1863 May 12th

May 12 1863 Tuesday

Battle of Raymond, MS (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Vicksburg Campaign

Jones’ and Imboden’s West Virginia Raid

First Bayou Teche Expedition

Alabama. Incident at Jackson’s Ferry.

Kentucky. Expeditions to Monticello and operations in south-eastern Kentucky ended. Incidents at South Union and Woodburn.

Louisiana. Reconnaissance to Baton Rouge began. Incident at Ponchatoula.

Mississippi. Skirmishes at Baldwin’s Ferry, Hall’s Ferry, Mississippi Springs, Fourteen Mile Creek, and Greenville.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Coldwater.

Mississippi. Having begun an expedition up the Tennessee River on 5 May to destroy every boat and vessel that the Confederates could use to cross the river,’ gunboats under Union Lieutenant-Commander Samuel L Phelps supported an Army assault on Confederate troops at Linden. While Colonel William K M Breckenridge crossed a small force, Phelps covered the landing at Linden with his gunboats. The surprise attack successfully drove the Confederate marauders from the area.

Mississippi. Union Major-General John Alexander McPherson’s XVII Corps crossed Fourteen Mile Creek, driving away the Confederate cavalry outposts. By mid-afternoon, they camped beyond the creek four miles from Edwards Station on the Jackson & Vicksburg Railroad. Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s XV Corps came up alongside from Cayuga and rebuilt the bridge destroyed by the Confederates.

Raymond, Mississippi. As part of Confederate Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton’s plan to hold Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s army in check along a broad front roughly delineated by Fourteen Mile Creek, Pemberton ordered all the reinforcements arriving in Jackson to march to Raymond, twenty miles to the southeast. There they would form the left wing of a force potentially superior in numbers to that of the approaching Union army. At Raymond, the arriving reinforcements would be supported by Colonel William Wirt Adams cavalry regiment, which was scouting the roads for indications of a Union movement towards Jackson. Adams had been ordered by Pemberton to leave his own regiment (1st Mississippi Cavalry)  in Raymond and ride to Edwards Station, fifteen miles away to organise the assorted detachments of cavalry attached to the Confederate main body. However, Adams elected to obey a subsequent order from Confederate Major-General John Stevens Bowen instructing him instead to bring his whole force to Edwards Station on the railroad between Vicksburg and Jackson.

Confederate Brigadier-General John Gregg had already brought his brigade from the garrison of Port Hudson, Louisiana, to Jackson and thence to Raymond to intercept the approaching Union troops. Other Confederate troops making their way to Raymond by way of the rail and road included Brigadier-General Samuel Bell Maxey’s large brigade from Port Hudson, and Brigadier-General William Henry Talbot Walker’s brigade and Brigadier-General States Rights Gist’s brigade transferred from South Carolina and Alabama, respectively. The Confederate concentration was seriously hindered by the effects of Union Colonel Benjamin Harrison Grierson’s cavalry raid. Grierson had rendered unusable several portions of the railroad east of Jackson and about 50 miles of track south of Brookhaven. Gregg’s men had consequently marched for all but 85 miles of the 200-mile journey from Port Hudson to Jackson.

A new cavalry raid launched by Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson cut the railroad just north of Brookhaven, trapping the cars of the Jackson & New Orleans Railroad and thereby keeping Maxey’s brigade too far south to assist in the ensuing battle. Unknown to the Confederates, McPherson’s XVII Corps was already near Utica maintaining their location as secret as possible behind a strong cavalry screen. These two Union divisions were inching along the parched ridge road between Utica and Raymond, struggling to maintain proximity to water, while the remainder of Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s army probed north towards the railroad.

Having discovered the location of Pemberton’s main body, Grant ordered McPherson to move his two divisions ten miles into Raymond by mid-day. Rising before daylight, the Union cavalry screening Major-General John Alexander Logan’s 3rd Division almost immediately triggered the alarm from the state cavalry posted on the Utica road.

