1863 May 22nd

May 22 1863 Friday

Vicksburg Assault, MS

Vicksburg Campaign – Siege of Vicksburg

Port Hudson Campaign

USA. The United States War Department issued General Order Number 143 on 22 May 1863, establishing the Bureau of Colored Troops to facilitate the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight for the Union Army. Other people of colour who were not of African descent, such as Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Asian Americans, also fought in such regiments. Regiments of infantry, cavalry, engineers, light artillery, and heavy artillery, were recruited from all states of the Union.

The growing numbers of black troops in Union service, and the proliferation of their commands and designations, led to an attempt to rename them more consistently. The term “Colored Troops” was a vernacular current at the time and the name of United States Colored Troops was adopted officially in most cases and infantry, cavalry and artillery units were renamed numerically. Among the designations that were superseded included the terms “Colored” or, “of African Descent” or “Corps d’Afrique” in a unit name. Many units named after states in the Confederacy were also renamed as USCT units.

Approximately 175 regiments comprising more than 178,000 free black men and freed slaves served during the last two years of the war. Their service bolstered the Union war effort at a critical time. By war’s end, the men of the USCT made up nearly one-tenth of all Union troops. The USCT suffered 2,751 combat casualties during the war, and 68,178 losses from all causes. Disease caused the most fatalities for all troops, both black and white. Approximately 20% of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil War.

USCT regiments were led by white officers and advancement was limited for black soldiers only to non-commissioned grades. The Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments in Philadelphia opened the Free Military Academy for Applicants for the Command of Colored Troops at the end of 1863. For a time, black soldiers received lower pay than their white counterparts, but they and their supporters lobbied and eventually gained equal pay.

Before the USCT was formed, several volunteer regiments were raised from free black men, including freedmen in the South. In 1863 a former slave, William Henry Singleton, helped recruit 1,000 former slaves in New Bern, North Carolina for the 1st North Carolina Colored Volunteers. He became a sergeant in the 35th USCT. Freedmen from the Roanoke Island Freedmen’s Colony, established in 1863 on the island, also formed part of the Free North Carolina Colored Volunteers (FNCCV) and subsequently the 35th. Nearly all of the volunteer regiments were converted into USCT units. Four regiments were considered as US Regular Army units. Other state-recruited Volunteer units were the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry, 54th Massachusetts (Colored) Infantry, 55th Massachusetts (Colored) Infantry, 29th Connecticut (Colored) Infantry, 30th Connecticut Infantry and the 31st Infantry (Colored).

The Corps d’Afrique, one of many units formed in New Orleans after the city was taken and occupied by Union forces. It was formed in part from the Louisiana Native Guards. The Native Guards were former militia units raised in New Orleans, who were property-owning free people of colour. Many of the freemen of colour in the city wanted to prove their bravery and loyalty to the Confederacy but they were not allowed to serve, and the arms of the militia were confiscated. Later units of the Corps d’Afrique were recruited among liberated slaves in refugee camps. Local commanders, starved for replacements, started equipping volunteer units with cast-off uniforms and obsolete or captured firearms. The men were treated and paid as auxiliaries, performing guard or picket duties to free up white soldiers for field service. In exchange, their families were fed, clothed and housed for free at the Army camps and some schools were set up.

The main units were four regiments of Louisiana Native Guards (renamed the 1st to 4th Corps d’Afrique Infantry, and later renamed again as the 73rd to 76th US Colored Infantry on 4 April 1864); 1st Corps d’Afrique Cavalry (later 4th US Colored Cavalry), 22 Regiments of Infantry (the 1st to 20th, 22nd, and 26th Corps d’Afrique Infantry (later converted the 77th to 79th, 80th to 83rd, 84th to 88th, and 89th to 93rd US Colored Infantry on April 4, 1864).; five Regiments of Engineers (1st – 5th Corps d’Afrique Engineers, or 95th – 99th US Colored Infantry regiments from 4 April 1864), one Regiment of Heavy Artillery (later converted into the 10th US Colored (Heavy) Artillery on May 21, 1864).

