1863 May 3rd

May 3 1863 Sunday

Battle of Chancellorsville, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Second Battle of Fredericksburg, VA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Salem Church, VA

Virginia Southside and North Carolina Operations

Chancellorsville Campaign

Vicksburg Campaign

Streight’s Alabama Raid

Jones’ and Imboden’s West Virginia Raid

Stoneman’s Virginia Raid

First Bayou Teche Expedition

Brazil. CSS Alabama, Captain Raphael Semmes, captured and burned the bark Union Jack and the ship Sea Lark off the coast of Brazil.

Alabama. Incident at Cedar Bluff.

California. Incident at Eel River.

Surrender of Streight’s Raiders, Georgia. Union Colonel Abel Delos Streight’s raiders made their way to the bridge over the Chattooga near Gaylesville, crossed and burned it and retraced their way along the river to Cedar Bluff. They turned east and headed five miles to the Lawrence Plantation where they arrived at about 5 am. They were now fifteen miles from Rome, Georgia, but were given no respite by the Confederate cavalry of Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Forrest was now down to six hundred mounted men who swam across the Chattooga and then dragged two guns over the river-bottom with ropes. Streight still had well over a thousand men but did not realise his numerical superiority. Forrest nevertheless demanded Streight’s surrender but Streight declined unless Forrest could prove the hopelessness of his situation. Forrest concocted a ruse whereby his two guns repeatedly showed themselves until Streight was convinced he was hugely outnumbered and in danger of annihilation by artillery. About the same time, a messenger arrived from the advance party. He reported that the bridge over the Oostanaula at Rome was held by Confederates; he also said that most of that group were already captured and the only available escape route was now blocked. Streight conceded defeat and surrendered his command of 1,466 men including the advanced guard. Forrest’s force had always been significantly outnumbered, and he chose not to outflank and block the Union progress to avoid an onrush of superior numbers overwhelming his command.

Louisiana. USS Albatross scouted up the Red River engaged the armed steamers CSS Grand Duke and CSS Mary T, which were supported by Confederate cavalry near Fort De Russy. The Union gunboat sustained considerable damage and was compelled to withdraw.

Mississippi. Skirmishes at Hankinson’s Ferry, Willow Springs, Ingraham’s Heights, Jones’ Cross Roads, on the Big Black River, North Fork of Bayou Pierre, and Forty Hills.

Mississippi. USS Cricket, Acting Lieutenant Amos R Langthorne, convoyed the steamer Champion downstream form Greenville. In USS Cricket‘s absence, the steamer Minnesota was destroyed by Confederate guerrillas. USS Conestoga drove that force away and remained in the area until the evening of 7 May, when she returned to patrol the mouth of the White River.

Grand Gulf, Mississippi. Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant was eager to reach Grand Gulf in order to make contact with the naval flotilla stationed on the Mississippi. He also wanted to bring Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s XV Corps across the Mississippi to that point as it was now marching from Milliken’s Bend along the west bank after its demonstrations at Haines Bluff. At this time XV Corps was composed of the four divisions of Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus, Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith, Brigadier-General Alvin Peterson Hovey, and Brigadier-General Eugene Asa Carr; numbered respectively, the 9th Division, 10th Division, 12th Division, and 14th Division of the Army of the Tennessee. The corps contained 40 regiments of infantry, 11 batteries of light artillery and 6 companies of cavalry. Brigadier-General Leonard Fulton Ross’ 13th Division was stationed at Helena in Arkansas but did not take part in the Vicksburg campaign.

