1863 May 2nd

May 2 1863 Saturday

Battle of Chancellorsville, VA

Virginia Southside and North Carolina Operations
Vicksburg Campaign
Chancellorsville Campaign
Grierson’s Mississippi Raid
Streight’s Alabama Raid
Jones’ and Imboden’s West Virginia Raid
Stoneman’s Virginia Raid
First Bayou Teche Expedition

Go to 1863 May 3rd

Alabama. Expedition to Burnsville began.

Alabama. Brigadier-General Grenville Mellen Dodge ended his expedition into northern Alabama.

Alabama. Skirmishes at Black Warrior Creek near Gadsden, Blount’s Plantation, and Centre, involving Union Colonel Abel Delos Streight’s raiders.

Alabama. Union Colonel Abel Delos Streight’s raiders continued to retreat ahead of the harassing pursuit of Confederate Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Skirmishes occurred continuously for fifty miles from Blountsville. The fight continued north-eastwards along the Coosa River until Streight made a stand at the eastern fork of the Black Warrior River and at Big Will’s Creek. Streight’s troops broke down into small bands and hid in the brush, ambushing the Confederates whenever possible in the wooded valley south of Lookout Mountain. Streight’s men made another brief stand before burning the only bridge across Black Creek near Gadsden but Forrest was guided to a nearby ford and managed to cross almost immediately. The Union raiders reached Gadsden and stopped long enough to destroy some weapons and military stores in the town before they set out again towards Rome. Further fighting took place in Gadsden and, at around 4 pm, Streight’s raiders reached Blount’s Plantation, fifteen miles from Gadsden. They halted to feed the horses and rest. Soon afterwards, Forrest’s cavalry arrived at the plantation and attacked Streight’s rearguard. The first Confederate attack was repulsed and it was near dark before the Confederates planned another attack.
Streight decided to escape southwards to Rome, Georgia, hoping first to secure a crossing at the Chattanooga River and to out-distance the pursuit by destroying the bridge behind them. After they reached Turkeytown, Streight sent two hundred men ahead to seize the bridge over the Oostenaula River at Rome and to hold it until the main body could arrive. Once across the Oostenaula and with the bridge wrecked, Streight hoped to have time to acquire more fresh horses and mules and to earn some respite from his pursuers. Streight made his next stand four miles from Turkeytown at Centre where he planned to rest before making the march to the river. At sunset, the Union troops found that most of their ammunition was wet so Streight decided to avoid a fight and disengaged in the darkness, falling back to a thicket half a mile further on to lay an ambush. Forrest’s men detected the withdrawal and attacked on the flank, forcing the Union troops to resume the march through the rainy night. When they reached the Cedar Bluff Ferry across the Chattooga River, just above its confluence with the Coosa, the Union troops found the ferry-boat missing. Local residents had removed it after the 200-man advanced guard had crossed and neglected to leave a guard. Streight could not cross and turned along the west bank of the river until they found a bridge near Gaylesville, six miles upstream. Forrest’s men had mostly broken off the pursuit to rest although there was always at least one squadron in action to harass the faltering column.
The Union troops headed through the broken landscape surrounding Round Mountain Furnace, a major source of iron for the Rome Foundry. Part of the smelting plant was wrecked, the only substantial achievement of the raid. In the semi-industrial region, the exhausted and demoralised column became increasingly scattered.

Arkansas. Expedition to Chalk Bluff ended.

Arkansas. Incident at Chalk Bluff.

Florida. Two boat crews from USS Roebuck, Acting Master John Sherrill, seized the blockade-running British schooner Emma Amelia off St Joseph’s Bay, with its cargo including flour and wine.

Kentucky. Incident at Monticello.

Kentucky. Union expedition from Bowling Green to the Tennessee border began.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Robert’s Ford on the Comite River involving Union Colonel Benjamin Henry Grierson.

