1864 April 12th

April 12 1864 Tuesday

Battle of Blair’s Landing, LA (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Fort Pillow, TN (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Red River Campaign

Arkansas Campaign

Forrest’s Second West Tennessee Raid

Alabama. Union reconnaissance from Bridgeport down the Tennessee River to Triana began.

Alabama. Union troops successfully attacked a Confederate camp near Florence.

Alabama. Union Major-General Stephen Augustus Hurlbut reported the construction at Selma of a submerged torpedo boat for use in Mobile Bay. The enemy craft was described as being about 30 feet long; it was propeller-driven with a powerful engine and had a boiler designed to raise steam rapidly. It would show above the surface only a small smoke outlet and a pilot house, both of which could be lowered and covered. The intended use was to drop down within a short distance of the target ship, put out the fires, cover the smoke pipe and pilot house, and sink the craft to a proper depth. The boat would then proceed by a hand-cranked propeller to drop beneath its target, fixing the position by a magnet suspended in the propeller. The boat would then rise against the ship’s bottom, fasten a torpedo by screws, drop again and retreat. At a safe distance, the boat would rise to the surface, light the fires, and escape. No vessel of such description was ever sent to Mobile but the less-sophisticated submersible torpedo boat Saint Patrick was constructed at Selma. It was taken to Mobile in late 1864 and attacked USS Octorara unsuccessfully in 1865.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Van Buren.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Prairie d’Ane.

Arkansas. Union Major-General Frederick Steele continued to cross the plains of Prairie d’Ane, making slow progress against relentless skirmishing by Confederate cavalry. While the Confederates believed that they were retarding Steele’s progress towards Washington, Steele was actually preparing to make a rapid move towards the Confederate depot a Camden, forty miles to the east, where he could replenish his dwindling supplies. The six Confederate cavalry brigades of Major-General Sterling Price were reinforced by another brigade from the Indian Territory, the Choctaw brigade of Colonel Tandy Walker.

Colorado Territory. Union troops attacked and killed many Cheyennes near Fremont’s Orchard on the north side of the Platte River.

Kentucky. Small paddle-wheel steamers of the Union Mississippi Squadron engaged Confederate raiders aiming for Paducah. Lieutenant Commander James W Shirk, commanding USS Peosta, USS Key West, USS Fairplay, and USS Victory, took up defensive positions on the river to meet an anticipated Confederate attack. When Confederate troops entered Paducah, they were taken under fire by the ships and withdrew.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Fort Bisland.

Blair’s Landing, Louisiana. also known as Pleasant Hill Landing. After the battle at Pleasant Hill, Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Green led part of his cavalry division with 750 men and two batteries to Pleasant Hill Landing on the Red River. At about 4 pm they discovered some grounded and damaged Union transports and gunboats. These were the vessels that had transported the Union XVI and XVII Corps upriver while the US Navy gunboats USS Osage and USS Lexington under Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter stood close by with supplies and armament. Union Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith’s Provisional Division of XVII Corps (formed of six regiments of 2nd Division, XVII Corps) and the Navy gunboats furnished protection for the army transports and Smith unloaded the guns from three transports onto the shore to support the defence.

Green and his men charged the boats and fired their artillery from high ground. The USS Lexington silenced the Confederate battery while USS Neosho and USS Hindman also added their fire against the attackers. Smith’s men used great ingenuity in defending the boats. Hiding behind bales of cotton, sacks of oats, and other improvised obstructions, the men on the vessels repelled the attack, strongly supported by the gunboats. Green was killed by a shell, and the Confederates suffered heavy losses. Soon afterwards the Confederates fled and all but five of the Union transports continued downriver.

This engagement featured the use of a unique new instrument, developed by Chief Engineer Thomas O Doughty of USS Osage. It was described by Lieutenant-Commander Thomas O Selfridge as a method of sighting the gun turret from outside, by means of a periscope; this innovation helped to solve the problem of engaging targets on high ground.

Union casualties were reported as 7 on the gunboats and 50 on the transports while the Confederates lost between 200 and 300 men. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Maryland. Union expedition from Point Lookout to Westmoreland County, Virginia began.

North Carolina. Incident at Swift Creek.

South Carolina. Boats from USS South Carolina, Acting Lieutenant William W Kennison, and USS T A Ward, Acting Master William L Babcock, seized the blockade running British steamer Alliance, which had run aground on Daufuskie Island, with a cargo including glass, liquor, and soap.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to Tennessee River began.