Mississippi. Finding Port Gibson empty of enemy troops, Grant decided not to attempt a crossing of Bayou Pierre against the defence of Confederate Major-General John Stevens Bowen. Bowen had been reinforced to 9,000 men with troops from Vicksburg to defend Grand Gulf but he was still heavily outnumbered. Grant gave his staff officer and Engineer Colonel James Harrison Wilson a brigade of troops to rebuild a bridge over the south fork of Bayou Pierre and, by midday, a bridge 166 feet long was in place across the swampy ground and bayou. One of Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s divisions (Major-General John Alexander Logan’s 3rd Division of XVII Corps) which had landed at Bruinsburg during the day, took the lead and marched across the newly-constructed bridge. They pushed on to Grindstone Ford and across Bayou Pierre to the northeast. Two miles beyond the stream at Willow Springs, Logan dislodged a Confederate force which retreated towards Hankinson’s Ferry, which was six miles further north. Hankinson’s Ferry was a key objective on the way to where the main road from Vicksburg crossed the Big Black River. McPherson was ordered to continue to concentrate the bulk of hs Corps northwards towards Hankinson’s Ferry while a single brigade was sent westwards towards Grand Gulf, accompanied by Grant in person. Union Brigadier-General Marcellus Monroe Crocker’s 7th Division led the way toward Hankinson’s Ferry. At Kennison Creek, the road was blocked by two Confederate brigades. After a spirited skirmish, the Confederates fell back across the Big Black River.

Having thus turned the Confederate batteries at Grand Gulf by crossing Bayou Pierre to the east, Grant expected the Confederates to abandon the riverside batteries to avoid encirclement. McPherson marched across Grindstone Ford at nightfall with the rest of his XVII Corps.

Struck with the realisation that McPherson could now cut him off from the bridge over the Big Black River, Bowen ordered the formidable defences at Grand Gulf abandoned, the magazine exploded, and the heavy artillery destroyed. He then headed for the Big Black River. Too late to do anything more than affirm Bowen’s decision to retreat, Confederate Major-General William Wing Loring arrived and took command. Heavy rear-guard activity took place as the Confederates scrambled to withdraw their force across the narrow bridge. Advanced elements of the Union XVII Corps arrived in time to save the bridge from destruction. The suspension bridge there had been wrecked but Wilson arrived to commence its reconstruction.

Mississippi. Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter moved four gunboats against the strong Confederate batteries at Grand Gulf but found the Confederate defences evacuated and its supplies burning. Union gunboats, investigating the nature of the explosion, arrived and occupied Grand Gulf without a shot. Porter reported: “The Navy holds the door to Vicksburg.” They pressed on until they had entered the Warrenton fortifications nearly ten miles away. They began improving the fortifications along the roads to Vicksburg, expecting Grant’s main army to follow. Porter departed Grand Gulf with his gunboat squadron and made a rendezvous in the evening with the fleet of Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut at the mouth of the Red River.

Missouri. Union reconnaissance to Bates County and Cass County against Confederate guerrillas began.

Missouri. Union expedition on the Santa Fe Road.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance from Tirune to Eagleville and the Memphis & Charleston Railroad.

St Joseph’s Island, Texas. Confederate troops under Captain Edward F Hobby captured a launch and drove off two other boats from USS William G Anderson, Acting Lieutenant Hill, at St Joseph’s Island. The Union boat crews were salvaging cotton from a sloop which had been run ashore on 30 April.

Virginia. Skirmish at Chuckatuck near Suffolk.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Hill’s Point and Reed’s Ferry on the Nansemond River.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance on the Providence Church Road near Suffolk.

Virginia. Cavalry skirmishes at Ashland Station, Hanover Station, South Anna Bridge, and Church Road.

