1863 May 4th

May 4 1863 Monday

Battle of Salem Church, VA (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Virginia Southside and North Carolina Operations

Vicksburg Campaign

Chancellorsville Campaign

Jones’ and Imboden’s West Virginia Raid

Stoneman’s Virginia Raid

First Bayou Teche Expedition

Alabama. During the afternoon, a Union raiding force left Tuscumbia, heading southeast for Jasper in the direction of Montgomery.

Alabama. USS Kennebec, Lieutenant-Commander John H Russell, captured the schooner Juniper, bound from Havana to Mobile.

Idaho Territory. Expedition against Snake Indians began.

Kentucky. Incidents at Horseshoe Bottom and Phillips’ Fork.

Louisiana. After obtaining supplies, Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter decided to ascend the Red River with USS Benton, USS Lafayette, USS Pittsburg, USS Sterling Price, the steam ram Switzerland, and the tug Ivy. USS Estrella and USS Arina joined the expedition en route. Porter met with Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut at the mouth of the Red River. Farragut assigned command of the blockade of the Mississippi to Porter and returned to Port Hudson. Following Porter’s assumption of command in the Mississippi River, Farragut decided to return to New Orleans, leaving the USS Hartford and USS Albatross at the mouth of Red River to await the result of the expedition to Alexandria. They were given flexible orders to run the batteries past Port Hudson if the opportunity arose. USS Estrella and USS Arina. Joined Porter’s fleet

Fort De Russy, Louisiana. USS Albatross, Lieutenant-Commander John E Hart, undertook a reconnaissance up the Red River and engaged the armed iron steamers Grand Duke and Mary T and Confederate cavalry on the shore near Fort De Russy. The Union gunboat sustained considerable damage and was compelled to withdraw.

 Louisiana. In response to an urgent demand for reinforcements from Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton at Vicksburg, Confederate Major-General Franklin Gardner left Port Hudson, leaving one brigade behind to hold the fortifications.

Mississippi. Incidents at Tupelo, Big Black River, Guntown, and Forty Hills.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Hankinson’s Ferry.

Mississippi. Progress on the Duckport Canal to bypass Vicksburg had begun well at the end of March. Union fatigue parties worked to remove trees and stumps and to clear Walnut Bayou south to Dr David H Dancy’s Crescent Plantation. Water levels in the bayous did not rise as rapidly as the engineers had expected. Compounding these difficulties, the Mississippi River began to fall. Even the most optimistic engineers gave up hope and work on the Canal was finally abandoned. Two dredges and 20 barges were marooned in the shallows of the canal and Walnut Bayou. Only one vessel, the tug Victor, managed to reach New Carthage.

Mississippi. Mississippi. During the night, two towboats were sent downriver to run the Vicksburg batteries with supplies for the Union army at Grand Gulf. One tugboat, the George Sturgess, was sunk and further runs by unarmoured craft were cancelled.

Mississippi. Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant arrived at Grand Gulf from Grindstone Ford with an escort of twenty cavalry troopers during the afternoon. In Grand Gulf, he received three-week old despatches advising him that Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks had been detained from starting operations further down the Mississippi at Port Hudson. Banks advised that he had been fully occupied in western Louisiana, along the Bayou Teche and Atchafalaya River and at Opelousas, defending New Orleans from Confederate threats. Banks warned that he would not be in a position to attack Port Hudson any earlier than 10 May 1863. This news made Grant’s previous plans unworkable. He had intended to occupy Grand Gulf as a base and to build up supplies before the next phase of his advance towards Vicksburg. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman and Major-General James Birdseye McPherson would hold that position while Major-General John Alexander McClernand went downstream to assist Banks in the capture of Port Hudson. Banks would then return with McClernand to finish off the job at Vicksburg with their combined armies. Frustrated by Banks’ unwarranted delay, Grant changed his plan and resolved to march against Vicksburg with his three corps alone and to capture or besiege Vicksburg independently of Banks’ army.

The roads on the west bank of the Big Black River were now open to the Mississippi state capital at Jackson and the critical railroad link between Jackson and Vicksburg was exposed. Grant assessed that central Mississippi would be fertile and productive enough to feed his army on the march Military supplies such as ammunition would have to come by river to Milliken’s Bend and then overland to be ferried across to his new supply depot at Grand Gulf. He ordered a new road to be constructed from Young’s Point to a landing on the west bank opposite Warrenton as a secondary supply depot.

As Sherman continued his march southwards along the west bank, he was ordered to collect and carry as many supplies and acquire as many wagons as possible for the impending campaign. At midnight, Grant headed back to rejoin McPherson, who had reached Hankinson’s Ferry on the Big Black River during the afternoon. McPherson had already sent cavalry scouts across the river to reconnoitre the way ahead.

