1864 July 28th

July 28 1864 Thursday

Battle of Killdeer Mountain, DT (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Ezra Church, GA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Flatshoals, GA

Battle of Deep Bottom Run, VA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Siege of Atlanta

Siege of Petersburg – Mine Assault

Stoneman’s Georgia Raid

McCook’s Georgia Road

Alabama. Expedition from Decatur to Courtland and Moulton ended.

Alabama. Expedition to Cedar Bluff began.

Alabama. Incidents at Flat Rock Bridge, Courtland, and Pollard.

Alabama. Skirmish on the Danville Road near Decatur.

Arkansas. Reconnaissance to Searcy and West Point ended.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Scatterville.

Arkansas. Skirmish at West Point.

Killdeer Mountain, Dakota Territory, also known as Tahkahokuty Mountain. Union Brigadier-General Alfred Sully led detachments from eight units numbering 2,200 men against Chief Inkpaduta and forces from the Santee and Teton Sioux. He arrived near the Native American camp on the Little Missouri River reported that it contained 5,000-6,000 warriors who were strongly posted in wooded country, broken up by high, rugged hills, and deep, impassable ravines. Sully met with some of the tribal chiefs first, but no surrender was forthcoming, so he attacked. Heavy fighting ensued, but eventually, the Federal artillery and long-range firearms took effect and the Sioux began losing ground. Their retirement gradually turned into flight to the Knife River. The Sioux left their possessions, and a running fight of almost nine miles scattered the warriors that were not wounded or killed. Killdeer Mountain broke the back of the Sioux resistance in the region. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Florida. Raid to Baldwin ended.

Georgia. Expedition to Rome began.

Georgia. Skirmish at Campbellton.

Georgia. Incident at Lithonia.

Georgia. Union Major-General Joseph Hooker, who was senior to Major-General Oliver Otis Howard, resigned from his command of XX Corps in protest after Howard was promoted ahead of him to command the Army of the Tennessee. His departure allowed Major-General Henry Warner Slocum to be recalled from Mississippi to command the XX Corps. Slocum had a long association with the predecessor XII Corps and was a well-regarded officer.

Flatshoals, Georgia, also known as Flatrock Bridge, Alabama. Union Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s cavalry division (4,300 men) was attacked at Flatshoals Bridge fifteen miles from Decatur, by Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry. Garrard was forced northwards, away from his intended objective of the Macon & Western Railroad. Wheeler had 6,000 cavalrymen in eight brigades and he prepared to pursue Garrard towards Decatur when he heard news of two other Union raiding columns. Wheeler covered his rear and Decatur with one brigade and took the rest of his cavalry to oppose the Union raiders of Major-General George Stoneman, who was reported to be beyond the Ocmulgee River and seemingly headed for Macon. The other Union column of Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook was detected moving southwards from the Chattahoochee River near Sandtown. Wheeler detached three brigades to deal with Stoneman while he led four to intercept McCook.

Ezra Church, Georgia, also known as the Battle of the Poor House or Ezra Chapel or Hood’s Third Sortie. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s forces had already invested Atlanta from the east and north and were now extended in an inverted U shape around the northern defences of Atlanta. Confederate General John Bell Hood had not defeated the Union armies, but he had successfully prevented the fall of the city.

Sherman decided to cut the railroad supply lines from Macon to Atlanta, in order to force Hood’s army to withdraw without making a direct assault. To accomplish this goal, he ordered the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by Major-General Oliver Otis Howard, to move from the left wing to the right wing of the army and then to head south to cut Hood’s last railroad supply line between West Point and Atlanta. He also launched Major-General George Stoneman’s and Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook’s cavalry on raids to Macon and Lovejoy’s Station.

During the morning Howard resumed his southward march towards Ezra Church, west of the city. As the leading XV Corps of Major-General John Alexander Logan approached Lickskillet Creek three miles west of Atlanta, it was brought under fire by a masked battery. Howard immediately surmised that he would be attacked strongly. His corps commanders disagreed but Howard had guessed correctly. Hood had anticipated Sherman’s manoeuvre and was determined to send a Corps, formerly that of Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham but now led by the recently-arrived Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee, to intercept and destroy Howard’s column.

Although his army was outnumbered overall by the combined Union armies, Hood calculated that a surprise attack against an isolated portion of the enemy could succeed and even the odds. Lee moved out along the Lickskillet Road in the morning to block the Union advance while Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s Corps took a longer route behind Lee along the Sandtown Road. Stewart set off during the evening to circle around and hit the Union troops unexpectedly from the southwest. The defences of Atlanta were left in the hands of Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee. Hardee’s Corps now had only three divisions, each supplemented by a brigade from the late Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker’s former division, which had been broken up.