Louisiana. Union Colonel Benjamin Henry Grierson’s raiding party crossed the Amite River, the last unfordable stream on the way to Baton Rouge. They halted six miles from the town to rest and then heard rumours of enemy troops advancing from the west. They turned out to be scouts from the Union garrison of Baton Rouge. They were investigating rumours of the unexpected arrival of a brigade of Union cavalry from Tennessee, who were completing a raid of six hundred miles in sixteen days.
During the afternoon, Grierson’s men rode through Baton Rouge, to universal acclaim, having devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana countryside. Grierson reported that his two-week raid had inflicted about one hundred casualties, resulted in the capture and parole of over 500 prisoners, destroyed fifty to sixty miles of railroad and telegraph line, and acquired over a thousand horses and mules. His own losses were reported as 3 killed, 7 wounded, 5 men left behind sick, and 9 missing.
The exploit was regarded as one of the most brilliant cavalry operations of the war. The raid also provided more evidence to Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant how a force could sustain itself in enemy territory without a conventional base of supplies or line of communications.

Louisiana. At first light, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman left Milliken’s Bend with two divisions of XV Corps under Major-General Frederick Steele and Brigadier-General James Madison Tuttle. They began their march to Hard Times along the western bank of the Mississippi south of Vicksburg. Sherman’s third division under Major-General Francis Preston Blair was still returning by river to Milliken’s Bend from its demonstration at Haines Bluff. From Hard Times they would all be ferried across the Mississippi to rejoin the rest of the Army of the Tennessee.

Mississippi. Expedition to Tupelo began.

Mississippi. Union gunboats protecting steamers from guerrilla activity responded when the steamer Era was fired upon three miles above Greenville. USS Cricket, Acting Lieutenant Amos R Langthorne, engaged the Confederate battery and then convoyed the steamer Champion downstream the following day. While USS Cricket was occupied in this mission, the steamer Minnesota was destroyed by Southern guerrilla troops. USS Conestoga drove away that Confederate force and remained in the area until the evening of the 7 May.

Mississippi. Skirmish on the South Fork of Bayou Pierre near Port Gibson.

Mississippi. Confederate Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton warned that the Union success at Port Gibson threatened Jackson and advised that the state archives and other valuables be removed from the capital. He made further appeals for reinforcements to repel the Union troops that had established themselves on the eastern bank of the Mississippi.

North Carolina. USS Sacramento, Captain Charles S Boggs, seized the blockade-running British schooner Wanderer off Murrell’s Inlet, with a cargo of salt and herring.

South Carolina. USS Perry, Acting Master William D Urann, captured the blockade-running schooner Alma, bound from Bermuda to Beaufort, with a cargo of salt and liquor.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance on the Manchester Pike ended.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Thompson’s Station.

Tennessee. Union gunboats under Lieutenant Commander Thomas Oliver Selfridge were forced continually to protect steamers from Confederate guerrilla activity in the Greenville area. The steamer Era was fired upon three miles above Greenville and USS Cricket engaged the Confederate battery before it convoyed steamer Champion downstream the following day. During USS Cricket’s absence, the steamer Minnesota was destroyed by guerrilla troops. USS Conestoga drove the Confederate force away and remained in the area until 7 May.

Texas. Confederate troops under Captain Edward F Hobby captured a launch and drove off two other boats from the USS William G Anderson at St Joseph’s Island. The Union boats were salvaging cotton from a sloop that had been run ashore on 30 April.

Virginia. Operations ended at Deep Run, Fitzhugh’s Crossing, Franklin’s Crossing, Pollock’s Mill Creek, and White Oak Run.

Virginia. Skirmish at Ely’s Ford.

Virginia. Cavalry skirmish at Louisa Court House.

Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet finally abandoned attempts to besiege Suffolk and put the divisions of Major-General John Bell Hood and Major-General George Edward Pickett on the march to rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia. They marched overnight, destroying bridges and feeling trees behind them to deter pursuit. Union casualties for the entire siege of Suffolk were reported as 1,160 men. The following forces remained as the Union garrison of Suffolk.


