1864 July 20th

July 20 1864 Wednesday

Battle of Peachtree Creek, GA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Rutherford’s Farm, VA (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Atlanta Campaign – Peach Tree Creek

Siege of Petersburg

Rousseau’s Alabama Raid

Alabama. Reconnaissance to Florence began.

Alabama. Union Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut began to make final preparations for his entrance into Mobile Bay. His main opposition was the powerful ironclad CSS Tennessee, anchored by Fort Morgan. There were also substantial fortifications guarding the entrance to the bay. The smallest defence was Fort Powell, a six-gun earthwork on tiny Tower Island, a mile off Cedar Point. This battery covered the approaches from Mississippi Sound through Grant’s Pass to the west. Fort Gaines was a pentagonal fort on the eastern tip of Dauphin Island, with sixteen guns commanding the western half of the main entrance. Three miles from Fort Gaines across the entrance to the bay was Mobile Point where Fort Morgan stood as the main defensive position. Fort Morgan was an elaborate pentagonal masonry fortification. It had two tiers of forty guns in all, some en barbette, and others in casemates. Seven more guns were placed in a water battery on the beach in front of the northwest wall.

The two entrances from the Gulf of Mexico into Mobile Bay had been narrowed by various obstacles. The western gap was blocked by pilings sunk from Cedar Point to Tower Island. More pilings were placed from the northern end of Dauphin Island, leaving just half a mile of navigable open water right under the guns of Fort Powell. The main entrance was blocked by pilings sunk south-eastwards from Fort Gaines to within a mile of Mobile Point. The remaining gap of one mile was blocked by three rows of underwater explosive torpedoes (naval mines), anchored below the surface. These ended two hundred yards from land and that point was marked by a red buoy. This buoy guided blockade runners safely into the bay and brought them directly under the guns of Fort Morgan and its waterside battery for protection.

Farragut could not use the Grant’s Pass approach because it was too shallow for most of his ships and those that could pass would be wooden vessels, defenceless against the Confederate ironclad ram. His only possible route into Mobile Bay was through the two hundred yard gap passing Fort Morgan on Mobile Point. However, the passage would be very dangerous for his wooden ships and they would still be at the mercy of the Confederate ironclad. It was imperative for Union ironclads to occupy the Confederate monster to protect the rest of the fleet. Farragut demanded more ironclads for his own fleet and two were promised from the Mississippi River, with two more to be spared from the Atlantic Squadron. None had arrived by the time the CSS Tennessee took up its menacing position by the entrance to the bay and Farragut remained anxious for the safety of his fleet. The first ironclad – USS Manhattan – finally arrived late in the day. It carried two 15-inch guns mounted in a revolving turret protected by ten inches of armour.

Arkansas. Skirmish near Maysville.

Florida. Expedition to Jacksonville ended.

Florida. Expedition to Cedar Keys and St Andrews Bay began.

Georgia. Incidents at Decatur, Leggett’s Hill, Flint Hill Church, Howard’s House, Turner’s Ferry, and Bald Mountain.

Peachtree Creek, Georgia, also known as Hood’s First Sortie. Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee and Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio were enveloping Atlanta from the east and a dangerous gap of two miles had arisen between the left of Major-General George Henry Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland and Schofield’s forces. McPherson’s army was still marching towards Atlanta along the railroad from the east. Late in the day, the vanguard of Major-General Francis Preston Blair’s XVII Corps engaged Confederate dismounted cavalry on a small hill (Bald Hill, later named Leggett’s Hill) within two miles of the city.

Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland held a shallow bridgehead across Peachtree Creek. Throughout the morning the Army of the Cumberland crossed Peachtree Creek in increasing strength and began taking up more defensive positions. Thomas placed Major-General John Newton’s division (2/IV) on the left flank across the Buckhead to Atlanta road, less than half a mile south of Collier’s Bridge. On the right flank was Brigadier-General John White Geary’s division (2/XX). Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward’s division (3/XX) filled the interval between and behind these two divisions. Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams’ division (1/XX) deployed on Geary’s right rear and the extreme right flank was held at Howell’s (or Powell’s Mill) by a brigade under Colonel Anson George McCook (1/1/XIV).