News of the arrival of thousands of Confederate troops in Raymond had spread. Having discovered from the locals that a large Confederate force was waiting just up the road, Logan attempted to deploy the 20th Ohio Infantry into a broad skirmish line and to march nearly a mile through almost impassable tangles. After an hour spent straightening the line, Logan ordered the skirmish line to be shortened. At around 10 am, Logan’s 2nd Brigade (Brigadier-General Elias Smith Dennis) emerged into a small field that bordered Fourteen Mile Creek about three miles from Raymond. Gregg had decided to dispute the crossing of Fourteen Mile Creek and arrayed his men and artillery accordingly. Word had reached Gregg that the Union main body was due south of Edwards Station, so he estimated that this body of troops must be no more than a raiding party in brigade strength and certainly not an entire Corps. Arriving on the hills overlooking Fourteen Mile Creek, Gregg ordered his troops to conceal themselves, and then asked Colonel Hiram Bronson Granbury, commander of the veteran 7th Texas Infantry, for 35 volunteers to picket the bridge over the creek. Gregg’s plan was to lure the raiding party into making a rash charge over the bridge to save it from being burned. Once the Union force was on the Confederate side of the bridge, Gregg’s 3,000 men, bo1stered by local volunteers, would erupt from their hiding places and drive the Union force into the creek bed where they would be pinned for the slaughter. Gregg watched with anticipation as the Union skirmish line crossed the field and engaged his pickets. Anticipation turned to surprise, however, when at 10 o’clock the skirmishers halted in the tree line and called up Captain De Golyer’s Battery, 8th Michigan Light Artillery, to clear the bridge with a few rounds of canister shot. The presence of artillery could only mean one thing: that the force occupying the field before him was no raiding party and probably more than a single brigade. Gregg remained undaunted, and merely altered his plan for attack. His main body would shift to the left, leaving the fields that were now threatened by the Union artillery posted a mere 500 yards away for the safety of the hills above Fourteen Mile Creek. Two large regiments of infantry would launch the ambush when the Union brigade crossed the creek, while two more large regiments would slip silently through the woods into the rear of the Union line, capturing the artillery battery and trapping the Union troops in the bed of Fourteen Mile Creek, where they would be forced to surrender.

Pemberton had explicitly ordered Gregg not to bring on a general engagement with a larger force but to withdraw to Jackson in the face of overwhelming odds while Pemberton dealt the Union army a heavy blow from behind. Gregg did not feel he was violating that order because his 3,000 men, bo1stered by hundreds of local volunteers and expecting reinforcements soon, outnumbered any average Union brigade. Gregg could not see the 3rd Division of McPherson’s XVII Corps silently deploying into the field beside the advanced guard of the 2nd Brigade.

Knowing that the woods ahead hid a large Confederate force, McPherson began to suspect an ambush. After having his men stack arms, eat lunch, and rest for the fight ahead, he deployed a brigade to the rear for reserves and posted his left flank with cavalry and his right flank with the 31st Illinois Infantry and additional cavalry. The men were just wrapping up lunch when an artillery duel opened up between the Union artillery near Fourteen Mile Creek and Gregg’s artillery, which had been called forward to a hilltop 700 yards distant.

Around noon, McPherson ordered Logan forward. The Union forces actually outnumbered the Confederates three to one in men and seven to one in artillery. The men of the Union 1st and 3rd Brigades faced the same challenge faced by 2nd Brigade earlier in the day. The vines in this area hung like ropes between the trees, and some of them boasted thorns three inches long. Additionally, though Fourteen Mile Creek was just inches deep, the nearly vertical banks rose over 10 feet above the creek bed in places. To compound the command problems created by the terrain, McPherson’s men were operating under drum and bugle silence and orders had to be delivered by courier, causing the line to lurch forward unevenly. The men of the 23rd Indiana Infantry found that a turn in the creek brought their right flank rested very near the creek. With a little effort, the unit was across the creek and standing in formation. In order to close the gap created by the march, the unit quick-stepped back the other direction looking for the rest of the brigade and stumbled sideways into the Confederate trap. Colonel Manning Force, the commander of the 20th Ohio Infantry, heard the rebel yell, followed by the sounds of musketry, and panicked. He ordered his regiment to charge, running through the nearly impassable tangle and then leaping into the creek bed. The rest of the division was holding its ground to the rear, and the walls of the creek were too steep to either move forward or retreat. Luckily the creek made a turn and the soldiers used it for protection as they engaged the right battalion of the 7th Texas. Force’s men crawled out of the creek bed with difficulty and sought help from the rest of the division, begging Colonel Richards of the 20th Illinois Infantry to move forward and connect the Union line. The left battalion of the 7th Texas and the 3rd Tennessee Infantry, exploiting their easy victory over the 23rd Indiana, pushed across the creek and past the 20th Ohio in a wave, before encountering the main Union battle line in the woods beyond. For a few minutes, the Union and Confederate lines stood obscured in the thick woods and smoke and fought at short range. Just after Force returned to the creek bed, the Union line was ordered to leave the woods for the safety of a fence line, allowing the Union commanders to reorganise after their reverse. In executing this movement, Colonel Richards was lost, and with him Force’s desperate plea for assistance.

