1864 December 8th

December 8 1864 Thursday

Hatcher’s Run, VA

Siege of Petersburg – Hicksford and Hatcher’s Run

Hood’s Invasion of Tennessee – Nashville & Murfreesboro

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Butler’s Fort Fisher Expedition

Arkansas. Expedition from Devall’s Bluff to Augusta ended.

Arkansas. Expedition to Fairview ended.

Arkansas. Incident at Bellefield.

Georgia. Skirmish at Ebenezer Creek.

Georgia. Skirmish near Bryan Court House.

Mississippi. USS J P Jackson, Acting Lieutenant Pennington, was assisted by USS Stockdale, Acting Master Thomas Edwards, in the capture of the blockade-running schooner Medora in Mississippi Sound, with a cargo of cotton.

Missouri. Confederate cavalry captured the town of Tuscumbia and paroled 25 Union soldiers stationed there.

Nebraska Territory. Skirmish six miles east of Plum Creek, with Cheyennes who attacked a wagon train.

North Carolina. USS Cherokee Lieutenant William E Dennison, captured the blockade-running British steamer Emma Henry east of North Carolina with a cargo of cotton.

Tennessee. Incidents at La Vergne, Murfreesboro, and Chattanooga.

Tennessee. Despite the insistent urging of Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, Union Major-General George Henry Thomas remained on the defensive at Nashville. US President Abraham Lincoln believed that Confederate General John Bell Hood was poised for a damaging and extended invasion of the North and lost patience with Thomas. Thomas blamed his delay on an overnight freezing spell and an ice storm that stopped all efforts at movement and fortification on both sides. Grant pressurised Thomas to move in spite of the bitter ice storms. Grant decided that the tardy Thomas must be relieved and proposed to replace him initially with Major-General John McAllister Schofield and later, when occasion permitted, with Major-General John Alexander Logan. Nevertheless, he held back from issuing this order on the advice of Major-General Henry Wager Halleck, who was aware of Thomas’ popularity among the soldiers and his previous good record.

Tennessee. The Confederate Army of Tennessee, after the detachment of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest around Murfreesboro, now had about 24,000 men holding a line four miles in length, facing Nashville. Their numbers were too weak to complete the supposed investment of the city and their fortifications could not be extended far enough to protect their flanks securely. Three redoubts were commenced beyond the Confederate western flank across the Hillsboro Pike, but freezing weather made the ground impossible to break with the available tools. The army was forced to take shelter for four days and was unable to carry out any major entrenchments.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest destroyed railroad tracks, blockhouses, and homes, and caused some general disruption to Union operations in the area around Murfreesboro. Major-General William Brimage Bate’s Division returned to rejoin the main army at Nashville after its futile foray to Murfreesboro.

Texas. USS Itasca, Lieutenant-Commander George Brown, chased the blockade-running sloop Mary Ann ashore at Pass Cavallo. The cargo of cotton was salvaged, and the ship destroyed.

Virginia. Union Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren and V Corps of the Army of the Potomac continued his march towards the Weldon Railroad through intensely cold rainstorms. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee gambled that the Union army would not risk a frontal assault simultaneously on the Petersburg front and detached Lieutenant-General Ambrose Hill with most of his III Corps and the cavalry division of Major-General Wade Hampton, to intercept the marching Union column. They travelled slowly in the bad weather, feeling the effects of several weeks of immobility and deteriorating rations.

Virginia. Wilmington in North Carolina was the last port remaining open to Confederate naval commerce and blockade runners. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler to cooperate with the Navy to reduce Fort Fisher and close the port of Wilmington. Butler’s force sailed down the James River on transports for Fortress Monroe, in preparation for the expedition to capture Fort Fisher. Grant had originally designated Major-General Godfrey Weitzel to lead the expedition, but when Butler, who was the senior Major-General in the Army, demanded to lead the troops himself, Grant acquiesced. The overall expedition was commanded in person by Butler. The army element comprised 6,500 men in two divisions and two batteries under Weitzel. His two divisions were commanded by Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames (2/XIV) and Brigadier-General Charles Jackson Paine (3/XXV). Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter commanded the naval element of the expedition. Butler had proposed a plan to explode a vessel laden with 350 tons of powder off Fort Fisher. The “bomb ship” was intended to run in close to Fort Fisher, where the immense explosion was calculated to wreck both the fortifications and the works along the beach. This would weaken the defences and allow the fleet to attack against minimal resistance. Porter agreed to attempt this unlikely means of reducing the fort, and planned to detonate the explosives before Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler’s land forces were put ashore. Porter revealed the plan to Lieutenant-Commander Watmough, the senior Naval officer off New Inlet.

