1864 July 27th

July 27 1864 Wednesday

Battle of Deep Bottom, VA

Siege of Atlanta

Siege of Petersburg – Mine Assault

Stoneman’s Georgia Raid

McCook’s Georgia Road

Alabama. A Union boat crew commanded by Lieutenant J C Watson USN began four days of daylight reconnaissance of the Mobile Bay channel. They were towed into the bay by the small tug Cowslip, sounded the outer channel, and marked the outside limits of the Confederate torpedo fields with buoys in preparation for the impending Union naval assault on the defences of Mobile Bay.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Massard Prairie, seven miles from Fort Smith, where the Confederates captured 82 Union soldiers.

Florida. Skirmish at Whiteside on Black Creek.

Florida. A severe epidemic of yellow fever was reported to be spreading among the Union naval forces based at Key West. The mortality on the island reached 12 to 15 men per day and seriously hindered the naval squadron’s operations.

Georgia. Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook’s raid to the West Point & Atlanta Railroad began.

Georgia. Major-General George Stoneman’s raid to the Macon & Western Railroad began.

Georgia. Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s raid to South River began.

Georgia. Incident at Snapfinger Creek.

Georgia. The death of Major-General James Birdseye McPherson forced a reorganisation of command in the Army of the Tennessee. Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman appointed Major-General Oliver Otis Howard to command the Army of the Tennessee in place of its temporary commander Major-General John Alexander Logan, who was described by Major-General George Henry Thomas as a good battlefield leader but unsuitable for the wider challenges of army command. Logan’s replacement by Howard provoked Logan to anger but he swallowed his pride and reverted to command of his Corps.

Georgia. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman began his planned movement to isolate Atlanta from the west. Major-General Oliver Otis Howard’s Army of the Tennessee disengaged east of Atlanta and marched north and then westwards along Peachtree Creek across the rear of the Army of the Ohio and the Army of the Cumberland. They reached a position west of the city undetected by the enemy. Howard was to proceed southwards in the morning behind a massed force of 10,000 cavalrymen who would depart at the same time to cut the Macon & Western Railroad and the Atlanta & West Point Railroad. Once underway, Howard’s column would be joined at the rear by the Army of the Cumberland and then by the Army of the Ohio. This manoeuvre would place the majority of Sherman’s troops west of the city.

Georgia. Union Major-General George Stoneman was instructed by Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman to destroy the last railroad leading into Atlanta from Macon. Severing this last line would be the certain prelude to the capture of the city as it could no longer be defended without a secure supply line. Three of the four railroads into Atlanta had already been captured or wrecked and Stoneman was ordered to take his own cavalry division (2,200 men) and that of Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard (4,300 to 5,000 men) westwards from Decatur to cut the Macon & Western Railroad between Jonesboro and Griffin. Stoneman asked for and was granted permission to make an extended detour of a hundred miles to raid Macon and to liberate the Union prisoners of war held at Andersonville. Stoneman anticipated that this raid, releasing 30,000 prisoners from misery, would become the most famous cavalry exploit of the war. Sherman expected Stoneman’s raid to be accomplished within three days.

Instead of following his primary orders to make the detour only after the railroad was cut and the march of the Army of the Tennessee was safely screened to the west of Atlanta, Stoneman sent Garrard’s division southwards to draw the Confederate cavalry away while he headed immediately for Andersonville via Covington. Garrard reached Snapfinger Creek, ten miles south of Decatur, where he was faced by increasing numbers of Confederate cavalry. Before the day was over, Stoneman had reached Covington and turned south down the eastern bank of the Ocmulgee River, aiming for Macon. Stoneman initially led only his own division, now led by Colonel John Kennett.

Stoneman expected further cavalry to reinforce him in the form of Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook’s cavalry division (2,000 men), reinforced by a cavalry brigade detached from Major-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau’s command (1,500 men). McCook was ordered to move from Campbellton on the north bank of the Chattahoochee River, to cross the river below Sandtown, and then to join Stoneman’s raiders in destroying the Macon & Western Railroad between Jonesboro and Griffin.

Indian Territory. Incident at Bayou Bernard.

Kentucky. Expedition to Haddix Ferry and Paducah ended. Incident at Haddix Ferry.

Louisiana. Incident at Atchafalaya River.

Missouri. Reconnaissance by Union Brigadier-General Clinton Bowen Fisk to Chariton County began.

Missouri. Skirmish on the Blackwater Creek.

North Carolina. The Union tugs Belle, Martin, and Hoyt were fitted out as torpedo boats to support the naval forces off New Bern. The tugs were to be used against the Confederate ironclads reported to be in that vicinity. They carried spar torpedoes intended to explode on impact and contained 150 pounds of powder.