The few hours between the Union crossing of Peachtree Creek and the completion of their defensive earthworks offered a moment of opportunity for the Confederates. Adopting an existing plan of General Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Confederate General John Bell Hood ordered an attack at 1 pm on Thomas’ unsupported army while it was divided on both banks of the creek. He committed two of his three corps to the attack. Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps would attack the Union left flank, while Major-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s Corps would attack their right. Meanwhile, Hood’s own Corps, now under Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, would keep an eye on the two Union armies to the east of Atlanta. Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry provided a screen of concealment. Cheatham concentrated artillery on his left wing to command the gap between the two Union armies and Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland. About 5,000 Georgia militiamen manned the defences of Atlanta in support of Cheatham.

Hardee’s and Stewart’s attack was planned in oblique order starting on the right. Hardee’s line would begin the fight and he deployed Major-General William Brimage Bate’s division on the extreme right, followed by Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker’s division, and then Brigadier-General George Earl Maney’s division, while Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne’s division was in reserve. Stewart’s corps extended the line westwards with Major-General William Wing Loring’s division and Major-General Edward Cary Walthall’s division, with Major-General Samuel Gibb French’s division was in reserve. Once Thomas’ army had been caught straddling the creek and been driven back to destruction against the Chattahoochee River, Hardee and Stewart would return to help Cheatham against the other Union armies.

The Confederate attack was scheduled to start at noon, but delays began to interfere with the execution of the plan, which relied on speed to trap Thomas’ army in detail and before it could entrench. At about 1 pm, Cheatham reported that he needed to shift his position southwards beyond the Georgia Railroad as Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee was threatening to overlap his line. Hood was forced to accede to the request and Hardee and Stewart, in turn, were ordered to move their lines a half-division front to the right to avoid too wide a gap appearing between them and Cheatham. Hardee soon discovered that the gap was even wider than expected. He had to decide whether to delay the attack by continuing to shift further eastwards or to attack at once, leaving a dangerous void on his right flank. He chose the former course and it was not until 3 pm that he had re-positioned his corps, with Stewart’s Corps conforming on his left.

Shortly after 3 pm, Hardee moved forwards with his four divisions into the valley of Peachtree Creek. The delay of two hours had given the Union troops enough time to find good positions and to begin their entrenchments. On Hardee’s right, Bate’s division attacked as the first element of an attack en echelon and hit the exposed eastern flank of Newton’s division. Bate was repulsed by Colonel Blake’s brigade and then by Colonel Luther Prentice Bradley’s brigade (3/2/IV) which moved in from reserve. Walker’s attack hit next and was stopped by Newton’s two front line brigades of Blake and Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball (1/2/IV). Maney’s attack struck the connection between Newton’s division and Geary’s division, finding the interval between Kimball’s and Colonel Charles Candy’s brigade. Ward’s Union division came up from reserve to repel this dangerous attack. Hardee’s attack was stopped and failed at all points.

On Hardee’s left, Stewart’s attack enjoyed a little more success. Stewart’s Corps came up against the exposed right flank of Geary’s division because Williams’ division was set back some distance. Geary faced to his right and extended his lines to reconnect with Williams. Williams, in turn, pushed forward Colonel James Sidney Robinson’s brigade (3/1/XX) on his left and Brigadier-General Joseph Farmer Knipe’s (1/1/XX) on his right, with Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger’s brigade (2/1/XX) in reserve. Walthall’s division attacked Williams. Two Union brigades were forced to retreat, and some success was achieved when Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Moore Scott’s brigade advanced through the Tanyward Branch and captured a battery after defeating the 33rd New Jersey Infatry of Geary’s Division. Most of the 33rd New Jersey were also captured with the guns. The oblique attack and the refused right flanks of Geary and Williams eventually offered an opportunity for a devastating enfilade fire against the Confederate assaults. Loring’s division lost 1,062 men in a matter of minutes.

Thomas arrived from Army headquarters to lead the Union defence in person and rushed artillery forward to block the enemy advance. The defence was shored up with the guns at various points and furious Confederate attacks were held off. At about 6 pm, the Confederates gave up their effort and mostly returned to their starting positions. The determined assault had threatened briefly to overrun the Union troops, but the line held firm through the timely insertion of reserves. The Union lines had bent but not broken under the weight of the Confederate attack. By the end of the day, the Confederates had failed to break through anywhere.

Hardee was preparing to send in his reserve, Cleburne’s division, to reinvigorate the attack but an urgent message from Hood forced him to cancel the attack. Hood urged Hardee to dispatch Cleburne to reinforce Cheatham, whose right flank was threatened by McPherson’s advance and in desperate need of reinforcements. Cleburne arrived after nightfall and faced an area of high cleared ground known as Bald Hill, south of the Georgia Railroad and just two miles east of Atlanta. Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry had fought dismounted all day to cling onto this high ground but was eventually forced back and conceded possession. At nightfall the Union troops still held the heights, and the Confederates fell back. The Confederate cavalry screen was forced to withdraw at midnight.