Hatcher’s Run, Virginia. As a diversion from the Weldon Railroad operation, the Union 1st Division of II Corps, and three cavalry regiments (3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry, 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry and 6th Ohio Cavalry) made a reconnaissance in force towards Hatcher’s Run, losing 125 casualties by the end of the operation.

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE FORCES IN VIRGINIA

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
District of the Valley: Brigadier-General Jubal Anderson Early
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
I Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General James Longstreet
Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General George Edward Pickett
Steuart’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Hume Steuart
Corse’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Montgomery Dent Corse
Hunton’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Eppa Hunton
Terry’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Richard Terry
Field’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Charles William Field
Anderson’s Brigade, Field’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Thomas Anderson
Law’s Brigade, Field’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel William Flank Perry
Gregg’s Brigade, Field’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel F S Bass
Benning’s Brigade, Field’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning
Bratton’s Brigade, Field’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Bratton
Kershaw’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Du Bose’s Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Dudley McIver Du Bose
Humphreys’ Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Bryan’s Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Goode Bryan
Conner’s Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Conner
I Corps Artillery: Brigadier-General Edward Porter Alexander
II Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early
Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Bryan Grimes
Battle’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Grimes’ Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Cox’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Cook’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Pegram
Johnson’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Lewis’ Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Pegram’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Clement Anselm Evans

Evans’ Brigade, Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Terry’s Brigade, Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Terry
York’s Brigade, Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
II Corps Artillery: Colonel Thomas H Carter
III Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Henry Heth
Davis’ Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Robert Davis
Cooke’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Rogers Cooke
McRae’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William MacRae
Archer’s and Walker’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel R M Mayo
Johnson’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia):
Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Thomas’ Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Lloyd Thomas
Lane’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Henry Lane
McGowan’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Samuel McGowan
Scales’ Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Alfred Moore Scales
Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General William Mahone
Sanders’ Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
Weisiger’s Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Davis Addison Weisiger
Harris’ Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Sorrel’s Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
Finegan’s Brigade, Mahone’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan
III Corps Artillery: Colonel Reuben L Walker
IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson
Hoke’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke
Hagood’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood
Colquitt’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Alfred Holt Colquitt
Clingman’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia):
Kirkland’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Whedbee Kirkland
Johnson’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson
Perrin’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Henry A Perrin
Elliott’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Stephen Elliott
Gracie’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Archibald Gracie

Ransom’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, IV Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Matthew Whitaker Ransom
IV Corps Artillery: Colonel Hilary P Jones
Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Major-General Wade Hampton
Butler’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Major-General Matthew Calbraith
Butler
Butler’s Cavalry Brigade, Butler’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Colonel H K Aiken
Young’s Cavalry Brigade, Butler’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Colonel J F Waring
Lee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Major-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
Barringer’s Cavalry Brigade, Lee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Rufus Barringer
Beale’s Cavalry Brigade, Lee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Dearing’s Cavalry Brigade, Lee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Dearing
Defences of Richmond & Danville Railroad: Brigadier-General James Alexander Walker

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana arrived to command the Department of the Mississippi.

Dana, Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh / Ohio / Born 15 April 1822 Fort Sullivan, Eastport, Maine / Died Portsmouth. New Hampshire 15 July 1905
USMA 1 July 1842 29/56 / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 3 March 1848 / Resigned USA 1 May 1855 / Brigadier-General Minnesota Militia 1857-1861 / Colonel USV 1st Minnesota try 2 October 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 February 1862 to rank from 3 February 1862 / Major-General USV 9 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 27 May 1865 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster Retired 2 August 1894 / Brevet Captain USA 18 April 1847 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
2nd Brigade Stone’s Division Army of the Potomac 20 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 August 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-17 September 1862 / Defences of Philadelphia 26 June 1863-18 July 1863 / 2nd Division Department of the Susquehanna 11 July 1863-15 July 1863 / 2nd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 26 September 1863-3 January 1864 / XIII Corps Gulf 25 October 1863-9 January 1864 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 11 March 1864-3 April 1864 / District of Vicksburg 19 August 1864-28 November 1864 / XVI Corps Tennessee 15 October 1864-7 November 1864 / Department of the Mississippi 8 December 1864-14 May 1865 / District of Vicksburg 28 November 1864-7 December 1864 / District of West Tennessee 28 November 1864-7 December 1864

USA: Brigadier-General James Clifford Veatch assumed command of the District of West Tennessee, succeeding Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana.