Union Department of Virginia: Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes
IV Corps (Virginia): Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes
2nd Division, IV Corps (Virginia): Brigadier-General Colonel W Gurney
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Virginia): Colonel W Gurney
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Virginia): Colonel B Porter
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Virginia): Colonel R S Hughson
VII Corps (Virginia): John Adams Dix
1st Division, VII Corps (Virginia): (Suffolk) Brigadier-General Michael Corcoran
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Dwight Terry
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Colonel Robert Sanford Foster
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Colonel M Murphy
2nd Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Brigadier-General George Washington Getty (Suffolk)
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Colonel Rush C Hawkins
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Harland
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VII Corps (Virginia): Colonel A H Dutton
Reserve Brigade, VII Corps (Virginia): Colonel D W Wardrop

Chancellorsville, Virginia. Union Major-General Joseph Hooker had been reassured overnight by reports from Suffolk that the two divisions of Lieutenant-General James Longstreet had not yet left southern Virginia and at 1.55 am he sent for Major-General John Fulton Reynolds to bring his I Corps to Chancellorsville from Fredericksburg.
During the night, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee and Lieutenant-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson came up with a risky plan that would once again split the already divided and outnumbered Army of Northern Virginia. The Confederates needed to find a weak point in the Army of the Potomac commanded by Major-General Joseph Hooker. The Union left was held by Meade’s V Corps, which occupied a nearly impregnable position along Mineral Springs Run. The centre around the Chancellorsville clearing had been entrenched and was also too strong to attack directly. However, the right flank, held by the Union XI Corps was a potential target.
Jackson would lead his II Corps with 28,000 men by a concealed route across the Union front to attack the Union right flank on the Orange Plank Road in the woods west of the Union army. That flank had been reported to be “hanging in the air” west of Chancellorsville. Lee would exercise personal command of the other 12,000 men (two divisions of I Corps under Major-General Lafayette McLaws and Major-General Richard Heron Anderson) against Hooker’s force of 70,000 men at Chancellorsville.
A guide was found to lead Jackson’s three divisions on a sixteen-mile march through confusing woodland trails to Wilderness Tavern beyond the exposed right flank held by the Union XI Corps. Confederate cavalry kept the Union forces from spotting Jackson along most of his long flank march, which took the entire morning and midday. The column was led by the division of Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes, followed by those of Brigadier-General Raleigh Edward Colston and Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill. They moved off at 8 am along the trail to Catherine Furnace.
The first sighting of the Confederate manoeuvre came shortly after Jackson’s Corps disengaged from Union forces south of Chancellorsville, but this worked to the Confederates’ advantage. Hooker anticipated that his cavalry raiders would now be cutting Lee’s supply line and Lee was about to be forced into a retreat. Union Major-General Daniel Edgar Sickles, commanding III Corps, spotted a Confederate column of infantry, artillery, wagons, and ambulances moving through the woods in his front and decided to push his troops forward to encounter it. As they approached Hazel Grove, a slight eminence southwest of Fairview they caught sight of the Confederate column moving south through Catherine Furnace, a mile to the south. Sickles pushed forward the division of Brigadier-General David Bell Birney from Hazel Grove and caught the tail end of Jackson’s column at Catherine Furnace. The Confederates soon pulled away after losing some wagons and a handful of prisoners and Birney’s division returned to the main line. Jackson had actually left his leading regiment at Catherine Furnace as a flank guard and when these came under increasing pressure they had to be supported by the last two brigades of Hill’s division as the column completed its progress past the exposed point. Hooker’s map indicated that this road led towards Gordonsville and did not show the concealed tracks that Jackson’s local guide was using to bring the Confederates across the face of the Union army. Although the manoeuvre had been detected at various points by different Union commands and with increasing urgency, Hooker viewed this as more evidence of a Confederate withdrawal rather than a threat.