Arkansas. Incident at Bentonville.

Florida. Boats from USS Fort Henry, Lieutenant-Commander McCauley, captured the sloop Isabella in Waccasassa Bay.

Indian Territory. Incident at Fort Blunt.

Indian Territory. Skirmish at Fort Gibson.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Bayou Courtableau.

Louisiana. The Union steamer Louisiana Belle was attacked unsuccessfully by a band of guerrillas near Barre’s Landing on the Bayou Teche.

Louisiana. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks intended to overrun the entrenchments of Port Hudson quickly and then take his army northward to assist the operations of Major-General Ulysses Grant at Vicksburg. Within the Confederate fortifications at Port Hudson were approximately 7,500 men under Major-General Franklin Gardner. Gardner was ordered to defend the positions for as long as possible in order to prevent Banks’ troops from joining Grant, and also to retain Confederate control over this part of the Mississippi River. “Quaker guns” made of pine logs were mounted in a ruse to fool the Union into believing that the Confederates were much better armed at Port Hudson than they really were.

Banks met Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut who reported that his ships had failed so far to achieve substantial results in their bombardment of the Confederate batteries. Farragut said that he would maintain the pressure from the river, preventing reinforcements or supplies from reaching the garrison from across the Mississippi, while Banks advanced to encircle the town.

Gardner chose to reinforce the picket lines shielding the Confederate grain mill and support shops of the areas near Little Sandy Creek because he did not consider a siege probable, and he had not fortified that part of the perimeter. Other Confederate troops remained outside the fortifications, including 1,200 troops under the command of Colonel John Logan with all of Gardner’s cavalry (9th Louisiana Battalion Partisan Rangers) and two artillery pieces of Robert’s Battery. They harassed Banks’ troops and hindered them from discovering weaknesses in the defences. These delays gave Gardner time to complete the ring of defences around Port Hudson and to move artillery from the river-facing side of the fort to the east side facing the Union forces.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF

Union Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
District of La Fourche: Colonel Henry Warner Birge
Defences of New Orleans: Brigadier-General Thomas West Sherman
Army of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Christopher Columbus Augur
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel E P Chapin
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel N A M Dudley
2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Thomas West Sherman
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Neal S Dow
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Franklin Stillman Nickerson
3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Halbert Eleazer Paine
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel T Ingraham
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel H Fearing
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel O P Gooding
4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel J S Morgan
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel W K Kimball
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Henry W Birge
Cavalry, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Benjamin H Grierson
Mississippi. Confederate raiders fired on the commissary and quartermaster boat of the Mississippi Marine Brigade above Austin during the evening.Corps d’Afrique, XIX Corps (Gulf)

Mississippi. Confederate raiders fired on the commissary and quartermaster boat of the Mississippi Marine Brigade above Austin during the evening.

Vicksburg Assault, Mississippi. The city of Vicksburg had been prepared for defence by the Confederates for seven months and a nine-mile line of fortified points encircled the city. Nine major forts comprised the strong points of the position and covered all the principal avenues of approach. From north to south they were Fort Hill, Stockade Redan, Third Louisiana Redan, Great Redoubt, Second Texas Lunette, Railroad Redoubt, Fort Garrott or Square Fort, Salient Works and the South Fort. The Confederates emplaced three divisions from north to south under Major-General Martin Luther Smith, Major-General John Horace Forney, and Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson Brigadier-General John Stevens Bowen’s division provided the reserve.