Fort Pillow, Tennessee, also known as Fort Pillow Massacre. Fort Pillow (a former Confederate-built earthen fortification reinforced by a Union-built inner redoubt) overlooked the Mississippi River about forty river miles above Memphis. Its original outline had been gradually reduced until it consisted of a single redoubt 125 yards long on the lip of the high bluff protected by three lines of entrenchments arranged in a semicircle. There was a thick protective parapet four feet thick and six to eight feet high, surrounded by a ditch six feet deep and twelve feet wide. A Union gunboat, the USS New Era, commanded by Acting Master James F Marshall USN, was available for its defence.

The Union army garrison comprised parts of 11th Infantry US Colored Troops, 6th Heavy Artillery US Colored Troops , 1st Alabama Infantry (Union), Battery F Light Artillery US Colored Troops, and Major William F Bradford’s Battalion of 13th Tennessee Cavalry, amounting to 295 white recruits in the cavalry battalion and 262 black troops, all under the overall command of Major Lionel F Booth.

Confederate Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers’ cavalry division drove in the Union pickets at dawn, surrounded the fort, took the old outer works and occupied the high knolls that commanded Booth’s positions. Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest arrived at 10 am to direct the assault personally.

Rugged terrain prevented the USS New Era from providing effective fire support for the fort’s defenders. While the fort had appeared strong to its defenders, the thickness of the parapet and the topography prevented the artillery from depressing its six guns low enough to hit the covered approaches to the fort used by Forrest’s men. The defenders had to expose themselves above the parapet to shoot and Confederate sharpshooters on the surrounding knolls began wounding and killing many Union troops, including Booth. Bradford then assumed command of the garrison.

The Confederates launched a determined attack at 11 am, occupying some barracks about 150 yards from the southern end of the fort. Forrest then called off the attack until his men could replenish their ammunition when his wagon train arrived around 3 pm. At 3.30 pm, Forrest demanded the fort’s unconditional surrender but Bradford asked for an hour for consultation. Each side interpreted movements by the other as breaches of the truce and when Forrest saw a steamer approaching with the smoke of three more ships beyond, he decided that the garrison was stalling for time and reduced the ultimatum to twenty minutes. Bradford immediately refused to surrender, and the Confederates renewed the attack.

While the Confederate sharpshooters maintained their fire into the fort, a first wave entered the ditch and stood while the second wave used their backs as stepping stones. These men then reached down and helped the first wave scramble up a ledge on the embankment. Their continual fire against the crew of the USS New Era caused the sailors to close their gun ports and cease firing. The Confederate sharpshooters held their fire as the assault force on the ledge went up and over the embankment, firing for the first time into the defenders massed behind the parapet. The inexperienced defenders fought briefly but then broke, heading for the landing at the foot of the bluff, where they had been told that the Union gunboat would cover their withdrawal by firing grapeshot and canister. The gunboat did not fire a single shot because its gun ports were sealed, and it eventually withdrew upstream out of range.

Abandoned on the shore, the fleeing Union soldiers were subjected to fire both from the rear and from the flank, and from the soldiers who had previously been firing at the gunboat. Many were shot down. Others reached the river only to drown, or to be picked off in the water by marksmen on the bluff. The Union garrison clung to the riverside bluffs under a deadly crossfire and then began to surrender. The cry of “No quarter” was given to the Confederates and many of the surrendering troops were cut down before Forrest and his officers could restore order. Only sixty-two of the US Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of the black troops. The Confederates claimed that they suffered heavy losses as they tried to fight their way to the river, but the Union garrison claimed to have laid down their arms when the final assault was launched. The Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow that evening so they gained little from the attack except to temporarily disrupt Union operations.

The Union lost 221 men killed and 110 wounded out of 557 casualties. In addition, 168 white and 58 black soldiers were captured along with the six guns in the fort. Forrest reported 14 Confederates killed and 86 wounded.

Within six days a deputation from the Union Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War had left Washington, DC, to set up an enquiry. It concluded later that the Confederates were guilty of atrocities which included “indiscriminate slaughter”, the murder of most of the garrison after capture, burying black soldiers alive and setting barracks and tents containing Union wounded men on fire. The Confederate investigation described this as a propaganda exercise to raise a rallying cry for abolition and war hatred when it was, in fact, an overwhelming victory over troops who failed to surrender in the face of inevitable annihilation. Historical opinions reject the Confederate claims and support the view that there was a deliberate massacre. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Texas. Expedition to Matagorda Bay began.