During the afternoon, Confederate Brigadier-General John Calvin Brown’s Division and three brigades of Major-General Henry Delamar Clayton’s division from Lee’s Corps encountered Howard’s troops at Ezra Church. Lee was warned by cavalry commander Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson that the enemy was entrenched. Howard had already ordered Logan’s XV Corps to dig in across the Confederates’ path in prudent anticipation of a counter-attack. The Confederates were not dug in and were at a fighting disadvantage. Lee decided that the safest course was a sudden attack off the march. At about 12.30 pm, Brown’s Division hit three brigades from Brigadier-General Charles Robert Woods’ 1st Division of XV Corps and one from Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith’s Division (2/XV). Clayton was delayed in thick forest and attacked the same positions soon after Brown had been repelled. Lee attacked twice with all three of his divisions, but they were easily repulsed from the Union army’s improvised breastwork of logs and rails. Brigadier-General William Felix Brantley’s Confederate brigade made a small lodgement in the Union breastworks but it was soon pushed out by a counter-attack. Logan’s four divisions were quickly reinforced by troops from the corps of Major-General Grenville Mellen Dodge (XVI Corps) and Major-General Francis Preston Blair (XVII Corps) when they arrived down the road, but they were not needed.

Hood was forced to abandon his ambitious flank march by Stewart’s Corps. Stewart’s men arrived to reinforce Lee and Brigadier-General Edward Cary Walthall’s Division joined the fighting, which continued with weakening force from 2 pm until darkness fell. As the battle degenerated into sporadic firing, Hood sent for Hardee to take over the two corps engaged west of Atlanta, leaving his own troops under his deputy, Cheatham. Hardee found that the attacking troops had lost very heavy casualties in frontal assaults. The repeated fruitless attacks of recent days had left them demoralised and disheartened. Realising that three unsuccessful attacks in ten days had been launched against entrenched opponents with superior numbers, Hardee recommended caution and a withdrawal back to the prepared defences of Atlanta.

Estimated casualties at Ezra Church for the Union were between 562 and 700 men and between 2,500 and 5,000 men for the Confederates. Stewart was among the wounded Confederates. Since the fight at Tunnel Hill at the beginning of July the Union armies had lost about 25,000 men and the Confederates about 27,500 men, nearly half of them incurred in Hood’s three disastrous “sorties” around Atlanta. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Indian Territory. Incident at Bayou Bernard.

Louisiana. Incident at the Atchafalaya River.

Louisiana. Skirmish on the Morgan’s Ferry Road near Morganza, involving Union troops under Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler.

Missouri. Incident at Allen.

Missouri. Skirmish at Big Creek.

North Carolina. A Union expedition was sent from New Bern aboard the gunboat USS Whitehead, up the Chowan River to Manning’s Neck. The aim was to communicate with the cavalry dismantling the Weldon & Petersburg Railroad. USS Whitehead was joined by the Army steamers Thomas Colyer and Massasoit in their attempt to confiscate contraband. The Confederate steamer Arrow was captured at Gatesville with its cargo.

Pennsylvania. Confederate Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early ordered Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden to take a detachment of cavalry to Chambersburg to demand reparations in cash for depredations carried out in the Shenandoah Valley by Union Major-General David Hunter.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Long’s Mills near Mulberry Gap.

Texas. Most of the 6,500 Union troops located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, and at Brownsville which they had occupied on 2 November 1863, were withdrawn for other campaigns. Their presence was largely futile. They interfered with, but could not prevent, Confederate use of their remaining Texan ports for cotton sales to Europe, as well as the importation of supplies across the border, aided by Mexicans who benefited from a lucrative smuggling trade.

Virginia. Incidents at Malvern Hill and Gaines Hill.

Four Mile Creek, Virginia. USS Mendota, Commander Edward T Nichols, and USS Agawam, temporarily commanded by Lieutenant George Dewey, shelled Confederate positions across Four Mile Creek on the James River, in support of Union movements to restore safe navigation of the river at that point. The James River had been closed near Malvern Hill by the Confederate batteries since  14 July 1864.

Virginia. The Union Mine at Elliott’s Salient was finally filled with 8,000 pounds of powder. The tunnel was partially blocked to tamp the explosive effect and a fuse improvised to detonate the massive charge. Although the project had been completed with little support or interest from the army’s higher command, the technical aspects of the operation were a success. The detonation was scheduled for 30 July1864. The Confederates had learned of the existence, but not the exact location, of the mine tunnel. Their attempts to counter-mine were unsuccessful but General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard ordered a new line of trenches to be built across the base of Elliott’s Salient, and large mortars to be emplaced to protect the vulnerable point.

