1864 December 9th

December 9 1864 Friday

Ebenezer Creek, GA

Siege of Petersburg – Hicksford and Hatcher’s Run

Hood’s Invasion of Tennessee – Nashville & Murfreesboro

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Butler’s Fort Fisher Expedition

Georgia. Incidents at Harrison’s Field and Wilmington Cross Roads.

Georgia. Skirmish at Cuyler’s Plantation.

Georgia. Skirmish at Monteith Swamp.

Georgia. Skirmish at the Ogeechee Canal.

Georgia. Skirmish between Eden Station and Pooler’s Station.

Ebenezer Creek, Georgia. The vanguard of Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s armies that were marching across Georgia approached the outskirts of Savannah. During their four-weeks’ march, they had destroyed more than two hundred miles of railroad and reduced to desolation a tract of land sixty miles wide, stretching from Atlanta to the sea. Union Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis; XIV Corps crossed Ebenezer Creek, midway between the Ogeechee and Savannah Rivers, at the rear of the right column of the army. Encumbered by over 35,000 hungry freed slaves following the Union army across Georgia, Davis ordered the pontoon bridge behind his column removed before the mass could cross Ebenezer Creek. Several hundred refugee slaves were stranded and captured by the Confederate cavalry or were forced to swim across the icy creek to escape. Davis’ arbitrary solution to the problem of feeding and protecting the swarm of refugees turned into a nightmare as many of the slaves succumbed to the waters while the remainder fled in panic. Too late, Union engineers attempted to right the wrong by rescuing the swimmers, and few were saved.

Indian Territory. Incident at Fort Lyon.

Louisiana. Expedition to Waterproof began.

North Carolina. USS Otsego, Lieutenant-Commander Arnold, USS Wyalusing, Lieutenant-Commander Earl English, USS Valley City, Acting Master John A J Brooks, and the tugs Belle and Bazely were attempting to capture Rainbow Bluff on the Roanoke River, near where a new Confederate ram was rumoured to be under construction at Halifax. Commander David B Macomb anchored the squadron at Jamesville to await the arrival of cooperating troops. USS Otsego struck two torpedoes in quick succession while anchoring near Jamesville. The Bazely came alongside to lend assistance but also struck a torpedo and sank instantly. Part of the crew remained aboard the sunken USS Otsego to cover the river with her guns, which remained accessible above the waterline, while the rest of the group moved upriver. They dragged the river for torpedoes as they went, in preparation for an attack on Rainbow Bluff on 20 December.

South Carolina. Incidents at Honey Hill, Tullifinny Station, and Coosawatchie.

Tennessee. Incidents at Murfreesboro and Columbia.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General William Brimage Bate’s division rejoined the Army of Tennessee near Nashville after its unsuccessful expedition to Murfreesboro. Brigadier-General Claudius Sears’ brigade rejoined French’s division, but Brigadier-General Joseph Benjamin Palmer’s infantry brigade remained attached to Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Sears’ brigade was replaced with Forrest by a different brigade from Brigadier-General James Argyle Smith’s division. These two infantry brigades made Forrest’s strength about 4,500 men, roughly half the size of the Union garrison of Murfreesboro. The two infantry brigades remained with Forrest at Murfreesboro and did not rejoin the Army of Tennessee until it arrived at Columbia. Their march took them via Eaglesville and Berlin to arrive in Columbia between 18 and 20 December.

Tennessee. Union Major-General George Henry Thomas responded to repeated and increasingly strident and impatient messages from Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, demanding that he should take to the offensive at Nashville, by offering his resignation. He added that another freezing ice storm was imminent, and it would immobilise his army for a few more days at least. Grant withheld his peremptory order to relieve Thomas of command but was determined that Thomas’ slowness would not be tolerated for much longer. Thomas suspected that he was being undermined either in Washington or in Tennessee, and investigations by his Chief-of-Staff, Brigadier-General William Whipple Denison Whipple, implicated Major-General John McAllister Schofield in the conspiracy. Schofield was commanding the Army of Ohio, and was the senior officer next in line to command if Thomas were to be relieved.

