1863 July 3rd

July 3 1863 Friday

Battle of Gettysburg, PA (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Vicksburg Campaign – Siege of Vicksburg

Gettysburg Campaign

Siege of Port Hudson

Morgan’s Ohio Raid

Taylor’s Expedition to the Mississippi

Arkansas. Confederate Major-General Sterling Price’s expedition arrived outside Helena during the evening and prepared for an attack the following day. A Confederate council of war was held at the Allen Polk house five miles west of Helena. Helena’s fortifications were stronger than expected, but all present approved the plan for a converging attack with about 7,646 troops effective to commence at daybreak. Major-General James Fleming Fagan would attack from the southwest, Price from the west, and Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke from the north. The plan of attack was devised with inadequate reconnaissance and a lack of intelligence about the strongly fortified Union defensive positions.

Florida. Boats from USS Fort Henry, Lieutenant-Commander McCauley, captured the sloop Emma north of Sea Horse Key, with a cargo of tar and Confederate mail.

Georgia. Confederate expedition to Ossabaw Island and McDonald’s Place, where they surprise and capture two Union soldiers and eight escaped slaves.

Kentucky. Union expedition from Beaver Creek to Pound Gap, West Virginia began.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Columbia involving Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan.

Louisiana. A Confederate counter-mine was exploded near one of the Union mines under the Priest’s Cap bastion at Port Hudson. This explosion collapsed the mine tunnel but caused no Union casualties.

Mississippi. Reconnaissance to Memphis.

Mississippi. Incidents at Big Black River and Messenger’s Ferry.

Mississippi. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston announced in a message to Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton that he would launch a diversionary attack at Birdsong’s Ferry on the Big Black River. The date of the attack was set for 7 July 1863 and Pemberton was required to make a simultaneous breakout attempt from Vicksburg on the same day.

Mississippi. Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant sent instructions to Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman to drive eastwards from the Big Black River towards Jackson tpo forestall any Confederate attempts to relieve the siege of Vicksburg. On the way, Sherman aimed to destroy the Mississippi Central Railroad and all the bridges as far north as Grenada.

Mississippi. During the morning, Confederate Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton sent a delegation headed by Major-General John Stevens Bowen to ask for terms to surrender Vicksburg and its garrison of about 20,000 Confederate troops to Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant. Constant shelling and impending starvation were compounded by severe sickness which made half of the 20,000 men in the garrison unfit for service. The civilian population suffered alongside the troops. Grant refused to speak to the delegation but conceded to a request to meet Pemberton himself. At about 3 pm, two groups of officers met in no man’s land and after an initially frosty reception, Pemberton attempted to soften Grant’s insistence on unconditional surrender. Grant made no commitments but wrote overnight that he would offer parole to the garrison and that only one Union division would march in to occupy the town. He insisted that the offer would have to be accepted by 9 am. He also made sure that Union pickets conveyed these terms to the Confederate defenders, hoping to undermine their will to resist.

Missouri. Union reconnaissance from Salem.

North Carolina. Union raid to the Weldon & Wilmington Railroad began.

Pennsylvania. Skirmish at Fairfield.

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee prepared to conclude a decisive battle at Gettysburg. Before sunrise, he abandoned his idea of a dawn attack as the fresh division of Major-General George Edward Pickett would require two hours to march from their camps on the Chambersburg Turnpike to a position from which they could attack Cemetery Hill. He sent word to Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell to defer his attack on Culp’s Hill until 10 am, if it happened at all. Even before Ewell was ready to contemplate an attack on Culp’s Hill, Major-General Henry Warner Slocum’s Union XII Corps started a dawn artillery bombardment with four batteries from Power’s Hill at 3.45 am. They fired on the Confederates clinging to the slopes of Culp’s Hill, in preparation for an effort to regain a portion of their works lost in the previous evening’s struggle. At 4 pm another battery joined in from Cemetery Hill and the cannonade continued for an hour. Before the Union infantry could follow up at the end of the bombardment, the Confederates attacked to forestall their advance. Lacking artillery, which could not cross Rock Creek behind them, Confederate Major-General Edward Johnson sent his men towards Baltimore Pike in accordance with Lee’s cancelled orders for a dawn assault. Reinforced by two brigades moved across from the division of Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes (under Brigadier-General Junius Daniel and Colonel Edward Asbury O’Neal) they made early progress. They came under artillery fire and could not dislodge Slocum’s defenders, and when word of the postponement of the attack reached him, Johnson was unable to disengage. The fighting dragged on for five hours but neither side gained the advantage. Brigadier-General William Smith’s brigade from Major-General Jubal Anderson Early’s division reinforced the Confederates and a Union brigade from Major-General John Sedgwick’s VI Corps strengthened Slocum. The Union artillery provided the balancing factor and the Confederates were driven off Culp’s Hill by 10.30 am, returning to the banks of Rock Creek at its base. They had taken more casualties and their ability to attack again was exhausted. Slocum’s men, having regained control of the hill, reoccupied their trenches and improved them again. A misguided attack by the Union 2nd Massachusetts Infantry and 27th Indiana Infantry was repulsed around 10.30 am at the foot of Culp’s Hill, and they withdrew after taking heavy casualties. The opportunity for Ewell to make a diversion to draw troops away from the main objective had now disappeared.