The Confederates, perceiving that the Union forces were withdrawing, imagined that the Union line was being forced back. The Confederates pushed forward with vigour, only to be hit by a volley from Union troops now hiding behind the fence. Aggravating the situation for the Confederates was the fact that the 31st Illinois Infantry, hearing the fighting erupt behind them, was able to about-face from their position on the Union right flank, and step forward in line a few yards to take up a firing position to enfilade the line of the 3rd Tennessee Infantry. On the Confederate extreme flank, two Confederate regiments were sneaking forward in complete silence, ready to cross the field in the Union rear and seal the trap. Skirmishers of the leading regiment chased off the Union cavalry pickets with a few ill-aimed shots.

In the field behind the Union army, Logan was presented with a crisis. The cavalry protecting his right flank was scrambling from the woods, his right-hand infantry regiment was nowhere to be seen, and what was left of the next regiment in line had emerged in disorder from the woods and was attempting in vain to reform. Logan rode behind the lines screeching like an eagle for his troops to plug the perceived gaps. He pulled the 8th Illinois Infantry and the 81st Illinois Infantry out of line, sending the former to the left where the 23rd Indiana was reforming, and the latter to the right where the 23rd Indiana should actually have been, and then sent the remaining two regiments of his reserve to probe for the force that had scattered his cavalry picket.

The commander of the Confederate flanking force emerged from the woods ahead of his skirmishers only to find a Union line stretching as far as he could see. To the left, he could hear Logan’s two reserve regiments moving past his flank. Gregg had made a grave miscalculation. The Union brigade had turned out to be an entire division. The Confederate force withdrew hastily and waited for new orders. At this point, McPherson sent a note back to Grant stating that he had been engaged with a Confederate force of about 1,000 men for two hours and was about to get the upper hand. The two Confederate regiments now found themselves caught in the same trap that they had planned for the Union forces: they had been lured in a disorderly mass across a nearly impassable creek, and now faced the danger of being driven back into the creek.

The enfilading fire on the 3rd Tennessee began to take its toll, and the Confederate left flank crumbled. Granbury of the 7th Texas decided to order a withdrawal, then had second thoughts and sent a courier to his right battalion with a message to rescind the order. A timely bullet killed the courier before he could deliver the message, meaning that for a few valuable minutes five companies of the 7th Texas regiment were holding back an entire Union army division. This allowed hundreds of Confederates to withdraw safely across the creek. A final push by the fresh 8th Illinois Infantry finally broke the 7th Texas. Confederate Colonel Randal McGavock, commanding the 10th/30th Tennessee Infantry, assumed command of the flanking force and sent a courier to find Gregg. The courier returned with news that the Confederate centre had been routed. In a panic, McGavock ordered his regiment to the centre without pausing to issue orders to the other regiment on the Confederate left flank. Marching double time by the right flank back to the position he had occupied earlier that morning, McGavock emerged from the woods in time to see scattered groups of Confederates being pursued by a wave of Union infantry. Before all his troops had even emerged from the woods, McGavock ordered an oblique charge across the field into the approaching mass. Unfortunately for McGavock, the field across which he had ordered the charge was now enfiladed by the 31st Illinois, lying hidden in the edge of the woods along the creek. In a dramatic flourish, McGavock threw back his cape, exposing the red liner and inspiring his men as he led the attack. Despite the Union fire, the Tennesseans charged across the field in their front, successfully forcing the pursuing Union forces to return to the shelter of the creek. Their success came at a cost: the 10th/30th Tennessee suffered a majority of its 88 casualties in this action, including McGavock himself. The seven companies that had arrived in time to participate now withdrew, loading and firing the entire time, up the hill to safety. Here, Lieutenant-Colonel Turner positioned the unit to sweep the field below, where the men began firing away at the Union forces from the safety of a shallow ravine that ran along the hilltop. The arrival of Gregg’s reserve, the 41st Tennessee Infantry,  helped to stem the Union tide. The hill had become a rallying point for remnants of other units, most notably the right battalion of the 7th Texas.