North Carolina. Union expedition from Norfolk, Virginia, through Gatesville, Winton, and Elizabeth City.

Texas. Incident at Brownsville.

Virginia. Union expedition from Norfolk into North Carolina began, passing through Gatesville, Winton, and Elizabeth City.

Virginia. Skirmish near Lee’s Mill.

Virginia. Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan led the cavalry divisions of Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert and Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg, reinforced by Brigadier-General August Valentine Kautz’s cavalry division, from the Army of the James, on a massed raid towards Richmond. If it proved impossible to enter Richmond, Sheridan was to continue onwards to destroy the Virginia Central Railroad. Sheridan’s march proceeded smoothly according to plan and he reached Strawberry Plains after crossing the Darbytown Road. Sheridan led a charge to gain ground near the Darbytown Road, but no further progress was possible. Major-General Henry Heth’s Confederate division arrived during the day to reinforce the defenders. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant now realised that he had underestimated the strength of the Confederate defences north of the James River and planned a new envelopment past the Confederate north flank the following day, in order to open a route for the cavalry to make their raid.

Deep Bottom, Virginia, also known as Deep Bottom Run, Malvern Hill, New Market Road, Darbytown, or Strawberry Plains. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant planned a surprise attack north of the James River to draw Confederate strength away from Petersburg, and the Mine assault planned for 30 July. Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps had moved secretly out of the bridgehead held by Major-General John Gray Foster’s division of X Corps and headed for Chafin’s Bluff.

Union Brigadier-General Nelson Appleton Miles’ brigade of Brigadier-General Francis Channing Barlow’s division (1/II Corps) led the Union infantry towards Confederate positions along Bailey’s Creek, drove in the outposts and captured a battery of four 20-pounder Parrott guns. They were soon opposed by Confederate divisions under Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox and Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw near the crossing of the New Market Road over the creek. A Confederate counter-attack held the Union advance to the east of the creek. As the crossing of the creek was now blocked by enemy troops, Union Brigadier-General John Gibbon’s division (2/II) was ordered to hold its position in the south while Barlow’s (1/II) and Brigadier-General Gershom Mott’s (4/II) divisions moved up the creek to join the cavalry.  They were unable to find an assailable flank since the Confederate line extended as far as Fussell’s Mill and was refused beyond reach of any practical attack.

West Virginia. Incident at Charlestown.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Back Creek Bridge.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord assumed temporary command of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, succeeding Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler.

Ord, Edward Otho Cresap / Maryland-District of Columbia / Born 18 October 1818 Cumberland, Maryland / Died 22 July 1883
USMA 1 July 1839 17/31 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1839 / 1st Lieutenant 1 July 1841 / Captain USA 7 September 1850 / Brigadier-General USV 14 September 1861 / Major USA 4th US Artillery 21 November 1861 / Major-General USV 3 May 1862 to rank from 2 May 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Artillery 11 December 1865 / Brigadier-General USA 26 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Retired USA 6 December 1880 / Major-General Retired USA 28 January 1881 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 December 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 19 September 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Hatchie River 5 October 1862 WIA Fort Harrison 29 September 1864
3rd Brigade McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 5 October 1862-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-16 May 1862 / 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 16 May 1862-10 June 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee June 1862-5 August 1862 / Sub-District of Jackson 24 September 1862-5 October 1862 / XIII Corps Tennessee 19 June 1863-28 July 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 15 September 1863-19 October 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 9 January 1864-20 February 1864 / X Corps James 21 July 1864-21 July 1864 / XVIII Corps James 21 July 1864-4 September 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 27 July 1864-5 September 1864 / XVIII Corps James 22 September 1864-29 September 1864 / XXIV Corps James 3 December 1864-6 December 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 14 December 1864-24 December 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 7 January 1865-18 January 1865 / Army of the James 8 January 1865-1 August 1865 / Department of Virginia 18 January 1865-14 June 1865 / District of Virginia 31 January 1865 / Department of the Ohio 27 June 1865-26 December 1865 / Department of the Ohio 13 January 1866-6 August 1866 / Department of Arkansas 29 August 1866-11 March 1867 / Fourth Military District 11 March 1867-28 December 1867 / Department of California 28 December 1867-18 November 1871

USA: Major-General Oliver Otis Howard was appointed to command the Department of the Tennessee, arriving on 30 July 1864, to succeed Major-General John Alexander Logan.

USA: Major-General Oliver Otis Howard assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee, succeeding Major-General John Alexander Logan.