Although Hood’s plan was sound, as devised by his predecessor, the failure of the units to be formed and positioned correctly prior to the Union crossing of Peachtree Creek, contributed to its failure. Hood praised Cheatham and Wheeler for their efforts in holding back the Union left wing. He also complimented Stewart for attacking as instructed but he criticised Hardee for delaying the advance and failing to follow instructions. Estimated casualties were 6,506 in total: 1,710 on the Union side out of 20,139 (or 21,450) men engaged and 4,796 on the Confederate side out of 18,832 (or 18,450) engaged. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Atlanta, Georgia. During the battle along Peachtree Creek, Union Captain Francis De Gress deployed a battery of four 20-pounder Parrott Rifles and began a long-range bombardment of the city of Atlanta. The very first shell to explode killed a young girl who was walking in the street. The shelling was sustained for several weeks and continually harassed the citizens and garrison of the town.

Idaho Territory. Expedition from Fort Boise to Boonville against Indians began. After reaching to Boonville, the Federal troops learned that local citizens had taken the law into their own hands, attacking a large party of Indians, scalping and killing 30 women and children and five men.

Missouri. Operation in Johnson County began.

Missouri. Operation in Lafayette County and Johnson County began, to attack Confederate guerrillas operating around Arrow Rock and Mount Prairie.

Missouri. Skirmish at Arrow Rock.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to Pulaski began.

Tennessee. Skirmish in Blount County.

Virginia. Pickets from the USS Shokokon, Acting Master Sheldon, were attacked ashore by Confederate sharpshooters at Turkey Bend in the James River. USS Shokokon was a 710–ton double-ended warship mounting fvie guns. The ship’s guns supported the landing party with gunfire and prevented its capture.

Virginia. Incidents at Berryville and Snicker’s Ferry.

Virginia. Skirmish at Philomont.

Virginia. Union Major-General Henry Wager Halleck persuaded Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant that Union Major-General Horatio Wright’s VI Corps was needed more urgently at Washington than at Richmond or the Shenandoah Valley and Wright began to march towards Washington, DC. During the night, Wright complied and put his troops into marching order. Wright agreed with Halleck that Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early’s Confederates would also either return to join their main army at Richmond or, if they remained in the Shenandoah Valley, that Major-General David Hunter could contain them. Planning was hampered by the fact that efforts to regain the Shenandoah Valley had to be coordinated between the Middle Department, the Department of the Susquehanna, the Department of West Virginia, and the Department of Washington.

Rutherford’s Farm, Virginia, also known as Carter’s Farm, Stephenson’s Depot, or Winchester. Confederate Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur’s division had arrived at Winchester during the morning and he dispatched his cavalry under Brigadier-General John Crawford Vaughn and Colonel William Lowther Jackson to Carter’s Farm north of the town to scout the enemy’s position. Confederate scouts found the Union encampment at Bunker Hill at about 7 am. At 9 am, Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell’s force broke camp and set down the Valley Turnpike, fighting Confederate skirmishers the entire way. By 11 am, the Union forces reached Stephenson’s Depot, a red-brick building just north of Winchester. A sharp skirmish soon ensued when they encountered Vaughn’s and Jackson’s dismounted cavalry supported by artillery on a small ridge near Rutherford’s and Carter’s farms. Artillery opened fire and halted the Union advance, prompting Averell to bring up his own artillery, leading to a protracted duel. At about 2 pm, Vaughn sent a courier to Ramseur apprising him of the developments and recommending that the infantry be brought up to ambush the Union force. Despite Major-General; Jubal Anderson Early’s strict orders to stay within the defences of Winchester, Ramseur saw the chance for an opportunistic victory and agreed with Vaughn, dispatching his infantry to the developing battle. Within an hour his infantry was concealed in a wood on the ridge. Even as the Confederate infantry was arriving, the Union assault got underway. The Union charge approached the woods and the concealed Confederate infantry unleashed a surprise volley that checked the Union advance and threatened to turn its left. Unfortunately, the woods held by the Confederates formed an acute angle with the Turnpike, leaving their left protruding towards the Union advance. Union cavalry covering the Union right soon turned this exposed Confederate left flank. A sudden assault came in on the flank of Colonel Archibald Campbell Godwin’s brigade as it was deploying, throwing it into a panic. The Confederate centre and right continued to fire against the Union left, but regiment by regiment they began to turn in retreat towards Winchester. Panic spread to Brigadier-General Robert Daniel Johnston’s brigade alongside Godwin’s. Finally, the whole Confederate line collapsed in retreat. Despite Ramseur’s efforts, the line could not be reassembled before it reached the defences of Winchester. Confederate Brigadier-General Robert Doak Lilley was captured.