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE DEPARTMENT OF TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA

Confederate Military Division of the West: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Department of Tennessee and Georgia: General John Bell Hood
Army of Tennessee: General John Bell Hood
I Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Brown’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Major-General John Calvin Brown
Gist’s Brigade, Brown’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-Colonel Z L Watters
Carter’s Brigade, Brown’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Colonel H R Feild
Strahl’s Brigade, Brown’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): 
Vaughan’s Brigade, Brown’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Colonel W M Watkins
Cleburne’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Argyle Smith
Lowrey’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Mark Perrin Lowrey
Govan’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Daniel Chevilette Govan
Granbury’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): 
Smith’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Argyle Smith
Bate’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Major-General William Brimage Bate
Smith’s Brigade, Bate’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Thomas Benton Smith
Bullock’s Brigade, Bate’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Robert Bullock
Jackson’s Brigade, Bate’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson
II Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee
Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Edward Johnson
Deas’ Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Zachariah Cantey Deas
Manigault’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Arthur Middleton Manigault
Sharp’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Jacob Hunter Sharp
Brantley’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Felix Brantley
Stevenson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Cumming’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Elihu P Watkins
Pettus’ Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Edmund Winston Pettus
Palmer’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Joseph Benjamin Palmer detached at Murfreesboro
Clayton’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Henry De Lamar Clayton

Stovall’s Brigade, Clayton’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Marcellus Augustus Stovall
Gibson’s Brigade, Clayton’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Randall Lee Gibson
Holtzclaw’s Brigade, Clayton’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Thadeus Holtzclaw
III Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart
Loring’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General William Wing Loring
Featherston’s Brigade, Loring’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
Adams’ Brigade, Loring’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): s
Scott’s Brigade, Loring’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Colonel J Snodgrass
French’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Samuel Gibb French
Ector’s Brigade, French’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Colonel David Coleman
Cockrell’s Brigade, French’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Colonel P C Flournoy
Sears’ Brigade, French’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Claudius Wistar Sears
Walthall’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Edward Cary Walthall
Johnston’s Brigade, Walthall’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General George Doherty Johnston
Shelley’s Brigade, Walthall’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Charles Miller Shelley
Reynolds’ Brigade, Walthall’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Daniel Harris Reynolds
Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest detached at Murfreesboro
Chalmers’ Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers

Rucker’s Cavalry Brigade, Chalmers’ Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Edmund W Rucker
Biffle’s Cavalry Brigade, Chalmers’ Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Jacob B Biffle
Buford’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Abraham Buford
Bell’s Cavalry Brigade, Buford’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Tyree H Bell
Crossland’s Cavalry Brigade, Buford’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Edward Crossland
Jackson’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson
Armstrong’s Cavalry Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Frank Crawford Armstrong
Ross’ Cavalry Brigade, Jackson’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Lawrence Sullivan Ross

Virginia. Incident at Bellefield.

Virginia. Skirmish at Hatcher’s Run.

Virginia. The Confederate divisions of Major-General John Brown Gordon and Brigadier-General John Pegram reached Richmond from the Shenandoah Valley. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee, after hearing that the upper Shenandoah Valley was blocked by snow, sent for a third division (that of Brigadier-General Bryan Grimes’) to return from the Shenandoah Valley also. When Grimes arrived, the three divisions of the Confederate II Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia would be concentrated again at Richmond.  Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early was left to lead a depleted force in the Shenandoah Valley and, in his absence, Gordon was appointed to command II Corps temporarily at Richmond. Gordon was the first non-professional soldier to hold a Corps command in the Army of Northern Virginia. Gordon’s division was taken over by Brigadier-General Clement Anselm Evans. The II Corps counted barely 9,000 men in its three desiccated divisions. Early was left to hold the Valley with only Brigadier-General Gabriel Colvin Wharton’s small infantry division and Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser’s two weak cavalry brigades. The withdrawal signalled a clear recognition that the Confederates would never again be able to spare sufficient men for diversions or offensive adventures in the Shenandoah Valley.

Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-General Ambrose Hill and most of his III Corps reached Stony Creek, and discovered that sixteen miles of track had already been wrecked along the Petersburg & Weldon Railroad. The Union expedition by Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren had completed its job of destruction before it could be opposed by force. The Confederate Home Guards had defended the river crossing at Hicksford and deterred any further progress southwards by Warren’s men. The Union troops began their arduous march back to the Petersburg lines. Confederate Major-General Wade Hampton’s cavalry harassed the rear and flanks of the column and inflicted about a hundred casualties in a series of running fights. Although Hill failed to strike at the marauders, his arrival prevented further destruction of the vital railroad.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Grenville Mellen Dodge arrived to command the Department of the Missouri, succeeding Major-General William Starke Rosecrans.