Mississippi. Confederate Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton set up his headquarters at Vicksburg. He had been promised 5,000 men from Charleston, South Carolina, with a further 4,000 to follow from Alabama and South Carolina. General Joseph Eggleston Johnston had also agreed to send some cavalry from Tennessee. The withdrawal of the Union troops at Haines’ Bluff enabled him to disregard the threat from the north and to focus on a defence of the Big Black River to the south. Confederate Major-General John Stevens Bowen had been forced to evacuate Grand Gulf but now established a new defensive line on the northern bank of the Big Black River.

Pemberton assumed that the Union army would aim to establish a base on the Yazoo River, north of Vicksburg because the supply line down the Mississippi River still to Grand Gulf remained tenuous and vulnerable. If the Union army continued to advance along the Big Black River, further and further inland, it would face the risk of isolation and a shortage of supplies. Once his enemy was exposed, Pemberton planned to concentrate all his forces to attack and to destroy the invaders. He accepted the risk that the Union army might advance on Jackson, causing depredations on the way. However, if it did, the more vulnerable it became the further inland it went, and its penetration could only be temporary and vulnerable. Pemberton had already requested the evacuation of Grand Gulf so that the garrison troops could join his counter-stroke along the Big Black River. He now ordered Major-General Franklin Gardner to reduce his garrison at Port Hudson to a minimum and to march with the remaining men to Jackson to strengthen him further. Pemberton’s analysis was broadly correct but he was mistaken in his assumption that Grant would now seek to establish a base of operations north of Vicksburg.

Missouri. Operations began around Lexington.

South Carolina. Skirmish at Murray’s Inlet.

South Carolina. USS Chocura, Lieutenant-Commander Truxtun, and USS Maratanza seized the sloop Express off Charleston with a cargo of salt.

Tennessee. Incident at Fort Pillow.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Nashville.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Aylett’s, Grove Church, Hanovertown Ferry, Hungary Station, and Ellis’ Ford.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Tunstall Station, Ashland Church, Flemming’s (or Shannon’s) Cross Roads involving Union Major-General George Stoneman’s cavalry.

Virginia. Skirmish at Leesville near Suffolk.

Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson was moved to Guiney Station for further treatment for his wounds.

Virginia. The last elements of Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s command crossed the Blackwater River en route to Richmond after abandoning the siege of Suffolk.

Salem Church, Virginia, also known as Banks’ Ford, Scott’s Ford or Scott’s Dam. Darkness had brought stability on the main front between Chancellorsville and US Ford where Union Major-General Joseph Hooker had continued to strengthen his earthworks. The Union line extended unbroken from the Rappahannock and Rapidan and was backed by artillery aligned in depth. The position was impregnable but it also suggested to Confederate General Robert Edward Lee that Hooker was unlikely to take the offensive. This allowed Lee to replace Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s division on his right flank along Mineral Spring Run with two brigades from Brigadier-General Henry Heth’s division from the left flank.

Further east, on the Orange Plank Road, Union Major-General John Sedgwick’s VI Corps had been halted by Confederate Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ division the previous evening. Lee ordered Major-General Jubal Anderson Early’s division to return from protecting the trains to the south near Guiney’s Station, forming on the right of McLaws’ division. The rest of Anderson’s division, after being relieved, was to move eastwards to join the attack on Sedgwick, forming the centre with McLaws’ Division on the left and Early’s Division on the right. Lee rode to supervise this advance personally with about 22,000 men available to oppose Sedgwick’s roughly similar number.

Early recovered from the previous day’s reverse and returned to find Marye’s Heights surprisingly undefended in the rear of Sedgwick’s forces. He reoccupied the ridge while Union Brigadier-General John Gibbon stayed in the town of Fredericksburg to guard the crossings over the Rappahannock. Early’s move cut Sedgwick from his original line of communications and his only available crossing was now at Banks’ Ford. Confederate Brigadier-General William Barksdale’s brigade was sent from McLaws’ division to reoccupy the celebrated stone wall on Marye’s Heights that it had defended the day before and to keep Gibbon in Fredericksburg.

Anderson had not arrived by 2pm and it took until 6 pm for the deployment of the converging Confederate divisions to be completed. On the left flank, McLaws got tangled in dense undergrowth and thickets and barely made contact with Sedgwick’s lines. Anderson’s advance was ineffectual and poorly coordinated, while Early’s men struggled across ravines and could not make a serious strike. Fog descended and the skirmishing died out by 7 pm.