With the army having the capacity for only one more major attack, Lee rode to consult with his senior Corps commander, Lieutenant-General James Longstreet. Lee’s meeting with Longstreet was difficult. Longstreet was not confident that Lee’s intention to attack the Union centre was sound. He reiterated his suggestion of a march southwards to outflank the Union right, but Lee was fixed on making the decisive breakthrough at Cemetery Ridge. At first, Lee proposed to use all of I Corps, spearheaded by Pickett’s fresh division but Longstreet argued that the two other divisions of I Corps had been fought to a standstill the day before and needed to hold their position on the right. Lee decided instead to reinforce Pickett with seven brigades from III Corps. This meant that the objective moved northwards resulting in a greater distance to advance and under less cover. The attacking force would be no more than 15,000 men and Longstreet persisted in his view that the attack had no prospects of success with those numbers and at that point.

Longstreet’s attack force was decided. He would command Pickett’s three brigades under Brigadier-General Richard Brooke Garnett, Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead, and Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper. Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill would contribute a mixed group of eight brigades from III Corps: Major-General Henry Heth’s division (now under Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew) had four brigades, Major-General William Dorsey Pender’s division (now under Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble) had two brigades available under Brigadier-General James Henry Lane and Brigadier-General Alfred Moore Scales under Colonel William L J Lowrance, and Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s division provided two more under Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox and Colonel David Lang. Apart from Pickett’s three fresh brigades, two of the other seven were seriously disorganised from earlier fighting and only one was under a general of proven experience in brigade command. For brigades were under their senior Colonels. Trimble only assumed command a short time before the attack, having been a supernumerary with the army since returning from convalescence. Longstreet suggested that Hill should command as the majority of the troops were from his corps, but Lee left Longstreet in charge. Hill later offered the other five brigades of his corps to strengthen the attack, but Lee asked him to keep that force in reserve in the event that the attack did not succeed. The plan was simple: the selected brigades would attack the Union right-centre on Cemetery Ridge after a preparatory bombardment by 143 guns. Due to the shortage of fresh infantry, the gunners would have to add weight to the attack.

After a five-mile march from its overnight camp, Pickett’s division was in position behind Seminary Ridge at the confluence of Pitzer’s Run and Willoughby Run by 9 am. Longstreet moved without vigour to draw up the attacking force and it was left to Pickett to arrange his own division. They moved into the woods on Seminary Ridge and the rest of the attacking force was in position by noon. They awaited the conclusion of a lengthy and destructive artillery bombardment. Uncertainty about the numbers available in the attacking brigades meant that the estimated attacking force of 15,000 men had in fact barely 12,500 including 2,500 held in reserve. A brief skirmish between the lines began at 11 am as skirmishers contended for the Codori house and barn that had been the haven for Confederate sharpshooters. Some Hill’s artillery opened fire and set the buildings on fire, driving out the new Union occupants. The action subsided by noon.

In the Army of the Potomac, Major-General George Gordon Meade was not confident of withstanding another assault and called a council of war with his senior commanders before deciding to stay in position. By a process of elimination, he decided overnight that Lee would attack his centre, having failed to defeat either flank. The Union defenders improved their positions throughout a hot and sultry morning. The critical point on Cemetery Ridge was held by the three weakened divisions of Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s II Corps and others. The six front-line brigades had about 5,700 men and there were no supports stationed to the rear or within immediate supporting distance. Meade then changed his mind that this sector, with its unobstructed lines of sight for artillery, would be the Confederate objective and he looked more carefully at the security of his left flank. The largest Union corps, Major-General John Sedgwick’s VI Corps, had barely been engaged and it was moved further south behind the Round Top hills. Two brigades from XII Corps were offered by Slocum at 12.20 pm after the fighting died down at Culp’s Hill, but they were declined. The key sector would have to be defended without help, at least for the first critical period of time, by Hancock’s men. They counted 26 regiments in all, two of them placed forward as skirmishers, with half a mile of front running southwards from Ziegler’s Grove, where Cemetery Hill slumped into Cemetery Ridge. Union Brigadier-General John Gibbon’s division (2/II) of 2,000 men was in the middle, flanked on the left by 1,700 men in the division of Major-General Abner Doubleday (3/I) and on the right by Brigadier-General Alexander Hays (3/II) and his division of 2,000 men.