Virginia. Confederate Major John Singleton Mosby and his raiders attacked the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Warrenton. At 6 am the Confederates struck the Union garrison, composed partly of the 1st West Virginia Cavalry. At first, the Union men thought that the Confederates were fellow Union soldiers but once they realised their mistake, they scattered into a house and outbuildings. The Confederates were slightly delayed crossing a stream and by the time they came upon the Union campsite, the Union defenders were ready and opened fire. Mosby attacked attack the house and outbuildings, while some men gathered up the horses. The Union cavalry in the outbuilding surrendered with little resistance but a hundred men in the house put up a fight. Mosby ordered the house to be set on fire. While doing this four Confederates broke their way inside and the occupants decided to surrender. While Mosby was gathering the prisoners, a squadron of the 5th New York Cavalry arrived from Cedar Run. They attacked the Confederates, forcing them to abandon their prisoners. Mosby and his men rode away towards Warrenton

Chancellorsville, Virginia. After the wounding during the night of Confederate Lieutenant-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson, command of II Corps passed to Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill. Hill also was soon incapacitated. Hill consulted with Brigadier-General General Robert Emmett Rodes, the next most senior general in the corps, and Rodes acquiesced in Hill’s decision to summon Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart (Cavalry Corps) to take command, notifying Lee after the fact. Stuart had never commanded infantry before but he was more senior, experienced and highly regarded.

Before dawn, Union Major-General Joseph Hooker formed a new defensive line for the Army of the Potomac which protected his line of retreat across Ely’s Ford and US Ford. The fresh I Corps of Major-General John Fulton Reynolds deployed along Hunting Run and Major-General George Gordon Meade’s V Corps took the apex of the position where the Ely’s Ford Road and the US Ford Road met. The remnants of Major-General Oliver Otis Howard’s XI Corps replaced Meade on the quieter and easily defensible sector of Mineral Springs Run. Around Fairview, II Corps under Major-General Darius Nash Couch, XII Corps under Major-General Henry Warner Slocum held the centre, and III Corps under Major-General Daniel Edgar Sickles projected ahead of this powerful position, occupying the high ground at Hazel Grove. Hazel Grove and Fairview provided two of the few open higher spaces in the Wilderness suitable for massed artillery. The entire position was now securely fixed on the Rappahannock River and Rapidan River. To shorten the lines and to bring Sickles’ men out of their exposed position, Hooker ordered Sickles to evacuate Hazel Grove immediately. It turned out that Hazel Grove was a significant position that could dominate Fairview and in turn enfilade the Union entrenchments.

Stuart sent forward Confederate II Corps to attack Hazel Grove at dawn, and their advance coincided with Sickles’ retreat from Hazel Grove. The three Confederate divisions advanced in waves, with Rodes’ division striking first, followed by Hill’s and then Brigadier-General General Raleigh Edward Co1ston’s. Despite their exhaustion from the previous day’s marching and fighting, the Confederates pressed Sickles hard and the tail of the column was driven precipitately back to the main position. The Confederates quickly massed artillery at Hazel Grove, and soon had 30 guns in action against the Union guns at Fairview. Another 30 guns attacked the Union western flank from the former positions of XI Corps on the Orange Turnpike and 24 more fired down the Orange Plank Road towards the southeast. Couch’s II Corps and Slocum’s XII Corps bore the brunt of this bombardment from 84 guns. The Union infantry held their breastworks but artillery fire was causing havoc in the rear areas and along the lines of supply.

The Chancellor House was a major target for the Confederate gunners and it was also Hooker’s headquarters. While standing on the veranda Hooker was concussed by a shell striking the pillar against which he was leaning. He was unconscious only briefly but clearly disorientated and the headquarters escaped to the rear. Hooker’s chief of staff, Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield and Major-General John Sedgwick were out of communication at Fredericksburg there was no one at headquarters with sufficient rank or stature to persuade Hooker to hand over command temporarily. His second-in-command, Major-General Darius Nash Couch, was unaware of his injury until 10 am when he was summoned to see Hooker. Handing II Corps over to Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock, Couch rode to find Hooker and to accept the command but Hooker refused to concede full authority. Couch was left uncertain of his command position but Hooker’s absolutely clear instructions were to withdraw.