Unsure of the whereabouts of the rest of Early’s army, Averell declined to pursue the retreating Confederates and broke off the battle. Following this defeat, Early prepared to withdraw his army further south to a defensive position at Fisher’s Hill. The Union captured 267 men and four guns, as well as inflicting 73 dead and 130 wounded. Total casualties were estimated at 1,100. (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Henry Hayes Lockwood assumed command of the District of Delaware, succeeding Brigadier-General John Reese Kenly.

Lockwood, Henry Hayes / Delaware / Born 17 August 1814 Kent, Delaware / Died Georgetown, District of Columbia 7 December 1899
USMA 1 July 1836 22/49 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1832 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 30 July 1836 / Resigned USA 12 September 1837 / Professor US Naval Academy 1841-1861 / Colonel USV 1st Delaware Infantry 25 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 8 August 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Professor US Naval Academy 1865-1870 / US Naval Observatory 1870-1876 / Retired USN 18 August 1876 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1836
Peninsula Brigade Department of the Potomac November 1861-22 March 1862 / District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland 22 March 1862-5 January 1865 / 1st Separate Brigade VIII Corps Middle Department 5 January 1863-4 February 1863 / 1st Separate Brigade VIII Corps Middle Department 14 February 1863-26 June 1863 / Provisional Brigade XII Corps Army of the Potomac 26 June 1863-5 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 5 July 1863-19 July 1863 / Lockwood’s Division Department of the Susquehanna 19 July 1863-3 August 1863 / Lockwood’s Division Department of West Virginia 3 August 1863-12 October 1863 / 1st Separate Brigade VIII Corps Middle Department 28 October 1863-21 November 1863 / Middle Department 5 December 1863-22 March 1864 / VIII Corps Middle 5 December 1863-21 March 1864 / 3rd Separate Brigade VIII Corps Middle Department 24 March 1864-16 May 1864 / 3rd Separate Brigade VIII Corps Middle Department 20 July 1864-31 July 1864 / District of Delaware 20 July 1864-20 August 1864 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 29 May 1864-2 June 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
      • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
      • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
      • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
        • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • District of Port Hudson: John McNeil
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
      • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
      • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
      • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
      • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
      • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
        • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
        • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
    • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
      • District of St Louis: vacant
      • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
      • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
      • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell
    • District of California: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
      • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Gray Foster
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
    • District of Florida: William Birney
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry temporary
      • XVIII Corps James: John Henry Martindale temporary
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: Albion Parris Howe
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Clement Hoffman Stevens was mortally wounded at Peachtree Creek, Georgia.

Stevens, Clement Hoffman / Connecticut-South Carolina / Born 14 August 1821 Norwich, Connecticut / DOW Atlanta, Georgia 25 July 1864
Colonel South Carolina Militia 1861 / Colonel PACS ADC April 1861 / ADC (B E Bee) April 1861-21 July 1861 / Colonel PACS 24th South Carolina Infantry 1 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 January 1864 to rank from 20 January 1864 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 WIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863 MWIA Peach Tree Creek 20 July 1864
Stevens’ Brigade W H T Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee February 1864-20 July 1864

CSA: Brigadier-General Robert Doak Lilley was captured at Winchester.

Lilley, Robert Doak / Virginia / Born 25 January 1836 Greenville, Virginia / Died Richmond, Virginia 12 November 1886
Captain PACS 25th Virginia Infantry 25 May 1861 / Major PACS 28 January 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 20 August 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 2 June 1864 to rank from 31 May 1864 / Paroled Staunton, Virginia 23 May 1865 / WIA & CIA Stephenson’s Depot 20 July 1864 Released 24 July 1864
Pegram’s Brigade Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-13 June 1864 / Lilley’s Brigade Ramseur’s Division Valley District 13 June 1864-20 July 1864 / Lilley’s Brigade Reserves Valley District 28 November 1864-April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
    • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
    • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
      • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
        • I Corps Valley: Robert Emmett Rodes
        • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws
  • Department of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham temporary
      • III Corps Tennessee: William Wing Loring temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Hunt Morgan
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
    • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Texas: Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
Richard Waterhouse

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