At 1.07 pm, a signal gun prompted 143 Confederate guns to begin an artillery bombardment that was probably the most intense of the war outside a siege. The Confederate Army was critically low on artillery ammunition, but it fired accurately and rapidly, putting the Union line along Cemetery Ridge under fearful fire. The Union artillery on the ridge fared badly and had to draw replacement crewmen from the surrounding infantry. However, smoke soon obscured the target and most of the Union infantry were concealed behind walls or field defences. The remainder lay down and were astonished to see Hancock riding slowly along the crest with his staff, to strengthen the resolve of his command by his own example of contempt and disregard for danger. The Confederates raised the range and caused more destruction on the unseen reverse slope among the supply trains, ammunition caissons and wagons, ambulances, headquarters, and rear echelons. The brigade of VI Corps that had helped defend Culp’s Hill in the morning was marching back to rejoin the reserve when it was hit on the road, losing 23 men. One shot smashed through the house that Meade was using as his headquarters, barely missing him. The staff moved outside, then into a nearby barn and then finally to a safer distance on Power’s Hill.

In order to save valuable ammunition for the infantry attack that they knew would follow, the Army of the Potomac’s artillery, under the command of Brigadier-General Henry Jackson Hunt, did not at first return the enemy’s fire. After waiting about 15 minutes, about 80 of over one hundred available Union guns added to the din along a two-mile front. Hunt decided to save most of his ammunition for the final attack. He continued to fire with six guns from Little Round Top (Lieutenant B F Rittenhouse’s Battery D, 5th US Artillery, of V Corps). Major Thomas W Osborn also kept up the fire from Cemetery Hill with 29 guns of XI Corps. The 37 guns of Lieutenant-Colonel Freeman McGilvery’s reserve artillery and Captain John G Hazard’s 29 guns of II Corps were kept silent. The two-thirds of the available Union artillery posted along the threatened sector kept quiet, conserved their ammunition, and tried to keep their positions undetected while avoiding the Confederate cannonade. Eventually, Hancock countermanded Hunt’s order to his II Corps batteries on the ridge, if only to give some encouragement to his infantry by hitting back at the Confederate guns. After an hour and a half of ceaseless pounding, McGilvery was also given permission to respond at about 2.30 pm, adding his share of noise, smoke, and mayhem. As Hunt observed the damage being caused to the distant Confederate batteries, Osborn came to him and suggested that the Union artillery should cease firing temporarily, to give an impression that the Union line was either withdrawing or running out of ammunition. Either way, it might draw a Confederate attack that all were confident would be repelled. Hunt agreed to the ruse and he ordered his batteries to cease firing, and they did so one at a time as the order was transmitted along the line. The badly-hit batteries of II Corps on Cemetery Ridge kept firing fitfully until their dwindling ammunition supply was exhausted, adding to the impression of a gradual silencing of the Union artillery. Six guns of Battery A 4th US Light Artillery had lost heavily but remained in action, but the three surviving guns of a Rhode Island Battery were allowed to withdraw from the wreckage of their battery position at about 2.45 pm. Their disorderly withdrawal in plain sight and the reduction in fire persuaded the director of the Confederate artillery, Colonel Edward Porter Alexander, deduced that the enemy guns were being silenced. He was given the unusual responsibility to decide if the bombardment had achieved its aim.

The Confederate bombardment began to subside for ten to fifteen minutes and then at about 3 pm, Alexander reported to Pickett that this, if any, was the time to attack. He had alerted Pickett already about thirty minutes earlier but the obvious withdrawal of guns from the crest near Ziegler’s Grove confirmed his decision. Around 3 pm about 11,000 Confederate soldiers, the two brigades of Andersons’ division were held back in reserve, stepped forward in silence from the ridgeline of Seminary Ridge and began an advance across three-quarters of a mile towards Cemetery Ridge in what became known to history as “Pickett’s Charge”. Meanwhile, the Union infantry reoccupied their positions and the artillery tried to replenish their ammunition.