At first, Sedgwick maintained the integrity of his lines even though Lee ordered artillery fire to be directed in the darkness against Banks’ Ford while he organised a rare night attack. The night attack failed to materialise so Sedgwick used the cover of night to withdraw northwards to form a defensive salient protecting the crossing at Banks’ Ford. Two pontoon bridges were built beyond the reach of the harassing artillery fire at Scott’s Dam (Ford) about a mile below Banks’ Ford by Brigadier-General Henry Washington Benham. Sedgwick started to evacuate his whole corps in the early morning. Despite hearing that Sedgwick had been halted and repulsed, Hooker remained passive at Chancellorsville. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Virginia. Union Major-General Joseph Hooker had wanted Sedgwick to hold out at Banks’ Ford for longer so that Hooker could withdraw the main body of the Army of the Potomac from the Chancellorsville area at US Ford and re-cross the river at Banks’ Ford to continue the fight nearer Fredericksburg. Hooker held a council of war at midnight with his corps commanders. Major-General George Gordon Meade (V Corps), Major-General John Fulton Reynolds (I Corps) and Major-General Oliver Otis Howard (XI Corps) favoured no withdrawal and proposed a counterattack in the morning. Daniel Edgar Sickles (III Corps) and Major-General Henry Warner Slocum (XII Corps), whose troops had already lost heavy casualties, voted for continuing the withdrawal. Major-General Darius Nash Couch (II Corps) stated that he would support Hooker’s view as army commander, which was strongly for withdrawal. Hooker confirmed his decision to withdraw and his resolve was strengthened later when he learned that Sedgwick had already retreated back over the river from Fredericksburg. The army cut new roads through the forest to US Ford and started its retreat to the north bank of the Rappahannock while engineers marked out a final defensive line just a mile from the ford.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Winchester to Hampshire County began.

Virginia. Incident at Fayette Court House.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General William Edmondson Jones led his raiders from Buckhannon through Weston to West Union. Jones divided his command, sending out strong parties to roam the area. Colonel Asher Hartman took the 11th Virginia Cavalry and 12th Virginia Cavalry and the 34th Virginia Cavalry Battalion to West Union. They attacked the town, drove away the Union garrison, and proceeded to destroy two railroad bridges.

Union Organisation

USA. Henry Hopkins Sibley commission as Brigadier-General USV expired; subsequently re-appointed 28 March 1864 to rank from 20 March 1863.

Sibley, Henry Hastings / Michigan / Born 29 February 1811 Detroit, Michigan / Died St Paul, Minnesota 18 February 1891
Brigadier-General USV 29 September 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 28 March 1863 to rank from 20 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 29 November 1865
Second District Northwest 17 November 1862-23 November 1862 / District of Minnesota 23 November 1862-25 October 1864

USA: Orlando Metcalfe Poe promoted reappointed Brigadier-General USV 4 May 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 unconfirmed.

Poe, Orlando Metcalfe / Ohio / Born 7 March 1832 Navarre, Ohio / Died Detroit, Michigan 2 October 1895
USMA 1 July 1856 6/49 Topographical Engineers-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1856 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 October 1856 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1860 / Colonel USV 2nd Michigan 16 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 29 November 1862 Expired 4 April 1863 / Captain USA 3 March 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 4 May 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 Unconfirmed / Resigned USV 11 April 1863 / Major USA 7 March 1867 / Colonel USA ADC (W T Sherman) 1 January 1873-8 February 1884 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 30 June 1882 / Colonel USA 23 July 1888 / Retired USA 8 February 1894 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1856 Brevet Major USA 6 July 1864 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1 September 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 21 December 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865
Topographical Engineer Department of the Ohio 1 May 1861 / Topographical Engineer Department of the Potomac 31 July 1861 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Department of the Potomac 5 August 1862-September 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 31 November 1862-15 December 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IX Corps Department of Virginia 11 February 1863-19 March 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 19 March 1863-11 April 1863 / Chief Engineer XXIII Corps Department of the Ohio 11 April 1863-December 1863 / Chief Engineer Military Division of the Mississippi December 1863-1865

USA: Major-General Amiel Weeks Whipple was promoted Major-General USV 6 May 1863 to rank from 4 May 1863 Withdrawn posthumously.

USA: Major-General Amiel Weeks Whipple was mortally wounded at Chancellorsville.

Whipple, Amiel Weeks / Massachusetts / Born 15 October 1816 Greenwich, Massachusetts / DOW Washington, District of Columbia 7 May 1863
USMA 1 July 1841 5/52 Artillery-Topographical Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1841 / Topographical Engineers 28 September 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 24 April 1851 / Captain USA 1 July 1855 / Major USA 9 September 1861 / Engineers 3 March 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 18 April 1862 to rank from 14 April 1862 / Major-General USV 6 May 1863 to rank from 4 May 1863 Withdrawn / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 21 July 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 13 December 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 4 May 1863 posthumously Brevet Major-General USA 7 May 1863 posthumously / MWIA Chancellorsville 4 May 1863
Topographical Engineer Department of Northeastern Virginia 1 June 1862-17 August 1861 / Topographical Engineer Army of the Potomac 4 April 1862-May 1862 / Whipple’s Brigade Military District of Washington May 1862-August 1862 / Defences South of the Potomac Department of Washington August 1862-8 November 1862 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 8 November 1862-4 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Dabney Herndon Maury interim Simon Bolivar Buckner awaited
      • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Earl Van Dorn
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart temporary
    • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
  • Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
Francis Laurens Vinton
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley

Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper

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