Union Major-General Oliver Otis Howard had also seen the Confederate column from a distance and put out more pickets to guard the front of XI Corps, but he failed to strengthen his exposed right flank on the Orange Plank Road. At about 2 pm, the head of Jackson’s Confederate column approached the Orange Turnpike just west of Dowdall’s Tavern. Jackson was then escorted personally by Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee through trees and thickets to a point where they could observe the Union flank only a few hundred yards distant. The angle of the Union line required Jackson’s column to march onwards for another hour to get behind the flank but Jackson decided that the delay was worth the advantage of striking the enemy from such an advantageous direction. Having passed across the front of the Union army within two and a half miles, Jackson’s flanking force arrived at about 5 pm with six of his fifteen brigades on the right flank of the Union XI Corps. Rodes’ division strode onwards across the Plank Road to deploy across the Turnpike while Jackson directed the Stonewall brigade, at the head of Colston’s division, to move along the Plank Road to the junction with the Germanna Ford Road as a flank guard. Jackson then rode to the turnpike and led Rodes’ division eastwards for about a mile along the Turnpike until they were within 1,000 yards of the Union lines. Four brigades were placed in line and two brigades formed on either side of the turnpike. A fifth started the second line on the extreme right and Colston’s three remaining brigades completed the second line, 200 yards behind the first.
Another half-hour was required to push the four brigades of Hill’s division through the undergrowth so that two brigades reinforced the left flank and two were beside the turnpike. Hill’s remaining two brigades were far distant, having been delayed by the rearguard action at Catherine Furnace. Clear instructions were given that the advance must be headlong and maintained without pause to maintain maximum pressure and impact.
Meanwhile, the Union army at Chancellorsville was put on alert at 2.30 pm to collect rations and ammunition for a march in pursuit of the Confederates in the morning. At 4.30 pm, Hooker had grown so confident of the Confederate retreat that he sent orders for Major-General John Sedgwick to move his entire force across the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg and to pursue the enemy vigorously. Although I Corps and III Corps had been transferred to the main force at Chancellorsville, Sedgwick still had available the largest Corps of the army and Brigadier-General John Gibbon’s division of II Corps, numbering 30,000 men in all.
Howard’s XI Corps had about 11,000 men, posted at the far right of the Union line. They had failed to make any serious preparations for defence from the west despite orders to do so. The Union right flank was not anchored on any natural obstacle, and its only serious protection against a flank attack consisted of two guns pointing out into the Wilderness, supported by two regiments with a total of 900 men. The left flank of the XI Corps was also open as the reserve brigade which was holding it had moved forward to guard the flank of Sickles’ advance to Catherine Furnace and not yet reoccupied its works. The remainder faced southwards for more than a mile along the turnpike west of Dowdall’s Tavern. The XI Corps had generally poor morale. Many of the immigrants had poor English language skills and experienced ethnic friction with the rest of the Army of the Potomac, where all non-Irish immigrants were referred to as “Germans”. Although half of the XI Corps consisted of native-born Americans, mostly from the Midwest, the Corps came to be known as a whole as German immigrants. Of its 23 regiments, eight had no combat experience and the remaining 15 had never fought on the winning side of a battle.
Between 5:20 pm and 5.30 pm, Jackson’s line surged forward from supposedly impenetrable thickets, and their overwhelming attack swept away much of the Union XI Corps. Along a two-mile front, the Confederate attack was launched precipitately to exploit the two hours of daylight remaining just as many of the Union troops were sitting down to dinner with rifles unloaded and stacked. The assault drove back the Union right flank in confusion. More than 400 men were taken prisoner immediately without firing a shot, and within twenty minutes the majority of two divisions of XI Corps was routed and fled as a mob. The two Union guns on the turnpike were captured and turned against their former owners. Only one division of the XI Corps made a strong stand, and that was soon driven off as well. The Union troops gradually rallied, resisted, and counterattacked. By 6.30 pm, disorganisation on both sides and darkness were affecting the fighting and the Confederate advance was stalling near Dowdall’s Tavern. By 7 pm, the Union line at Dowdall’s Tavern had given way and the Confederates pursued through the gathering darkness. A Union cavalry was ordered to join Howard’s Corps at Wilderness Tavern. Between nightfall and moonrise, they rode into a Confederate division south of the turnpike and launched a misguided charge which was repelled amid the carnage.
By nightfall, the Confederate II Corps had advanced more than two miles to within sight of Chancellorsville, and they were separated from Lee’s two divisions only by Sickles’ III Corps, which remained where it had attacked that morning towards Catherine Furnace. Having already achieved great success, Jackson wanted to press his advantage before the Union army could regain its equilibrium and plan a counterattack. He rode out onto the plank road that night on horseback to determine the feasibility of delivering a night attack by the light of the full moon. His twin objectives were now US Ford in the Union rear, and to reunite with Lee’s force. Jackson urged on the four brigades of Hill’s division to take over the advance from the exhausted and scattered brigades of Colston’s and Rodes’ divisions.