The Confederate advance was orderly, measured and apparently irresistible. The Confederates moved onwards while fierce flanking artillery fire poured from Union positions on Cemetery Hill to the north and from Little Round Top to the south. As the attacking lines came nearer, the defenders began to fire in a destructive enfilade. The Union artillery achieved devastating results against the exposed Confederate lines while the infantry waited anxiously for the attackers to come within range. A new battery of six guns unlimbered by Ziegler’s Grove to replace the shattered Rhode Islanders. In the front ranks of Pickett’s division, Kemper’s brigade on the right took severe punishment from the Union guns to the south but they and Garnett’s brigade kept up a steady pace. On the left flank, the weakened brigades in Pettigrew’s division were battered by 29 guns from Cemetery Hill. They passed the smouldering remains of the Codori House and crossed the Emmitsburg Road. At this point the strong skirmish line of the Union 8th Ohio was able to deliver a damaging enfilade fire against the left flank brigade of Colonel Robert M Mayo; the advance faltered and became disconnected from the main attack. Losing cohesion, they fell back quickly and then broke in a rout as the Ohioans threatened a bayonet charge. Union fire switched to the next brigade in line under Brigadier-General Joseph Robert Davis and his left flank regiment joined the panic. Two of Pettigrew’s interim brigade commanders fell, Colonel Birkett Davenport Fry was wounded, and Colonel James K Marshall killed. Pettigrew was unhorsed and wounded in the hand. The sudden collapse of Mayo’s brigade caused consternation among the Confederate leaders watching from the rear and Longstreet sent a message for Hill to commit the remainder of Anderson’s brigades to join the reserve, only to cancel it soon afterwards.

Pickett’s three brigades pressed on to the main objective point, a small clump of trees on the ridge called Ziegler’s Grove. Pettigrew’s division converged in the same direction and the increasingly disordered lines began to crowd into a compact mass like a blunted wedge perhaps five hundred yards wide. The brigades in the second line pressed on the heels of the slowing front ranks. They negotiated the fences along the Emmitsburg Road and came under increasingly heavy rifle fire and canister fire from the artillery. The mass pushed up the slope towards the crest of the ridge, firing if they could as they advanced. Garnett fell dead from his horse and Kemper fell badly wounded as he ordered the last-ditch charge. From the Confederate left the Union brigade of Brigadier-General Alexander Hays swung around from the area of Ziegler’s Grove to link up with the men of the 8th Ohio, who were facing to the southwest with their left on the Emmitsburg Road. They were supported by two guns at close range and caused carnage with their flanking fire against the Confederate mass. Hancock’s five brigades were posted behind a stone wall that ran due south for two hundred yards from Ziegler’s Grove and then turned sharply west for 80 yards before it turned south again. In this Angle of the wall, Gibbon’s men were eighty yards ahead of Hays’ division, and they received the first impact of the Confederate charge. West and northwest of the clump or copse of trees in the Angle, a mob of Confederates had burst across the wall and shattered the defence. Hancock was riding down the line and immediately sent forward two reserve regiments to fill the gap and then pressed on southwards to bring Doubleday’s division in a flanking manoeuvre like that made by Hays to the north. As he arrived he found that Brigadier-General George Jerrison Stannard had already begun just such a manoeuvre, wheeling two of his three regiments forward to hit the Confederate right flank. As the heavy fire of these large green regiments hit home, Hancock was wounded and fell from his horse.

The surviving remnants of the Confederate assault, perhaps 300 men, were led by Armistead and clambered over the wall in the face of point-blank artillery fire from Cushing’s two guns. Hand-to-hand fighting ensued and the Union line broke at the “Angle” just north of the copse. Cushing was already dead, Gibbon was wounded and Armistead was killed next to one of Cushing’s guns. This moment marked in mythology “the High Tide of the Confederacy”. The Union reserves rushed into the breach and the Confederate attack was held. Pettigrew’s brigade pushed on to the north but had no chance of reaching the wall or making a breakthrough; the few who did reach the wall were killed or captured. Pettigrew called Trimble to bring up his two reserve brigades, but they made no difference. Trimble was hit, handing the division over to Lane. The Confederates recoiled and then broke in disorder, losing thirty regimental colours in the retreat. A counter-attack by Stannard’s brigade inflicted heavy losses and hastened the demoralised and disorganised retreat, but there was no widespread panic. Wilcox’s and Lang’s brigades came forward and opposed Stannard to deter further interference. Union skirmishers rounded up prisoners and harassed the retreat but were driven off by artillery fire.