Dodge, Grenville Mellen / Massachusetts / Born 12 April 1831 Danvers, Massachusetts / Died Council Bluffs, Iowa 3 January 1916
Captain Iowa Militia 1856 / Colonel USV 4th Iowa Infantry 6 July 1861 / Colonel 8 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 11 April 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Major-General USV 7 June 1864 / Resigned USV 30 May 1866 / WIA Pea Ridge 7 March 1862 WIA Atlanta 19 August 1864
1st Brigade Army of the Southwest January 1862-9 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 4th Division Army of the Southwest 9 February 1862-13 May 1862 / Central District Department of the Mississippi 13 May 1862-8 June 1862 / 4th Division District of West Tennessee 8 June 1862-23 September 1862 / District of Mississippi 29 September 1862-5 October 1862 / 4th Division District of Jackson Army of the Tennessee 5 October 1862-30 October 1862 / 4th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 30 October 1862-11 November 1862 / District of Corinth XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 11 November 1862-18 December 1862 / District of Corinth XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-20 January 1863 / District of Corinth XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 20 January 1863-18 March 1863 / 2nd Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 March 1863-7 July 1863 / Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee 7 July 1863-7 August 1863 / Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee 15 October 1863-19 August 1864 / Department of the Missouri 9 December 1864-21 July 1865

USA: Brigadier-General George Day Wagner assumed command of the District of St Louis, succeeding Major-General Alfred Pleasonton.

Wagner, George Day / Ohio / Born 22 September 1829 Ross, Ohio / Died Indianapolis, Indiana 13 February 1869
Colonel USV 15th Indiana Infantry 14 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV4 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
21st Brigade 6th Division Army of the Ohio 11 February 1862-29 September 1862 / 21st Brigade 6th Division II Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 21st Brigade 6th Division II Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Left Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-20 January 1863 / 1st Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 19 February 1863-13 April 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 13 April 1863-9 October 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-12 January 1864 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 February 1864-27 February 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 21 April 1864-10 June 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 15 June 1864-30 September 1864 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 30 September 1864-2 December 1864 / District of St Louis 9 December 1864-19 June 1865

USA: Colonel Joseph Jackson Gravely (8th Missouri Militia Cavalry) assumed temporary command of the District of Southwest Missouri, succeeding Brigadier-General John Benjamin Sanborn.

Gravely, Joseph Jackson / Missouri / Born 25 September 1828 Leatherwood, Virginia / Died Stockton, Missouri 28 April 1872
Colonel 8th Missouri Militia Cavalry
District of Southwest Missouri 9 December 1864-8 January 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Shedden Palmer
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: Thomas Francis Meagher
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Thomas John Wood temporary
  • Department of the Ohio: George Stoneman temporary
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of West Tennessee: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Vicksburg: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
    • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) Andrew Jackson Smith
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: Joseph Bailey
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Joseph Jackson Gravely temporary
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: Edwin C Catherwood

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: George Cadwalader
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: Henry Horatio Wells temporary
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: Cuvier Grover
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfenning
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Philip Perry Brown
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
  • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • XXIV Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General John Brown Gordon assumed command of II Corps (Northern Virginia), succeeding Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early.

Gordon, John Brown / Georgia / Born 6 February 1832 Upson, Georgia / Died Miami, Florida 9 January 1904
Captain PACS 6th Alabama Infantry 15 April 1861 / Major PACS 14 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 26 December 1861 / Colonel PACS 28 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 November 1862 Unconfirmed / Brigadier-General PACS 11 May 1863 to rank from 7 May 1863 / Major-General PACS 14 May 1864 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Shepherdstown 25 August 1864 WIA Fort Stedman 25 March 18645
2nd Brigade 4th Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-28 June 1862 / 1st Brigade D H Hill’s Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 28 June 1862-1 July 1862 / Gordon’s Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 11 April 1863-8 May 1864 / Gordon’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 May 1864-22 May 1864 / Johnson’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 22 May 1864-13 June 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 13 June 1864-9 December 1864 / II Corps Northern Virginia 9 December 1864-6 April 1865 / Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 6 April 1865-9 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Military Division of the West: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary
  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
      • Sub-District of Northern Mississippi: William Wirt Adams
    • Gulf District: Danville Leadbetter
    • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Braxton Bragg

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: John Bullock Clark temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi: Sterling Price
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
Richard Waterhouse

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