waynesboro.

Virginia. Skirmish at Brownsburg.

Virginia. Skirmish at Middlebrook.

Virginia. Skirmish at Newport.

Virginia. Skirmish at Old Church

Virginia. Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan’s cavalry raiders headed from Chilesburg towards the Virginia Central Railroad between Gordonsville and Louisa Court House, twelve miles down the track. They camped five miles from Louisa Court House.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Wade Hampton reached Trevilian Station with two divisions of cavalry to prevent the proposed Union cavalry raid along the Virginia Central Railroad. His force consisted of 8,000 men in five brigades. Whereas the Union cavalry had moved with a train of 125 wagons and ambulances, the Confederates travelled light without a supply train and made much quicker time. Hampton had time to rest his troops and to prepare an attack against the raiders in the morning. Hampton’s own three brigades would advance northeast from Trevilian Station while Major-General Fitzhugh Lee’s two brigades left Louisa Court House at daybreak to converge on the Union camp five miles away.

Virginia. Lynchburg was an important supply and hospital centre, and a key junction for the railroads that supplied the Confederate armies. It was also on the James River Canal, another major transportation route bringing supplies to Richmond. Union Major-General David Hunter was determined to capture it. In accordance with a plan formulated by Brigadier-General William Woods Averell, the infantry divisions of Brigadier-General George Crook and Brigadier-General Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan resumed their march south from Staunton alongside Averell’s cavalry division. Hunter also sent a small force toward the town of Lexington where, after a brief skirmish with local forces, they proceeded to burn the Virginia Military Institute. The outnumbered Confederates of Major-John Cabell Breckinridge’s command fell back to Rockfish Gap where the Virginia Central Railroad passed through the mountains east of Staunton.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Snicker’s Ferry, five miles from Kabletown.

Virginia. Incident at White Sulphur Springs.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Fitz-Henry Warren
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: William Hemsley Emory
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: William Plummer Benton
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
  • District of Florida: William Birney

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Franz Sigel
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General John George Walker assumed command of the District of West Louisiana, succeeding Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor.

Walker, John George / Missouri / Born 22 July 1821 Cole, Missouri / Died 20 July 1893
1st Lieutenant USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Captain USA 30 June 1851 / Resigned USA 31 July 1861 / Major ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 8th Texas Cavalry August 1861 / Colonel PACS September 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 January 1862 / Major-General PACS 8 November 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet Captain USA 1 August 1847 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847 WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Walker’s Brigade Aquia District 13 September 1861-19 April 1862 / 4th Brigade Department of North Carolina 19 April 1862-1 July 1862 / 4th Brigade D H Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond July 1862-August 1862 / Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia August 1862-17 September 1862 / 1st Division District of West Louisiana 1863-9 April 1864 / District of West Louisiana 10 June 1864-4 August 1864 / District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 4 August 1864-3 April 1865 / 2nd Division III Corps Trans-Mississippi Army September 1864-31 March 1865 / III Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-31 March 1865 / District of West Louisiana 30 March 1865-19 April 1865 / Cavalry Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 6 April 1865-13 May 1865 / 1st Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 13 May 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: William Richard Terry confirmed Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 10 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864.

Terry, William Richard / Virginia / Born 12 March 1827 Liberty, Virginia / Died Chesterfield, Virginia 28 March 1897
2nd Lieutenant PACS 51st Virginia Cavalry April 1861 / Captain PACS April 1861 / Colonel PACS 24th Virginia Infantry 21 September 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 6 December 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 10 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Williamsburg 5 May 1862 WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 WIA Dinwiddie 31 March 1865
Kemper’s Brigade Kemper’s Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 30 August 1862-September 1862 / Kemper’s Brigade Department of Richmond September 1863-January 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of North Carolina 18 April 1864-10 May 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of Richmond 10 May 1864-14 May 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Ransom’s Division Department of Richmond 14 May 1864-17 May 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-19 May 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of Richmond 19 May 1864-24 May 1864 / Terry’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 27 June 1864-31 March 1865

CSA: John Smith Preston promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 10 June 1864 Head of the Bureau of Conscription.

Preston, John Smith / Virginia / Born 20 April 1809 Abingdon, Virginia / Died 1 May 1881
ADC (P G T Beauregard) April 1861-June 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 13 August 1861 / Colonel PACS 23 April 1863 Superintendent Bureau of Conscription 30 July 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 10 June 1864 / No Record of Parole
Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the Potomac June 1861-8 October 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Department of South Carolina Georgia and East Florida 5 November 1861-January 1862 / Chief of Bureau of Conscription 30 July 1863-17 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • III Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: George Bibb Crittenden temporary

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Richard Waterhouse

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