Nearly one-half of the attackers failed to return to their own lines. Of the 12,500 Confederates who took part in the so-called “Pickett’s Charge”, at least 7,500 became casualties, with more than 70% of Pickett’s division being lost. Of these, about 4,000 men were taken prisoner, whether wounded or unwounded. Union losses were no greater than 1,500 in the same attack. Despite the clear evidence of a significant Confederate reverse, Meade did not order a counter-attack by his own exhausted army.

Across the valley, Lee and Longstreet rallied the survivors to face an expected counter-attack but none came. The divisions of Major-General Lafayette McLaws and Brigadier-General Evander McIver Law (Hood’s) were brought further north as a barrier behind which the broken attackers could rally and reform. A line formed on the forward slopes of Seminary Ridge but when Union artillery opened fire on it at long-range the majority ran for cover behind the crest and the fighting ceased along the main front of the battle.

During the preparation for the attack, Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart’s cavalry moved to the army’s northern flank two and a half miles east of Rock Creek. He prepared to exploit any success the infantry might achieve on Cemetery Hill by flanking the Union right and hitting their trains and lines of communications along the Baltimore Pike. At midday, he rode eastwards along the York Pike with 6,000 men in the brigades of Colonel John Randolph Chambliss and Colonel M J Ferguson (in place of the wounded Brigadier-General Albert Gallatin Jenkins). The brigades of Brigadier-General Wade Hampton and Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee followed in reserve. They advanced further than two miles and at about 2.30 pm they turned south along Cress Ridge which extended to the Hanover Road and Baltimore Pike. Spotting Union cavalry on the Low Dutch Road, parallel to Cress Ridge about a mile to the eats, posted Chambliss behind a screen of trees and sent Ferguson’s men forward on foot to engage them. Ferguson was to occupy a large barn on the Rummel farm and to draw the Union out to a position where Chambliss would counter-attack from hiding. Hampton and Lee would follow up to secure victory. The Union horseman comprised two cavalry brigades from Union Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg’s division and one from Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’ s division, numbering 5,000 men, many of them with repeating carbines. Gregg was in command and his three available brigades under were Colonel John Irvin Gregg, Colonel John Baillie McIntosh, and Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer. Ferguson’s men soon ran out of ammunition and Chambliss advanced prematurely to rescue them, but Hampton and Lee failed to appear with their brigades. They had been spotted and were met by a counter-charge by Custer’s mounted cavalry. A lengthy mounted and dismounted battle, including hand-to-hand sabre combat, ensued. Custer’s charge blunted Hampton’s attack and prevented Stuart from carrying out his ambush. Gregg’s two brigades joined in and Union artillery added to the destruction. Hampton was wounded and barely avoided capture. Stuart withdrew his men from the chaotic mess. Union artillery peppered their retreat until sundown as Stuart withdrew to his starting point astride the York Pike. In the cavalry fight on the northern flank, losses were probably equal at about 254 men (Union) on each side.

Kilpatrick’s other cavalry brigade under Brigadier-General Elon John Farnsworth was four miles away to the southwest on the far southern flank of the battle. Kilpatrick heard of the disastrous defeat of the Confederate attack on Cemetery Ridge at about 5 pm. Kilpatrick sensed that he might exploit an open flank to charge the retreating enemy and on his own initiative ordered Farnsworth’s brigade to attack. The Union cavalry was opposed by the skirmish line of Law’s division stretching southwest from Big Round Top to the Emmitsburg Road. Farnsworth probed with a single cavalry regiment (1st West Virginia Cavalry) against the skirmishers. They were quickly repelled by heavy volleys from behind a stone wall. A second attempt was also turned back. Kilpatrick ordered Farnsworth to try again with the 1st Vermont Cavalry. Farnsworth protested against the futility of such the advance, but Kilpatrick insisted in a bitter exchange of words. Farnsworth charged with the Vermont men and they broke through and charged onwards towards heavier Confederate lines near Plum Run. They met a solid firing line and a volley deflected them northwards. A second volley caused further casualties. The skirmish line behind them was reinforced and strengthened and their escape route was sealed. Milling about in confusion they finally broke out, leaving 65 casualties. Farnsworth was numbered among them as he was killed in the attack.