At this point, the battle devolved into a contest of sniping, as the Union commanders attempted to reform the men into organised units in the difficult tangle while suppressing the fire from the hilltop. Gregg, meanwhile, found himself scrambling to provide enough time to allow the routed units to reform for the retreat. The 1st Tennessee Battalion spent the afternoon feinting in various directions and suffered heavy casualties for its efforts. The 50th Tennessee Infantry, having grown tired of standing around waiting for orders from McGavock, traversed the battlefield from left to right in order to check a Union movement on the right flank, while the 41st Tennessee Infantry traversed the battlefield from right to left, passing the 50th Tennessee, to check a threat to the left flank.

Eventually, McPherson began to extend his right flank beyond the Confederate hilltop. The position having been turned and his routed units reasonably reformed, Gregg ordered a withdrawal through Raymond towards Jackson. The Union artillery finally made its mark in the battle, pounding the Confederate ranks as Gregg continued with the delaying action to allow his brigade to withdraw. As his force scrambled over fences and through yards in Raymond, they were met by the 3rd Kentucky Mounted Infantry and 800 cavalry under the command of Colonel William Wirt Adams, the leading elements of reinforcements. They arrived too late to provide anything but a rear guard. They also encountered 1,000 men under Brigadier-General William Henry Talbot Walker about five miles to the east and now a third of the way to Jackson. Gregg and Walker formed up together but no further fighting ensued. McPherson occupied Raymond at about 5 pm.

Union casualties at Raymond numbered 442 (or, 68 killed, 341 wounded, and 37 missing. The Confederate casualties were 514 (or, alternatively 100 killed, 305 wounded, and 415 captured). (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: RAYMOND, MS

Union Department of the Tennessee: Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
Army of the Tennessee: Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
XVII Corps (Tennessee): Major-General James Birdseye McPherson
3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Alexander Logan
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Eugene Smith
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Elias Smith Dennis
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Dunlap
Stevenson
7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Marcellus Monroe Crocker
1st Brigade, 7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel John Benjamin Sanborn
2nd Brigade, 7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Samuel A Holmes
3rd Brigade, 7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel George B Boomer

Confederate Military Division of the West: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton
Army of Mississippi: Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton
Gregg’s Brigade (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Gregg 

Missouri. Skirmish at Bloomfield.

South Carolina. USS Conemaugh, Commander Reed Werden, and USS Monticello, Lieutenant-Commander Daniel Lawrence Braine, came close inshore and bombarded five schooners aground at Murrell’s Inlet. They burned about 100 bales of cotton on the beach, set one schooner on fire, and damaged the others.

Tennessee. Union reconnaissance from Murfreesboro to Lebanon and Liberty began.

Tennessee. Union reconnaissance from La Vergne began.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to Memphis & Charleston Railroad.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Linden.

Tennessee. After an expedition up the Tennessee River, which began on 5 May, to destroy all means for the Confederates to cross the river, gunboats under Lieutenant Commander Samuel L Phelps supported an attack by Colonel William K M Breckinridge on Confederate troops at Linden. The Union cavalrymen were ferried across the river secretly to launch their surprise attack.

Virginia. Operations at Buck’s Mountain (Buck’s Ford) and Front Royal Road in the Shenandoah Valley began.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Snicker’s Ferry against Major John Singleton Mosby’s Confederate raiders began.

Virginia. Expedition to Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad began.

Virginia. Incidents at Blackwater River, Upperville, and Summerville.