Meanwhile, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee ordered Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s and Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ Divisions forward to take up the fight from the tired men of II Corps. They resumed the attacks against the XII Corps and II Corps and occupied the heights at Fairview. In savage fighting in the burning woods, the Union troops were being forced back in the centre and lacked direction whether to counter-attack or to move anywhere but backwards. Hancock’s division became a rearguard as Sickles’, Couch’s and Slocum’s troops were now pounded by 24 Confederate guns deploying on Fairview.

By afternoon, the Confederates had advanced eastwards to the south of the Orange Turnpike and westwards past Catherine Furnace and were on the verge of joining up at the crossroads of Chancellorsville. At about 10.30 am the Confederate wings met in the hundred-acre clearing around the battered and burning Chancellor House. As Lee reached Chancellorsville, he learned for the first time of Jackson’s incapacitation. Determined to secure the miraculous victory that was within his grasp, Lee ordered the army to reorganise for one last attack to drive the Union army against the Rapidan and Rappahannock where they would face either slaughter or surrender. However, at this point, he received word of a disaster overtaking in his rear on the heights above Fredericksburg. The final advance was cancelled and Lee prepared to face a new threat from the east at Salem Church.

Hooker took advantage of the respite to pull his battered men back to a new line of defence covering US Ford, their last remaining open line of retreat after conceding control of the Ely’s Ford Road. Union Brigadier-General Joseph Warren Revere was relieved of command and censured for withdrawing his division from the line for rest and re-supply without orders. The disciplinary action was mitigated after a further enquiry in 1864. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Second Fredericksburg, Virginia, also known as Fredericksburg or Marye’s Heights. During the peak of the fighting at Chancellorsville, Union Major-General Joseph Hooker again called on Major-General John Sedgwick to break through and attack the Confederate rear from Fredericksburg.

Confederate Major-General Jubal Anderson Early was defending Marye’s Heights with the Confederate army’s reserve artillery and a small force from his own division and Brigadier-General William Barksdale’s Brigade. Much of his force was spread out thinly to the north and south of the Heights.

Sedgwick crossed the pontoon bridges at dawn and occupied Fredericksburg. He then made feints to left and right to test the strength of the defence. Brigadier-General John Gibbon’s division of II Corps remained in reserve around the town while VI Corps advanced against the fortified ridges to the west. VI Corps moved across the plain below the Heights, then stopped and engaged in long-range artillery fire with the Confederates for most of the morning. Sedgwick delayed his attack until the afternoon when the Union VI Corps, reinforced by Gibbon’s division from II Corps, finally attacked the Confederate entrenchments on Marye’s Heights. At about noon, after two failed attacks, he sent forward ten regiments with the 5th Wisconsin Infantry in front as skirmishers. The 5th Wisconsin went forward with a cheer and without stopping to fire; the other regiments pressed close behind but were met with rapid-fire from two of Barksdale’s regiments and sixteen guns of the Washington Artillery behind a stone wall. The charge stalled briefly but portions of the Union right found their way through gardens and fences and got over a part of the stone wall, getting the thin Confederate line in enfilade fire on their left flank. The Union infantry charged in and captured several guns for the loss of about 1,500 casualties. On the third attempt, Sedgwick’s men had captured Marye’s Heights.

The greatly outnumbered Confederates withdrew and regrouped to the west and southeast of Fredericksburg where they could protect the army’s supply trains at Guiney’s Station. Sedgwick had orders not to pursue southwards but to direct his men westwards along the Orange Plank Road to join the main army fighting at Chancellorsville.

At about 11.30 am Sedgwick received orders repeating the instruction to attack westwards. Leaving Gibbon’s division to hold the bridges at Fredericksburg, his three divisions of VI Corps reformed and formed up to march. They began to move at 2 pm but, before 3 pm, the head of the column was halted by enemy skirmishers along a ridge about a mile west of Marye’s Heights. Casualties were estimated at 2,000 in total. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Salem Church, Virginia, also known as Salem Heights. After being forced away from Fredericksburg, Confederate Major-General Jubal Anderson Early withdrew to the southwest along the Telegraph Road leaving only Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox’s brigade to oppose Major-General John Sedgwick’s advance on the Orange Plank Road. Wilcox withdrew from Banks’ Ford, where he was at risk of being cut off, and moved southwards across Sedgwick’s path on the Orange Plank Road.