Deep Bottom Run, Virginia, also known as Deep Bottom, Malvern Hill, New Market Road, Darbytown or Strawberry Plains. Confederate Major-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee arrived to strengthen the eastern defences of the capital with his cavalry division. Union Major-General John Gray Foster’s division was assigned to demonstrate to open up a route for an advance around the Confederate northern flank.

At 10 am, the Confederate Major–General Joseph Brevard Kershaw’s division counterattacked and drove back the Union outposts. Union Major-General Philp Henry Sheridan’s cavalry, many of them armed with repeating carbines, dismounted to repel the attack and drove the Confederates away with the loss of 300 prisoners. Union Brigadier-General John Gibbon’s division (2/II) arrived after the action ended and was posted to guard the approaches to Long Bridge Road while the cavalry withdrew to New Market Road. Union Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg’s cavalry division disengaged with difficulty and lost a gun in the process. Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock deployed the remainder of his II Corps to prevent a threat to his line of withdrawal from the direction of Malvern Hill. Union casualties were reported as 334 and Confederate losses are unknown. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

West Virginia. Incident at Cherry Run.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Henry Warner Slocum was appointed to command XX Corps (Cumberland), arriving on 27 August 1864, to succeed Major-General Joseph Hooker.

Slocum, Henry Warner / New York / Born 24 September 1827 Delphi, New York / Died Brooklyn, New York 14 April 1894
USMA 1 July 1852 7/43 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1852 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 31 October 1856 / Colonel New York Militia / Colonel USV 27th New York Infantry 21 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 / Major-General USV 25 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 / Resigned USV 28 September 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
Slocum’s Brigade Department of Northeastern Virginia 4 September 1861-30 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade Franklin’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-18 May 1862 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-15 October 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 20 October 1862-1 July 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 4 July 1863-31 August 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 13 September 1863-25 September 1863 / XII Corps Cumberland 25 September 1863-18 April 1864 / District of Vicksburg 20 April 1864-19 August 1864 / XX Corps Cumberland 27 August 1864-11 November 1864 / Army of Georgia 7 November 1864-17 June 1865 / XX Corps Georgia 7 November 1864-10 November 1864 / Department of Mississippi 27 June 1865-16 September 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams assumed temporary command of XX Corps (Cumberland), succeeding Major-General Joseph Hooker, interim until the arrival of Major-General Henry Warner Slocum.

Williams, Alpheus Starkey / Connecticut / Born 20 September 1810 Saybrook, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 21 December 1878
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1st Michigan Infantry 8 December 1847 / Mustered Out USV 29 July 1848 / Brigadier-General Michigan Militia 24 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Mustered out USV 15 January 1866 / WIA New Hope Church 26 May 1864
1st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 18 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1st Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-4 September 1862 / II Corps Virginia 4 September 1862-12 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 12 September 1862 – 15 September 1862 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 15 September 1862-17 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 17 September 1862-20 October 1862 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 20 October 1862-1 July 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-4 July 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-11 August 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 31 August 1863-13 September 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1863-25 September 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-22 December 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 30 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 July 1864 / XX Corps Cumberland 28 July 1864-27 August 1864 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 27 August 1864-11 November 1864 / XX Corps Georgia 11 November 1864-2 April 1865 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of Georgia 2 April 1865-4 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
      • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Alpheus Starkey Williams interim Henry Warner Slocum awaited
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: John Alexander Logan interim Oliver Otis Howard awaited
      • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
      • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
      • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
        • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • District of Port Hudson: John McNeil
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
      • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
      • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
      • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
      • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
      • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
        • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
        • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
    • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
      • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
      • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
      • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
      • District of Central Missouri: Alfred Pleasonton
      • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell
    • District of California: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
      • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Gray Foster
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
    • District of Florida: William Birney
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Edward Otho Cresap Ord temporary
    • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: David Bell Birney
      • XVIII Corps James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter interim George Crook awaited
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: Albion Parris Howe
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Samuel Benton died of wounds received at Atlanta, Georgia, before his commission as Brigadier-General was delivered.

Benton, Samuel / Tennessee / Born 18 October 1820 Williamson, Tennessee / DOW Griffin, Georgia 28 July 1864
Captain PACS 9th Mississippi Infantry April 1861 / Colonel PACS 37th Mississippi Infantry April 1862 / 34th Mississippi Infantry 19 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 26 July 1864 Unconfirmed posthumously / WIA Perryville 8 October 1862 MWIA Atlanta 22 July 1864
Benton’s Brigade Hindman’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee June 1864-22 July 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Franklin Gardner temporary
    • District of Northern Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
    • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
    • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
      • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
        • I Corps Valley: Robert Emmett Rodes
        • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws
  • Department of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: William Wing Loring temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Hunt Morgan
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Texas: Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Richard Waterhouse

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