Union Organisation

USA: John McAllister Schofield reappointed Major-General USV 12 May 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862.

Schofield, John McAllister / New York-Illinois / Born 29 September 1831 Gerry, New York / Died St Augustine, Florida 4 March 1906
USMA 1 July 1853 7/52 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1849 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 31 August 1853 / 1st Lieutenant 3 March 1855 / ADC ( N Lyon) 1861 / Major USV 1st Missouri Infantry 26 April 1861 / Captain USA 14 May 1861 / Major USV 1st Missouri Artillery 26 June 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 26 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 21 November 1861 / Brigadier-General Missouri Militia 26 November 1861 / Major-General Missouri Militia 8 October 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Reappointed Major-General USV 12 May 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 11 May 1865 to rank from 30 November 1864 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 4 March 1869 / Superintendent of USMA 1 September 1876-21 June 1881 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 14 August 1888 / Lieutenant-General USA 5 February 1895 / Retired USA 29 September 1895 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Medal of Honor 10 August 1861
Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the West 2 July 1861-10 August 1861 / District of St Louis 21 November 1861-10 April 1862 / District of Northern Missouri 26 December 1861-11 March 1862 / District of Missouri 1 June 1862-26 September 1862 / District of Southwest Missouri 24 September 1862-10 November 1862 / Army of Southwestern Missouri 1 October 1862-12 October 1862 / Army of the Frontier 12 October 1862-20 November 1862 / Army of the Frontier 29 December 1862-30 March 1863 / Department of the Missouri 13 May 1863-22 January 1864 / 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 April 1863-10 May 1863 / District of Southwest Missouri 30 March 1863-24 May 1863 / Department of the Ohio 28 January 1864-8 November 1864 / Army of the Ohio 9 February 1864-25 May 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 9 April 1864-26 May 1864 / Army of the Ohio 28 May 1864-1 August 1865 / XXIII Corps Ohio 27 May 1864-14 September 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 22 October 1864-2 February 1865 / Department of North Carolina 30 January 1865-20 June 1865 / XXIII Corps North Carolina 9 February 1865-31 March 1865 / Department of the Potomac 6 August 1866-25 September 1866 / Department of the Potomac 26 October 1866-11 March 1867 / First Military District 11 March 1867-1 June 1868 / General-in-Chief USA 14 August 1888-29 September 1895

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: William Fletcher Sapp
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner arrived to command the Department of East Tennessee, succeeding Major-General Dabney Herndon Maury.

Buckner, Simon Bolivar / Kentucky / Born 1 April 1823 Munfordville, Kentucky / Died Munfordville, Kentucky 8 January 1914
USMA 1 July 1844 11/25 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 9 May 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 8 August 1847-17 December 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 December 1851 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 3 November 1852 / Resigned USA 26 March 1855 / Major Illinois Militia / Colonel Adjutant-General Illinois Militia 3 April 1857 / Captain Kentucky Militia 1858 / Inspector-General Kentucky State Guard 1860 / Major-General Adjutant-General Kentucky Militia 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 16 August 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 17 January 1865 to rank from 20 September 1864 / Paroled Shreveport, Louisiana 9 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Army of Central Kentucky 18 September 1861-28 October 1861 / 2nd Division Army of central Kentucky 28 October 1861-16 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Mississippi September 1862-20 November 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-14 December 1862 / Gulf District 14 December 1862-27 April 1863 / Department of East Tennessee 27 April 1863-26 June 1863 / III Corps Tennessee 23 July 1863-31 October 1863 / District of East Tennessee 25 July 1863-2 September 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee November 1863-December 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee 25 February 1864-8 March 1864 / District of East Tennessee 8 March 1864-18 March 1864 /Field’s Division Department of East Tennessee 31 March 1864-12 April 1864 District of East Tennessee 7 April 1864-2 May 1864 / I Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / District of West Louisiana 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Department 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Army 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / District of Arkansas and West Louisiana 19 April 1865-26 May 1865 / Chief of Staff Trans-Mississippi Department 9 May 1865-9 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary Richard Stoddert Ewell awaited
    • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
  • Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley

Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield

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