At Chancellorsville, Hooker was shocked by the crowds of fugitives fleeing from the west and brought Sickles’ third division, still in reserve, across the clearing to form a bulwark against the storm. The Union artillery massed 22 guns at Hazel Grove and 34 guns at Fairview, where rare clearings offered a field of fire. Hooker was concerned about Sickles’ ability to hold what was now a salient into the Confederate lines and Sickles attempted to pull his two exposed divisions back to Chancellorsville from Hazel Grove during the night. One division was placed to the left and the other to the right of a trail leading northwards through the forest. The left-hand division blundered into a Confederate position and the one on the right deviated and was fired on by troops from Major-General Henry Warner Slocum’s XII Corps. Artillery from both sides fired indiscriminately into the mass and Sickles’ men escaped only by heading southwards again where they finally camped back at Hazel Grove at midnight.
Howard’s fugitives gradually coalesced into some form of order around US Ford and Major-General John Fulton Reynolds crossed the river with three fresh divisions of I Corps to form a reserve. Major-General Darius Nash Couch (II Corps) and Slocum had four divisions available and Major-General George Gordon Meade’s three divisions of V Corps were untroubled on the left flank. Even a cavalry brigade under Brigadier-General William Woods Averell had arrived at Ely’s Ford from Rapidan Station, where it had been left behind to cover the rear of the raiding Cavalry Corps.
Hooker sent peremptory orders at 9 pm for Sedgwick to attack at Fredericksburg, relying now on Sedgwick’s one Corps to rescue his six at Chancellorsville. When Sedgwick finally received Hooker’s order to attack Major-General Jubal Anderson Early at Fredericksburg, he failed to move because it was already night and he believed that Early outnumbered his isolated force.
Upon Jackson’s return from their scouting expedition at about 9.30 pm, he and his staff were incorrectly identified as Union cavalrymen by men of the 18th North Carolina Infantry, who fired on them. Most of the scouting party were hit and killed or wounded. Jackson’s wounds were severe but not immediately life-threatening but he was out of action. Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes and then Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill succeeded to temporary command of II Corps. It was not long before wounds incapacitated Hill also and Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart was summoned to take charge of II Corps.

Virginia. Skirmish at Lewisburg.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
  • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

  • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
  • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
  • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
  • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
  • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
  • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
  • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
  • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker

  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
    • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
    • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
    • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman

Department of the South: David Hunter

  • X Corps South: David Hunter

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
  • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
    • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill assumed temporary command of II Corps (Northern Virginia), succeeding Lieutenant-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson.
CSA: Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes assumed temporary command of II Corps (Northern Virginia), succeeding Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill.
CSA: Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart assumed temporary command of II Corps (Northern Virginia), succeeding Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes.

CSA: Robert Emmett Rodes promoted Major-General PACS 7 May 1863 to rank from 2 May 1863.

CSA: Douglas Hancock Cooper promoted Brigadier-General PACS 23 June 1863 to rank from 2 May 1863.

CSA: Lieutenant-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson was mortally wounded at Chancellorsville.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Department of East Tennessee: Dabney Herndon Maury interim Simon Bolivar Buckner awaited
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
    • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
    • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
    • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
    • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
      • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet

    • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill temporary Robert Emmett Rodes temporary James Ewell Brown Stuart temporary
  • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble

Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French

  • I Corps Southern Virginia: James Longstreet

Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
  • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
Francis Laurens Vinton
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Elisha Franklin Paxton
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper

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