Wishing to avoid an extended siege of Vicksburg, Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant ordered a second frontal assault synchronised to begin at 10 am. Immediate success by assault would avoid him requesting from Memphis further reinforcements and equipment to implement a siege. A quick success would also reduce the risk of a relieving force arriving from the east. Grant planned with great care; the attackers would first reconnoitre thoroughly, and the defences were softened up with artillery and naval gunfire. The lead units were equipped with ladders to ascend the fortification walls. Despite their repulse on 19 May, the Union troops were in high spirits and well-fed with provisions they had foraged locally. At dawn 220 guns opened a loud but largely ineffectual bombardment on the landward side.

Early in the morning, USS Mound City, Lieutenant-Commander Byron Wilson, engaged the hill batteries. An hour later she was joined by USS Benton, USS Tuscumbia, and USS Carondelet. The combined fire temporarily silenced the Confederate defences. Leaving USS Tuscumbia to prevent a return to action by the hill batteries, the other three gunboats attacked the water batteries from within a quarter of a mile. The attack was meant to last until 10.30 am, half an hour after the assault time, but when it seemed that the army’s attack was delayed, the ships continued firing until 11:30 am before they withdrew out of range. USS Tuscumbia was hit several times and was forced to retire early, but apart from some wounded men, the damage was slight. The attack had actually gone ahead on schedule but visibility from the gunboats was obscured by dense smoke and haze and tis was not observed.

The three Union Corps attacked along a three-mile front at 10 am. Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s XV Corps attacked down the Graveyard Road, with 150 volunteers (named the “Forlorn Hope” detachment) leading the way with ladders and planks, followed by the divisions of Major-General Francis Preston Blair and Brigadier-General James Madison Tuttle, arranged in a long column of regiments. Sherman hoped to achieve a breakthrough by concentrating the mass of men on a narrow front. They were driven back by heavy rifle fire. Blair’s brigades under Colonel Giles A Smith and Colonel Thomas Kilby Smith made it as far as a ridge 100 yards from Green’s Redan, the southern edge of the Stockade Redan, from where they poured heavy fire into the Confederate position, but to no avail. Tuttle’s division, awaiting its turn to advance, did not have an opportunity to move forward. On Sherman’s far right, the division of Brigadier-General Frederick Steele spent the morning attempting to get into position through a tangled ravine of the Mint Spring Bayou.

In the centre, Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s XVII Corps was assigned to attack along the Jackson Road. On his right flank, the brigade of Brigadier-General Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom advanced to within 100 yards of the Confederate line but halted to avoid dangerous flanking fire from Green’s Redan. On McPherson’s left flank, the division of Major-General John Alexander Logan was assigned to assault the 3rd Louisiana Redan and the Great Redoubt. The brigade of Brigadier-General John Eugene Smith reached the slope of the Redan but was pinned down, dodging grenades until they were recalled when it grew dark. Brigadier-General John Dunlap Stevenson’s brigade advanced well in two columns against the redoubt but their attack also failed when they found their ladders were too short to scale the fortifications. Brigadier-General Isaac Ferdinand Quinby’s division advanced a few hundred yards but halted for hours while its generals engaged in confused discussions about how to proceed.

On the Union left, Major-General John Alexander McClernand’s XIII Corps moved along the Baldwin Ferry Road and astride the Southern Railroad. The division of Brigadier-General Eugene Asa Carr was assigned to capture the Railroad Redoubt and the 2nd Texas Lunette, and the division of Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus was assigned the Square Fort. Carr’s men achieved a small breakthrough at the 2nd Texas Lunette and requested reinforcements. By 11 am, it was clear to all that a breakthrough was not forthcoming and that the advances by Sherman and McPherson were failures. At that point, Grant received a message from McClernand, stating that he was heavily engaged, and the Confederates were being reinforced in his front. McClernand requested a diversion to be made on his right by McPherson’s XVII Corps. Grant initially refused the request, telling McClernand to use his own reserve forces. Grant was under the mistaken impression that McClernand had been only lightly engaged and McPherson heavily, although the reverse was true. McClernand followed up with a message that was partially misleading, implying that he had already captured two forts and that another push or diversion along the line would permit him to achieve a victory for the Union Army. Although Grant demurred, he showed the dispatch to Sherman, who was unconvinced but nevertheless ordered his own corps to advance again at 3 pm. Grant also reconsidered and ordered McPherson to send Quinby’s division to aid McClernand. Trusting that McClernand’s attack was making progress, Grant ordered another assault by all corps at 3 pm, unless contrary orders were received.