Howard, Oliver Otis / Maine / Born 8 November 1830 Leeds, Maine / Died Burlington, Vermont 26 October 1909
USMA 1 July 1854 4/46 Ordnance / Cadet USMA 1 September 1850 / Ordnance 1 July 1854 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 February 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1857 / Colonel USV 3rd Maine Infantry 4 June 1861 / Resigned USA 7 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 3 September 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 11 May 1865 to rank from 21 December 1864 / Mustered Out USV 1 January 1869 / Superintendent of USMA 21 June 1881-1 September 1882 / Major-General USA 19 March 1886 / Retired USA 8 November 1894 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1854 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Medal of Honor 1 June 1862 / WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 WIA Pickett’s Mill 27 May 1864
3rd Brigade 3rd Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-August 1861 / Howard’s Brigade Army of the Potomac August 1861-25 November 1861 / 1st Brigade Sumner’s Division Army of the Potomac 25 November 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-1 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 27 August 1862-17 September 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 17 September 1862-26 January 1863 / II Corps Potomac 26 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 7 February 1863-1 April 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 2 April 1863-25 September 1863 / XI Corps Cumberland 25 September 1863-21 January 1864 / XI Corps Cumberland 25 February 1864-10 April 1864 / IV Corps Cumberland 10 April 1864-27 July 1864 / Department of the Tennessee 27 July 1864-28 November 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 25 July 1864-18 May 1865

USA: Major-General David Sloane Stanley assumed command of IV Corps (Cumberland), succeeding Major-General Oliver Otis Howard.

Stanley, David Sloane / Ohio / Born 1 June 1828 Congress, Ohio / Died Washington, District of Columbia 13 March 1902
USMA 1 July 1852 9/43 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1852 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6 September 1853 / 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 27 March 1855 / Captain USA 16 March 1861 / 4th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 / Major-General USV 11 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Major USA 5th US Cavalry 1 December 1863 / Mustered Out USV 1 February 1866 / Colonel USA 22nd US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Brigadier-General USA 24 March 1884 / Retired USA 1 June 1892 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1852 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 December 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 15 May 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865- Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Medal of Honor 30 November 1864 / WIA Jonesboro 1 September 1864 WIA Franklin 30 November 1864
Cavalry Department of the Missouri 20 January 1862 / 1st Division District of the Mississippi 20 February 1862-4 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Mississippi 4 March 1862-26 April 1862 / 2nd Division Left Wing Army of the Mississippi 24 April 1862-26 October 1862 / 8th Division Left Wing District of Corinth 1 November 1862-11 November 1862 / Cavalry Army of the Cumberland 24 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Army of the Cumberland 9January 1863-May 1863 / Cavalry Corps Cumberland May 1863-19 September 1863 / Cavalry Corps Cumberland 4 November 1863-20 November 1863 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 November 1863-13 February 1864 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 March 1864-27 July 1864 / IV Corps Cumberland 27 July 1864-1 December 1864 / IV Corps Cumberland 31 January 1865-1 August 1865 / Central District of Texas 27 June 1865-20 July 1865

USA: Major-General John Alexander Logan assumed command of XV Corps (Tennessee), succeeding Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith.

Logan, John Alexander / Illinois / Born 9 February 1826 Jackson, Illinois / Died Washington, District of Columbia 26 December 1886
2nd Lieutenant USV 1st Illinois Infantry 10 May 1847 / Mustered Out 18 October 1848 / Private USV Michigan Infantry July 1861 / Colonel USV 31st Illinois Infantry 18 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Major-General USV 13 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 17 August 1865 / WIA Fort Donelson 15 February 1862 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Vicksburg June 1863 WIA Georgia 20 May 1864 WIA Dallas 30 May 1864
1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 19 April 1862-2 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 2 May 1862-4 May 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 4 May 1862-24 June 1862 / 1st Division Reserve Army of the Tennessee 21 June 1862-5 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division District of Jackson 5 July 1862-25 August 1862 / Sub-District of Jackson 25 August 1862-24 September 1862 / 3rd Division XIII Corps District of Jackson 1 November 1862-22 December 1862 / 3rd Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee 22 December 1862-22 July 1863 / 3rd Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee September 1863-17 November 1863 / XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 11 December 1863-22 July 1864 / Department of the Tennessee 22 July 1864-27 July 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 22 July 1864-27 July 1864 / XV Corps Tennessee 27 July 1864-23 September 1864 / XV Corps Tennessee 8 January 1865-23 May 1865 / Army of the Tennessee 19 May 1865-1 August 1865

USA: Brigadier-General James Bowen resigned USV because of ill health and became Commissioner of Charity and Correction in New York City.

