1864 July 30th

July 30 1864 Saturday

Battle of the Crater, VA
Macon, GA
Newman, GA
Chambersburg, PA

Siege of Atlanta
Siege of Petersburg – Mine Assault
Stoneman’s Georgia Raid
McCook’s Georgia Road

Go to July 31 1864

Alabama. A second new ironclad warship joined the Union fleet of Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut off Mobile Bay. This was the USS Chickasaw, which was withdrawn from operations on the Mississippi River. It carried four 11-inch guns in two turrets.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Paint Rock Station.

Arkansas. A skirmish occurred near Pine Bluff when Union troops sent out to repair the cut telegraph wires were attacked and forced to return to camp.

Arkansas. Confederates attacked Hay Station No. 3, near Brownsville, but they were repulsed and took some civilians as hostages

Arkansas. Skirmish on the Little Rock Road.

Georgia. Skirmish at Hillsboro.

Georgia. Incident at Sunshine Church.

Georgia. Skirmish at Clear Creek.

Georgia. Skirmish at Clinton.

Georgia. Survivors of the encirclement of the Union cavalry raiders at Hillsboro the previous day joined up on the way from Macon towards Athens. Part of the 8th Michigan Cavalry from Colonel James Biddle’s brigade and part of Colonel Horace Capron’s brigade joined Colonel Adams on the way.

Georgia. A landing party from USS Potomska, Acting Lieutenant Robert P Swann, destroyed two large Confederate salt works near the Back River. Returning to USS Potomska, the seamen were taken under fire by the Confederates. Armed with Spencer repeating rifles, the seamen fought off the attacks for three-quarters of an hour before returning safely to the USS Potomska.

Macon, Georgia. Union cavalry led by Major-General George Stoneman attempted to liberate Union prisoners at the Confederacy’s Andersonville Prison. They encountered light Confederate resistance about seven miles from Macon. The townspeople were in a panic, trying to leave the city and sending private and public property away on trains before the Union force arrived. Much of this property was taken and destroyed by the Union raiders. The Confederates were forced to destroy the bridges over the Ocmulgee River to stall the Union force.
Deterred from entering Macon by of its militia guards, the Union cavalry began a long-range artillery bombardment to drive them away. Before long, three cavalry brigades sent by Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler approached the Union rear and the gunners were forced to abandon the mission. Stoneman’s cavalrymen began to retrace their route away from the city and headed back towards Clinton, where they encountered another small Confederate force. They drove the Confederates through the town, rescuing some Union foragers who had been taken prisoner earlier that day and placed in the town’s jail. They burned the jail and continued their march out of town. Their prospects of liberating the prisoners at Andersonville were receding by the minute.

Newman, Georgia. After wrecking the Macon & Western Railroad, Union Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook’s cavalry division was surrounded at Newman, due west of Lovejoy Station on the West Point Road. Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler and Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson led five cavalry brigades against McCook’s force. McCook ordered his brigades to fight their way separately out of the trap. He lost 950 of his 1,500 men, two guns, and his pack train before the survivors reassembled at the Chattahoochee River and crossed to safety on the north bank.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Bayou Tensas.

Maryland. Skirmish at Monocacy Junction.

Maryland. Incident at Hagerstown.

Maryland. Skirmish at Emmitsburg.

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Chariton County ended.

Missouri. Reconnaissance against Confederate guerrillas in Marias County and Phelps County began.

Missouri. Operation in Lafayette County ended.

Missouri. Skirmish with guerrillas on the Chariton Road near Keytesville

Missouri. Skirmish with guerrillas at Union Church.

Missouri. Skirmish at Chapel Hill.

Pennsylvania. Skirmish at McConnellsburg between Confederate cavalry and cavalry under Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell.

Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. In reprisal for the destruction of private property in Virginia by the Union forces of Major-General David Hunter, Confederate Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early sent two cavalry brigades under Brigadier-General John McCausland and Brigadier-General Bradley Tyler Johnson with orders to levy $100,000 in gold or $500,000 in bills from the town of Chambersburg. The sum was intended as compensation for the destruction of houses in the Shenandoah Valley. Other forces from Early’s command demonstrated along the Potomac to cover the operation. Meanwhile, other cavalry raiders captured Hancock and threatened Cumberland, Maryland. The 2,600 Confederates arrived at Chambersburg at about 5.30 am. Three cannon shots signalled the Confederate presence and by 6 am some 500 Confederates had occupied the town, while the one hundred or so troops in the Union garrison fled. The Confederates made their financial demands and waited until 9 am for them to be met. While their commanders waited, some Confederates plundered the stores including some liquor businesses. Soon drunken soldiers began looting private homes, taking jewellery, silverware, and money.
The citizens refused to pay the ransom and McCausland ordered the town set on fire. Confederate Colonel William E Peters, commanding the 21st Virginia Cavalry, refused to comply with the order and was arrested temporarily. Other officers and men also objected but the torch was applied nevertheless. The Confederates burned a warehouse first, then the courthouse and town hall, and within ten minutes the flames had engulfed the main part of the town. Terrified residents fled to a cemetery and surrounding fields. Some citizens who had paid money to have their homes spared saw them burned anyway and a Confederate cavalry officer, isolated from his men, was shot and killed by a mob of townspeople. Two-thirds of the town was destroyed by the flames. The Confederates departed by 1 pm, leaving 400 (or 550) buildings in ruins and 3,000 people homeless. The value of the destruction was estimated at $1,628,431.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Clifton.

Texas. Brownsville was reoccupied by Confederate forces after its evacuation by the Union garrison.

Virginia. Incidents at Warwick Swamp and Malvern Hill

Virginia. Skirmish at Lee’s Mill.

Virginia. After the defeat at Kernstown, Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered the VI Corps and XIX Corps to return to the Shenandoah Valley. Grant decided that a single ruthless and reliable officer was required to suppress the threats that arose continually from the region. He identified Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan as the ideal candidate, and Sheridan arrived to take command of all Union forces in the Valley on 3 August.