The assault was renewed on Sherman’s front at 3 pm. The brigades of Giles Smith and Ransom were repulsed immediately. Tuttle’s division suffered so many casualties in their aborted advance that Sherman told Tuttle to order his troops back. By this time, Steele’s division had finally manoeuvred into position on Sherman’s right and, at 4 pm, Steele gave the order for his division to charge the 26th Louisiana Redoubt. They gained no more success than any of Sherman’s other assaults. In McPherson’s sector, Logan’s division renewed its thrust down the Jackson Road at about 3 pm, but they met with heavy losses and the attack was called off. McClernand attacked once more with the help of the reinforcements of Quinby’s division, aiming to widen the imaginary breakthrough. They were met by a counterattack from Confederate Colonel Thomas Neville Waul’s Texas Legion and the penetration was crushed.

Grant blamed the huge losses incurred partly on the unnecessary renewal of the assault prompted by McClernand’s misleading reports. He gave up any intention of renewing his assaults and settled down to impose a regular siege.

Union casualties were 3,199 men (502 killed, 2,550 wounded, and 147 missing) fairly evenly divided across the three corps. Confederate casualties were estimated to be fewer than 500 men.

North Carolina. Incident at Gum Swamp.

North Carolina. The Union Army steamer Allison destroyed the schooner Sea Bird after seizing her cargo of coal near New Bern.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to Clarksville ended.

Tennessee. Expedition from Murfreesboro to Middleton ended.

Tennessee. Incident at Middleton.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Yellow Creek.

Virginia. Expedition to Matthews County and Gloucester Point ended.

West Virginia. Reconnaissance to Calhoun County ended.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Kentucky was established in the Department of the Ohio, comprising the state of Kentucky.

USA: Brigadier-General Jeremiah Tilford Boyle assumed command of the District of Kentucky.

Boyle, Jeremiah Tilford / Kentucky / Born 22 May 1818 Mercer, Kentucky / Died Louisville Kentucky 28 July 1871
Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 9 November 1861 / Military Governor of Kentucky 27 May 1862-26 January 1864 / Resigned USV 26 January 1864
11th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-5 December 1861 / 11th Brigade 1st Division Department of the Ohio 5 December 1861-9 March 1862 / 11th Brigade 5th Division Army of the Ohio 9 March 1862-27 May 1862 / District of Louisville 24 August 1862-16 November 1862 / District of Western Kentucky 17 November 1862- 22 May 1863 / District of Kentucky 22 May 1863-30 November 1863 / 2nd Division XVIII Corps Army of the Ohio 24 June 1863-6 August 1863 / 1st Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 6 August 1863-10 July 1864

USA: Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock assumed command of II Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Darius Nash Couch.