Veatch, James Clifford / Indiana / Born 19 December 1819 Elizabethtown, Indiana / Died Rockport, Indiana 22 December 1895
Colonel USV 25th Indiana Infantry 19 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 28 April 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Adjutant-General Indiana Militia 1869 / Brevet Major-General USV 26 March 1865 / WIA Hatchie River 5 October 1862
2nd Brigade 4th Division District of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Tennessee 11 March 1862-July 1862 / 2nd Brigade 4th Division District of Memphis July 1862-24 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 4th Division District of Jackson 24 September 1862-26 October 1862 / District of Memphis 6 January 1863-14 January 1863 / Sub-District of Memphis 15 January 1863-25 January 1864 / 4th Division District of Corinth 25 January 1864-17 July 1864 / District of West Tennessee 8 December 1864-3 February 1865 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Department of the Gulf 4 February 1865-18 February 1865 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 18 February 1865-25 May 1865

USA: Major-General Cadwallader Colden Washburn assumed command of the District of Vicksburg, succeeding Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana.

Washburn, Cadwallader Colden / Maine / Born 22 April 1818 Livermore, Maine / Died Eureka Springs, Arkansas 15 May 1882
Colonel USV 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry 6 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Major-General USV 13 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 25 May 1865 / CIA Memphis 21 August 1864 Exchanged
Cavalry 3rd Division District of Arkansas 2 November 1862-21 January 1863 / Cavalry 2nd Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 8 February 1863-3 April 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry District of Corinth 31 March 1863-9 June 1863 / Cavalry Division District of Eastern Arkansas May 1863-June 1863 / XIII Corps Tennessee 28 July 1863-28 July 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 7 August 1863-15 September 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 15 September 1863-19 October 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 19 October 1863-25 October 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 26 October 1863-25 November 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 26 October 1863-8 January 1864 / District of West Tennessee 17 April 1864-28 November 1864 / District of Vicksburg 8 December 1864-11 February 1865 / District of West Tennessee 4 March 1865-25 May 1865

USA: The District of Arizona was discontinued.

USA: Brigadier-General Alexander Schimmelfennig assumed command of the Northern District of the Department of the South, succeeding Colonel Edward Needles Hallowell.

Schimmelfennig, Alexander / Prussia / Born 20 July 1824 Lithauen, Prussia / Died Wernersville, Pennsylvania 7 September 1865
Ensign Prussian Army 1840 / Lieutenant Prussian Army 1842 / Colonel USV 74th Pennsylvania Infantry 30 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 29 November 1862 / WIA Gettysburg 1 July 1863
1st Brigade 3rd Division I Corps Army of Virginia 22 August 1862-12 September 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-19 January 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 19 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 5 February 1863-5 March 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 5 March 1863-2 April 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 April 1863-1 July 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 1 July 1863-1 July 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-13 July 1863 / 1st Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 14 July 1863-17 July 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 17 July 1863-6 August 1863 / 1st Brigade Southern District of the South 16 August 1863-24 October 1863 / Schimmelfennig’s Division Department of the South 24 October 1863-28 November 1863 / Gordon’s Division Northern District of the South 25 February 1864-25 April 1864 / Northern District of the South 25 April 1864-1 September 1864 / 1st Brigade Northern District of the South 28 November 1864-8 December 1864 / Northern District of the South 8 December 1864-26 February 1865 / 1st Brigade Northern District of the South 26 February 1865-8 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Shedden Palmer
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: Thomas Francis Meagher
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Thomas John Wood temporary
  • Department of the Ohio: George Stoneman temporary
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of West Tennessee: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Vicksburg: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
    • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) Andrew Jackson Smith
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: Joseph Bailey
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans interim Grenville Mellen Dodge awaited
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: Edwin C Catherwood

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: George Cadwalader
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: Henry Horatio Wells temporary
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: Cuvier Grover
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfenning
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Philip Perry Brown
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
  • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • XXIV Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: James Phillip Simms promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 December 1864 to rank from 8 December 1864.

Simms, James Phillip / Georgia / Born 16 January 1837 Covington, Georgia / Died 30 May 1887
2nd Lieutenant 6th Georgia Militia 21 October 1861 / 1st Lieutenant PACS 42nd Georgia Infantry 11 April 1862 / Captain PACS 20 August 1862 / Major PACS 53rd Georgia Infantry 24 September 1862 / Colonel PACS 8 October 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 December 1864 to rank from 8 December 1864 / Paroled Fort Warren, Massachusetts 24 July 1865 / WIA Knoxville 29 November 1863 CIA Sayler’s Creek 6 April 1865
Simms’ Brigade Kershaw’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 September 1864-6 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Military Division of the West: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary
  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
      • Sub-District of Northern Mississippi: William Wirt Adams
    • Gulf District: Danville Leadbetter
    • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Braxton Bragg

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: John Bullock Clark temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi: Sterling Price
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
Richard Waterhouse

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