While Sedgwick considered how to march to join the main body of the army under Major-General Joseph Hooker, which was fighting twelve miles to the west in the Wilderness, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee was forced to detach forces from his resumption of the attack in the Wilderness to stop Sedgwick’s approach. He assigned three brigades from Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ division (Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw’s first and then Brigadier-General William Tatum Wofford’s brigade and finally that of Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes). They were helped by and Brigadier-General William Mahone’s brigade from Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s division. The rest of Anderson’s division remained behind and extended its line to the right to cover the River Road and so prevent a junction between Sedgwick and Hooker along the banks of the Rappahannock. McLaws was put in command of the mixed force. This was the second risky division of force that Lee had carried out during the battle: Lee would hold Hooker’s 80,000 men in place with 37,000 men while McLaws tried to block Sedgwick’s 20,000 with just 7,000 men.

Around 3 pm Lee reorganised his troops that were hemming in Hooker. Brigadier-General Raleigh Edward Co1ston’s division pushed forward and demonstrated along the Ely’s Ford Road to keep Hooker occupied while Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes and Brigadier-General Henry Heth (commanding A P Hill’s division) stayed in position for their proposed attack.

Meanwhile, awaiting reinforcement by McLaws, Wilcox attempted to put on a bold front with his single brigade. He deployed all of his men in a skirmish line as if they were screening a hidden battle line beyond. The Union troops deployed and advanced while the Confederate skirmishers fell back slowly ahead of them, using the protection of artillery as it relocated from ridge to ridge. By 4 pm Wilcox had given ground as far as Salem Church when the first of McLaws’ men arrived to strengthen the defence. Salem Church was a mile east of the key junction of the Orange Plank Road and Orange Turnpike and one mile west of the point where Sedgwick’s advanced from Marye’s Heights had stalled at 3 pm.

The first Union division gained ground steadily but when it encountered the strengthened Confederate line its advance was turned back. They were bo1stered by the arrival of two more divisions and Sedgwick launched a series of assaults that continued until nightfall. Having established that he faced strong defences, Sedgwick ordered a halt and set up a defensive position for the night. His force had lost another 3,500 men since leaving Marye’s Heights but failed to breakthrough.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General William Edmondson Jones and Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden occupied Weston, about 23 miles from Clarksburg. Jones had threatened Wheeling and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, captured supplies, and destroyed railroad bridges before returning along the Monongahela valley.

Union Organisation

USA: Gouverneur Kemble Warren promoted Major-General USV 8 August 1863 to rank from 3 May 1863.

Warren, Gouverneur Kemble / New York / Born 8 January 1830 Cold Spring, New York / Died Newport, Rhode Island 8 August 1882
USMA 1 July 1850 2/44 Topographical Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1850 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 September 1854 / 1st Lieutenant 1 July 1856 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 5th New York Infantry 14 May 1861 / Captain USA 1 September 1861 / Colonel USV 11 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 September 1862 / Engineers 3 March 1863 / Major-General USV 8 August 1863 to rank from 3 May 1863 / Major USA 25 June 1864 / Resigned USV 27 May 1865 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4 March 1879 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1850 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 27 June 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 4 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Gaines’ Mill 27 May 1862 WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
3rd Brigade 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 May 1862-December 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac January 1863-5 February 1863 / Topographical Engineer Army of the Potomac January 1863-8 June 1863 / Chief Engineer Army of the Potomac 8 June 1863-12 August 1863 / II Corps Potomac 16 August 1863-26 August 1863 / II Corps Potomac 2 September 1863-10 October 1863 / II Corps Potomac 12 October 1863-16 December 1863 / II Corps Potomac 29 December 1863-9 January 1864 / II Corps Potomac 15 January 1864-24 March 1864 / V Corps Potomac 23 March 1864-2 January 1865 / V Corps Potomac 27 January 1865-1 April 1865 / Defences of Petersburg 1 April 1865-1 May 1865 / Department of the Mississippi 1 May 1865-27 June 1865

USA: Major-General Hiram Gregory Berry was killed at Chancellorsville.