Hancock, Winfield Scott / Pennsylvania / Born 14 February 1824 Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania / Died Governor’s Island, New York 9 February 1886
USMA 1 July 1840 18/25 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 6th US Infantry 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 30 June 1848-1 October 1849 / Regt Adjutant 1 October 1849-7 November 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 27 June 1853 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 7 November 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 23 September 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Major USA Assistant Quartermaster 30 November 1863 / Brigadier-General USA 12 August 1864 / Mustered Out USV 26 July 1866 / Major-General USA 26 July 1866 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863
3rd Brigade SW F Smith’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 1 March 1862-18 May 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-17 September 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1862-24 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 20 February 1863-22 May 1863 / II Corps Potomac 22 May 1863-1 July 1863 / II Corps Potomac 2 July 1863-3 July 1863 / II Corps Potomac 24 March 1864-118 July 1864 / II Corps Potomac 27 June 1864-26 November 1864 / I Veteran Reserve Corps 27 November 1864-27 February 1864 / Department of West Virginia 28 February 1865-1 March 1865 / Middle Military Division 27 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of West Virginia 8 March 1865-20 March 1865 / Army of the Shenandoah 7 March 1865-18 April 1865 / Department of West Virginia 22 March 1865-22 April 1865 / Middle Department 27 June 1865-8 August 1865 / Middle Department 6 September 1863-23 October 1865 / Middle Department13 November 1865-21 December 1865 / Middle Department 29 December 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of the Missouri 6 August 1866-19 August 1867 / Fifth Military District 27 August 1867-16 March 1868 / Military Division of the Atlantic 28 March 1868-29 March 1869

USA: Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasonton assumed command of Cavalry Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General George Stoneman.

Pleasonton, Alfred / District of Columbia / Born 7 July 1824 Washington, District of Columbia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 17 February 1897
USMA 1 July 1844 7/25 Dragoons /Cadet USMA 1 September 1840 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 3 November 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 September 1849 / Regt Adjutant 1 July 1854-3 March 1855 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / 2nd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Major USA 15 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 16 July 1862 / Major-General USV 22 June 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Resigned USA 1 January 1868 / Major USA Retired 3 October 1888 to rank from 19 October 1888 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 12 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 17 September 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 2 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Cavalry Provost Guard Army of the Potomac July 1862 / 2nd Brigade Cavalry Army of the Potomac 16 July 1862-2 September 1862 / Pleasonton’s Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac 2 September 1862-12 February 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 12 February 1863-25 March 1863 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 22 May 1863-22 January 1864 / District of Central Missouri 24 July 1864-3 September 1864 / District of St Louis 24 July 1864-9 December 1864 / Cavalry Military Division of the Missouri 1865

USA: William Birney promoted Brigadier-General USV 4 June 1863 to rank from 22 May 1863.

Birney, William / Alabama / Born 28 May 1819 Huntsville, Alabama / Died Forest Glen, Maryland 14 August 1907
Captain USV 1st New Jersey Infantry 22 May 1861 / Major USV 4th New Jersey Infantry 27 September 1861 / Colonel USV 13 January 1863 / Colonel USV 22nd USC Infantry 22 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 4 June 1863 to rank from 22 May 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / CIA Alexander’s Bridge, Virginia 27 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862
District of Florida 20 April 1864-13 May 1864 / District of Hilton Head 13 May 1864-2 June 1864 / District of Florida 2 June 1864-4 August 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 27 August 1864-1 September 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 1 September 1864-5 October 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 5 October 1864-20 October 1864 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 29 October 1864-3 December 1864 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-21 February 1865 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 27 March 1865-10 April 1865

USA: Colonel Charles Edward Hovey (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) resigned.

Hovey, Charles Edward / Vermont / Born 26 April 1827 Thetford, Vermont / Died Washington, District of Columbia 17 November 1897
Colonel USV 33rd Illinois Infantry 15 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 5 September 1862 Expired Unconfirmed 4 March 1863 / Resigned USV 22 May 1863 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Cache River 7 July 1862 WIA Arkansas Post 10 January 1863
1st Brigade 2nd Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862 / 2nd Brigade 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-18 December 1862 / 2nd Brigade 4th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-22 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
  • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

  • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
  • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of Nebraska Territory: William Fletcher Sapp
  • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
  • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
  • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
  • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
  • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
  • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker

  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
    • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton

Department of the South: David Hunter

  • X Corps South: David Hunter

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
  • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
  • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
    • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Department of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • District of Abingdon: William Preston
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
    • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
    • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
    • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
    • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet

  • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary Richard Stoddert Ewell awaited
  • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble

Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French

Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
  • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green

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