Texas. USS Estrella, Lieutenant-Commander Augustus P Cooke, supported the Army steamers Zephyr and Warrior for a reconnaissance expedition in Matagorda Bay. As the ships approached Matagorda Reef, two Confederate vessels were sighted and fired upon but escaped. The two Army transports sailed into the upper bay under command of Acting Master Gaius P Pomeroy and landed soldiers under Brigadier-General Fitz Henry Warren. After completing their reconnaissance and capturing two small schooners, the expedition returned to Pass Cavallo.

Utah Territory. Incident at Fremont’s Orchard.

Virginia. Union expedition from Point Lookout, Maryland, to Westmoreland County began. The aim was for the 36th US Colored Infantry to search for contraband goods with the support three gunboats.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee advised that the Army of Northern Virginia was not in a fit condition for active campaigning. The horses of his cavalry and artillery were dispersed around the countryside to find forage and were in a weakened state and could not quickly be recalled. Food rations for the men were inadequate and he warned that they would face starvation unless supplies were improved.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
        • Hooker’s Command Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
          • XI Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
          • XII Corps Cumberland: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • IX Corps Ohio: John Grubb Parke
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Cairo: Mason Brayman
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Philip St George Cooke
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: Nicholas Wyckoff Day
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Robert Alexander Cameron
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of Kansas: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: James Brewerton Ricketts temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • Northern District (South): Alfred Howe Terry
    • District of Hilton Head: Joshua Blackwood Howell
    • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Edward Winslow Hinks
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: John James Peck
      • Sub-District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
      • Sub-District of the Pamlico: Edward Harland
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
    • Army of North Carolina: John James Peck
      • XVIII Corps North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner arrived to command the District of East Tennessee, succeeding Lieutenant-General James Longstreet.

Buckner, Simon Bolivar / Kentucky / Born 1 April 1823 Munfordville, Kentucky / Died Munfordville, Kentucky 8 January 1914
USMA 1 July 1844 11/25 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 9 May 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 8 August 1847-17 December 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 December 1851 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 3 November 1852 / Resigned USA 26 March 1855 / Major Illinois Militia / Colonel Adjutant-General Illinois Militia 3 April 1857 / Captain Kentucky Militia 1858 / Inspector-General Kentucky State Guard 1860 / Major-General Adjutant-General Kentucky Militia 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 16 August 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 17 January 1865 to rank from 20 September 1864 / Paroled Shreveport, Louisiana 9 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Army of Central Kentucky 18 September 1861-28 October 1861 / 2nd Division Army of Central Kentucky 28 October 1861-16 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Mississippi September 1862-20 November 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-14 December 1862 / Gulf District 14 December 1862-27 April 1863 / Department of East Tennessee 27 April 1863-26 June 1863 / III Corps Tennessee 23 July 1863-31 October 1863 / District of East Tennessee 25 July 1863-2 September 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee November 1863-December 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee 25 February 1864-8 March 1864 / District of East Tennessee 8 March 1864-18 March 1864 / Field’s Division Department of East Tennessee 31 March 1864-12 April 1864 District of East Tennessee 7 April 1864-2 May 1864 / I Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / District of West Louisiana 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Department 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Army 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / District of Arkansas and West Louisiana 19 April 1865-26 May 1865 / Chief of Staff Trans-Mississippi Department 9 May 1865-9 June 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Thomas Green was killed at Blair’s Landing, Louisiana.

Green, Thomas / Virginia-Texas / Born 8 January 1814 Amelia, Virginia / KIA Blair’s Landing, Louisiana 12 April 1864
Private Army of Texas 1835 / 1st Lieutenant Army of Texas April 1836 / Major Army of Texas May 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel Army of Texas / Resigned Army of Texas 30 May 1836 / Captain USV 1st Texas Rifles 1846 / Mustered Out USV / Colonel PACS 5th Texas Cavalry 20 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 May 1863 to rank from 20 May 1863
1st Cavalry Brigade District of West Louisiana January 1863-April 1863 / 2nd Cavalry Brigade District of West Louisiana April 1863-November 1863 / Cavalry Division District of West Louisiana November 1863 / Cavalry Division District of West Louisiana 16 March 1864-April 1864 / Cavalry Brigade District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona April 1864-12 April 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
    • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett
    • District of the Cape Fear River and the Defences of Wilmington: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: James Longstreet
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green KIA
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds

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