Bowen, James / New York / Born 25 February 1808 New York City, New York / Died Hastings-on-Hudson, New York 29 September 1886
Brigadier-General USV 11 October 1862 / Resigned USV 27 July 1864 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: John Alexander Logan interim Oliver Otis Howard awaited
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: John McNeil
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
  • District of Florida: William Birney

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Edward Otho Cresap Ord temporary

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: David Bell Birney
    • XVIII Corps James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter interim George Crook awaited

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Albion Parris Howe
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The District of Northern Alabama was reorganised to add the territory of Alabama north of Opelika, Montgomery, Selma, and Demopolis along with the railroad connecting them.

CSA: Brigadier-General Daniel Weisiger Adams assumed command of the District of Northern Alabama, succeeding Major-General Jones Mitchell Withers.

Adams, Daniel Weisiger / Kentucky / Born 31 May 1821 Frankfort, Kentucky / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 13 June 1872
2nd Lieutenant Mississippi Militia / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 1st Louisiana Infantry 13 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 30 October 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 May 1862 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 9 May 1865 / WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Perryville 8 October 1862 WIA Stones River 31 December 1862 WIA & CIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863
1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee January 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 9 March 1862-29 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Left Wing Army of Mississippi 13 August 1862-20 November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-12 May 1863 / Adams’ Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Army of Mississippi May 1863-July 1863 / Adams’ Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana July 1863-August 1863 / Adams’ Brigade Breckinridge’s Division D H Hill’s Corps Army of Tennessee 28 August 1863-20 September 1863 / District of Northern Alabama 27 July 1864-24 September 1864 / District of Central Alabama 24 September 1864-11 March 1865 / District of Alabama 11 March 1865-4 May 1865 / District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 3 February 1865-13 March 1865 / District of Alabama 11 March 1865-4 May 1865

CSA: Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee assumed command of II Corps (Tennessee), succeeding Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham.

Lee, Stephen Dill / South Carolina / Born 22 September 1833 Charleston, South Carolina / Died Vicksburg, Mississippi 28 May 1908
USMA 1 July 1854 17/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1850 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 October 1856 / Regt Quartermaster 18 September 1857-8 February 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Captain Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General South Carolina Militia 6 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 11 April 1861-June 1861 / Captain Artillery South Carolina Militia June 1861 / Major PACS Artillery November 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS March 1862 / 4th Virginia Cavalry July 1862 / Colonel PACS Artillery 9 July 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 November 1862 / Major-General PACS 3 August 1863 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 23 June 1864 / Expired 23 February 1865 Reverted to Major-General PACS 23 February 1865 to rank from 3 August 1863 / Reappointed Lieutenant-General PACS 11 March 1865 to rank from 23 June 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Baker’s Creek 16 May 1863 CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 13 October 1863 WIA Spring Hill 17 December 1864
Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General Forces in Charleston 6 March 1861-11 April 1861 / Lee’s Division Second District of Mississippi and East Louisiana December 1862-January 1863 / Lee’s Brigade M L Smith’s Division Second District of Mississippi and East Louisiana January 1863-April 1863 / Chief of Artillery Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana May 1863-4 July 1863 / Cavalry Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 16 August 1863-19 May 1864 / Department of Alabama and East Mississippi 4 May 1864-26 July 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 26 July 1864-17 December 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: The Reserve Forces of Alabama was activated for duty.

CSA: Major-General Jones Mitchell Withers assumed field command of the Reserve Forces of Alabama.

Withers, Jones Mitchell / Alabama / Born 12 January 1814 Madison, Alabama / Died Mobile, Alabama 13 March 1890
USMA 1 July 1835 44/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1831 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1835 / Resigned USA 5 December 1835 / Alabama Militia 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Infantry 3 March 1847 / 13th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / Resigned USA 23 May 1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Alabama Infantry 28 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 6 April 1862 / Resigned PACS 13 July 1863 / Reappointed Major-General PACS 21 July 1863 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835
Department of Norfolk 23 May 1861-26 May 1861 / District of Alabama 12 September 1861-27 January 1862 / Army of Mobile 27 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-30 June 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 30 June 1862-20 November 1862 / Withers’ Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 18 August 1862-20 November 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-13 August 1863 / District of Northern Alabama 6 February 1864-27 July 1864 / Reserve Forces of Alabama 30 April 1864-4 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Dabney Herndon Maury

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Franklin Gardner temporary
  • District of Northern Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
    • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
      • I Corps Valley: Robert Emmett Rodes
      • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: William Wing Loring temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Hunt Morgan

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Texas: Jerome Bonaparte Robertson

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen RES
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Richard Waterhouse

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