Berry, Hiram Gregory / Maine / Born 27 August 1824 Thomaston (Rockland), Maine / KIA Chancellorsville, Virginia 3 May 1863
Captain Maine Militia / Colonel USV 14th Maine Infantry 15 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Major-General USV 10 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Peninsula Campaign July 1862
3rd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 August 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac September 1862-October 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac November 1862-January 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 8 February 1863-3 May 1863

USA: Brigadier-General William Hays was captured at Chancellorsville.

Hays, William / Virginia / Born 9 May 1819 Richmond, Virginia / Died Boston, Massachusetts 7 February 1875
USMA 1 July 1840 18/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 8 October 1853 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA ADC (G B McClellan) 21 September 1861-17 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 27 December 1862 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Major USA 5th US Artillery 1 August 1863 / Assistant Provost Marshal-General 27 October 1863-31 January 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1 July 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847 WIA & CIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 Exchanged 15 May 1863
Artillery Reserve Army of the Potomac September 1862-February 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 12 February 1863-3 May 1863 / II Corps Potomac 3 July 1863-16 August 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 February 1865-6 April 1865 / Artillery Reserve Army of the Potomac 6 April 1865

USA: 1st Lieutenant USA Edmund Kirby (Brigadier-General USV unconfirmed) was mortally wounded at Chancellorsville, Virginia.

Kirby, Edmund (Jr) / New York / Born 11 March 1840 Brownville, New York / DOW Fredericksburg, Virginia 28 May 1863
USMA 6 May 1861 10/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1856 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 6 May 1861 / 1st Lieutenant USA 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 May 1863 Unconfirmed posthumously / MWIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: John Wesley Frazer promoted Brigadier-General PACS 19 May 1863 to rank from 3 May 1863 unconfirmed and rejected 16 February 1864.

Frazer, John Wesley / Tennessee-Mississippi / Born 6 January 1827 Hardin, Tennessee / Died New York, New York 31 March 1906
USMA 1 July 1849 34/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1845 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1849 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 30 June 1850 / 1st Lieutenant USA 9th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Captain USA 1 May 1857 / Resigned USA 15 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 8th Alabama Infantry 17 June 1861 / Resigned PACS 20 March 1862 / Colonel PACS 28th Alabama Infantry 2 November 1862 / Resigned PACS 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 May 1863 to rank from 3 May 1863 Rejected 16 February 1864 / Paroled Fort Warren, Massachusetts 24 July 1865 / CIA Cumberland Gap 10 September 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1849
5th Brigade Buckner’s Division Department of East Tennessee July 1863

CSA: Brigadier-General Elisha Franklin Paxton was killed at Chancellorsville.

Paxton, Elisha Franklin / Virginia-Tennessee / Born 4 March 1828 Rockbridge, Virginia / KIA Chancellorsville, Virginia 3 May 1863
1st Lieutenant PACS 4th Virginia Infantry 18 April 1861 / Major PACS 27th Virginia Infantry 14 October 1861 / ADC (T J Jackson) 30 May 1862 / Major PACS Assistant Quartermaster 4 August 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General 15 August 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 November 1862 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
Paxton’s Brigade Taliaferro’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 6 November 1862-24 March 1863 / 1st Brigade Colston’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 24 March 1863-3 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Dabney Herndon Maury interim Simon Bolivar Buckner awaited
      • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Earl Van Dorn
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart temporary
    • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
  • Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry KIA
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
Francis Laurens Vinton
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Elisha Franklin Paxton KIA
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper

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