Battle of the Crater, Virginia, also known as the Petersburg Mine Assault or Battle of the Mine. After weeks of preparation, the Union troops in Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside’s IX Corps sector had completed a mine beneath Brigadier-General John Pegram’s Confederate brigade and a battery at Elliott’s Salient battery. Burnside had trained a division of black soldiers under Brigadier-General Edward Ferrero to lead the assault. Ferrero’s division consisted of two brigades, one designated to go to the left of the crater and the other to the right. A regiment from each brigade was to leave the attack column and extend the breach by rushing perpendicular to the crater, while the remaining regiments were to rush through, seizing the Jerusalem Plank Road just 1,600 feet beyond, and then the churchyard and the outskirts of Petersburg itself. Burnside’s two other divisions, made up of white troops, would then move in to support Ferrero’s flanks and race into Petersburg itself.
Two miles behind the front lines, out of sight of the Confederates, the men of Ferrero’s division trained specially for this assault for two weeks. Despite this careful planning and specialist training, on the day before the attack, the black stormtroopers were withdrawn from the spearhead on the orders of Major-General George Gordon Meade. Meade had little confidence in the operation, and he claimed that if the attack failed the black soldiers would be killed in large numbers, generating needless political repercussions in the North. Burnside protested to Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, who sided with Meade.
When volunteers to lead the assault were not forthcoming Burnside selected replacements by having the three division commanders draw lots. Brigadier-General James Hewitt Ledlie’s 1st Division of white troops was selected but he failed to brief the men on what was expected of them. After more and more time passed and no explosion occurred, the growing daylight presented an increasing risk to the men at the staging points in view of the Confederate lines. Ledlie’s division would now lead the assault, to be followed by those of Major-General Robert Brown Potter. and Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox. Ferrero’s well-rehearsed troops were the last reserve.
At about 3 am, Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pleasants lit the fuse connected to the underground explosives. By 3.30 am nothing had happened. It was not until 4.30 am that two volunteers (Lieutenant Jacob Douty and Sergeant Harry Reese) crawled into the mine tunnel. After discovering that the fuse had burned out at a splice, they respliced a length of new fuse, relit it, and ran.
Grant was on the verge of ordering an attack without the benefit of the mine explosion but finally, at 4:44 am, the charge of 8,000 pounds of powder went off in a massive shower of earth, debris, mangled men, and guns. A crater was created 170 feet long, 60 to 80 feet wide, and 30 feet deep. At least 278 Confederates were killed or wounded in the immediate explosion and nine companies of the 19th South Carolina Infantry and 22nd South Carolina Infantry were blown sky-high. Massed Union artillery opened fire as soon as the ground heaved.
From this highyl propitious beginning, matters deteriorated rapidly for the Union attackers. Ledlie’s untrained division was not prepared for the scale of the explosion and they waited ten minutes before even leaving their own entrenchments. After a slow and uncertain start, the attacking division, mesmerised by the size of the crater and lacking the training in how to exploit the gap beyond it, funnelled into and around the chasm. Footbridges were supposed to have been placed to allow them to quickly cross their own trenches, but these were missing, meaning that the men had to climb in and out of their own trenches just to reach no man’s land. Once they had reached the crater, they saw it as an excellent rifle pit and cover and failed to move around and beyond it, as the black assault troops had been trained to do. They moved into the crater itself and squandered the advantage of surprise. The commander of the attacking division, Ledlie waited behind the lines in a bombproof shelter and gave no leadership. More Union soldiers milled in confusion towards the crater as reinforcements moved up.
Confederate Colonel McMaster of the 17th South Carolina Infantry inspired an immediate Confederate recovery after Brigadier-General Stephen Elliott was severely wounded. Two regiments from Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise’s brigade and two from Brigadier-General Matthew Whitaker Ransom’s brigade joined McMaster to seal the breach. By 8.30 am, over 15,000 Union troops were massed in and around the crater as Potter’s division and Willcox’s division followed Ledlie’s division but failed to advance beyond the crater. When Ferrero’s division finally arrived from reserve, their commander sheltered in the same bombproof with Ledlie and they shared a supply of medicinal rum, depriving the assault of decisive leadership.
Ferrero’s black assault troops obeyed their careful training and skirted around the crater to exploit the breakthrough but they came under concentrated enfilade fire. Some troops eventually advanced to the right and reached the earthworks beyond the Crater. They assaulted the Confederate lines, driving the Confederates back for several hours in hand-to-hand combat. Left unsupported, they were eventually forced back after losing 1,327 out of fewer than 4,000 men. Confederate Major-General William Mahone then arrived to coordinate the defence and General Robert Edward Lee and General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard met later at the Gee House, only 500 yards from the crater, to direct reinforcements to strengthen the defence.
At about 9.30 am. Meade sought approval from Grant to cancel any further attacks. Grant agreed but Burnside deferred issuing the command until midday, hoping that his troops might somehow salvage the situation. At about 8 am, Mahone’s Confederates began a sweep from a sunken gully about 200 yards from the right side of the Union advance. After about an hour, they reached the crater and massed around its edges. The breakthrough point was completely sealed off. They opened fire with rifles and artillery straight down into the hole. They showed no quarter in response to what they saw as an infamous and barbaric act of mass destruction.
A further advance reclaimed the neighbouring earthworks, drove the Union force back towards the east, and cleared the crater and its surroundings of enemy troops. Confederate Captain Victor Jean Baptiste Girardey was a member of the divisional staff of Brigadier-General William Mahone. He distinguished himself by organising and timing Mahone’s counterattack. He led two brigades from behind the Confederate line to fill the gap in the line caused by the mine explosion. He was supposedly given a promotion on the field by four grades to Brigadier-General by General Robert Edward Lee himself. However, the promotion was never confirmed by Congress.
Meade brought charges against Burnside, and a subsequent court of inquiry censured Burnside, Ledlie, Ferrero, Willcox, and Colonel Zenas R Bliss (commanding 1/3/IX). Burnside was soon relieved of command and resigned. Meade escaped immediate censure but in early 1865 the Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War exonerated Burnside and condemned Meade instead for interfering with the plan of attack.
Union casualties numbered 3,798 or 3,828 men out of 20,708 engaged, with almost half of them captured or missing. The Confederates had about 11,466 men engaged, and their casualties were estimated at about 1,500 men.

West Virginia. Incident at Shepherdstown.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Oliver Otis Howard arrived to command the Department of the Tennessee, succeeding Major-General John Alexander Logan.

USA: William Grose promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: Joseph Alexander Cooper promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: John Thomas Croxton promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: John Wilson Sprague promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: James William Reilly promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: Luther Prentice Bradley promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: Charles Carroll Walcutt promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

USA: William Worth Belknap promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 July 1864.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alpheus Starkey Williams interim Henry Warner Slocum awaited
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: John McNeil
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
  • District of Florida: William Henry Noble

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Edward Otho Cresap Ord temporary

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: David Bell Birney
    • XVIII Corps James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter interim George Crook awaited

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Albion Parris Howe
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: William Mahone promoted Major-General PACS 3 August 1864 to rank from 30 July 1864.

CSA: David Addison Weisiger promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 1 November 1864 to rank from 30 July 1864.

CSA: Victor Jean Baptiste Girardey promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 3 August 1864 to rank from 30 July 1864 unconfirmed.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Dabney Herndon Maury

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Franklin Gardner temporary
  • District of Northern Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
    • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
      • I Corps Valley: Robert Emmett Rodes
      • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Hunt Morgan

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Texas: Jerome Bonaparte Robertson

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
Richard Waterhouse

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