Resisting appeals from his cavalry chief, Major-General Alfred Pleasonton and Hancock to launch a counter-attack with the unused VI Corps and V Corps, Meade was relieved to let the fighting peter out and reoccupied his original positions. On the Confederate side Lee gave orders assigning segments of the front to his three corps commanders while his wagon trains and ambulances prepared to leave. The Confederate army would have to hold out for one more day before it departed if it were to save any of its supplies and wounded.

Union forces engaged at Gettysburg were estimated at 83,289 and Confederates at 75,054. Casualties were reported as 23,049 for the Union (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded and 5,365 missing) or alternatively, 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured or missing). This amounted to a quarter of the army and three of its seven corps commanders were dead or seriously wounded. Sixteen brigade and division commanders were also casualties. The Union I, II, III and XI Corps had sustained over ninety percent of the losses. Confederate losses were estimated as at least 25,000 and perhaps as high as 28,000 overall, but more detailed estimates vary from 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured or missing) to 28,063 (3,903 killed, 18.735 wounded and 5,425 missing). Of 52 Confederate generals who crossed the Potomac, seventeen became casualties at Gettysburg, five of them dead or mortally wounded and two captured. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Virginia. In recognition of the victory at Gettysburg, George Gordon Meade was promoted Brigadier-General in the US regular Army, on 7 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863. Meade’s elevation was the first promotion to this grade since John Pope and Joseph Hooker were recognised in mid-1862.

Tennessee. Skirmishes at Winchester and Elk River.

Tennessee. Union expedition from Memphis along the Horn Lake and Hernando Roads.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Boling Fork.

Tennessee. Confederate General Braxton Bragg resumed his withdrawal from Cowan towards Chattanooga without consulting his corps commanders.

Tennessee. Union General-in-Chief Major-General Henry Wager Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Major-General William Starke Rosecrans should move quickly to take Chattanooga. Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringer’s Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important and easily defensible position and was a key strategic location for the Confederacy. Seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and into the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a vital rail hub with lines going north towards Nashville and Knoxville and south towards Atlanta. It was also a vital junction on the only railroad leading through eastern Tennessee to Virginia. The town was an important manufacturing centre for the production of iron and coke. It was favourably located on the navigable Tennessee River. Rosecrans’ Union Army of the Cumberland had occupied Tullahoma after nine days of marching in heavy rain since leaving Murfreesboro and was hampered in its onward progress by the need to build bridges across the swollen Duck River and Elk River.

Virginia. Confederate Vice-President Alexander Hamilton Stephens left Richmond under a flag of truce aboard the CSS Torpedo to take letters to US President Abraham Lincoln in the event of a victory in Pennsylvania that might prompt an overture of peace.

Virginia. Union forces evacuate Suffolk.

West Virginia. Expedition to Southwestern Virginia began.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Beverly.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Delaware was established in the Middle Department, comprising the state of Delaware.

USA: Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler assumed command of the District of Delaware.

Tyler, Daniel / Connecticut / Born 7 January 1799 Brooklyn, Connecticut / Died New York, New York 30 November 1882
USMA 1 July 1819 14/29 Artillery / Cadet USMA 28 September 1816 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Light Artillery 1 July 1819 / 5th US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 1st US Artillery 12 June 1821 / 1st Lieutenant 6 May 1824 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / ADC (R Patterson) April 1861 / Colonel USV 1st Connecticut Infantry 23 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Connecticut Militia 10 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 11 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 16 March 1862 to rank from 13 March 1862 / Resigned USV 6 April 1864
Tyler’s Brigade Army of Northeastern Virginia 3 June 1861-8 July 1861 / 1st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-11 August 1861 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Mississippi April 1862-1 May 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Mississippi 1 May 1862-22 July 1862 / District of Delaware 3 July 1863-19 January 1864

USA: Brigadier-General William Hays assumed temporary command of II Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock.

Hays, William / Virginia / Born 9 May 1819 Richmond, Virginia / Died Boston, Massachusetts 7 February 1875
USMA 1 July 1840 18/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 8 October 1853 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA ADC (G B McClellan) 21 September 1861-17 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 27 December 1862 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Major USA 5th US Artillery 1 August 1863 / Assistant Provost Marshal-General 27 October 1863-31 January 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1 July 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847 WIA & CIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 Exchanged 15 May 1863
Artillery Reserve Army of the Potomac September 1862-February 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 12 February 1863-3 May 1863 / II Corps Potomac 3 July 1863-16 August 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 February 1865-6 April 1865 / Artillery Reserve Army of the Potomac 6 April 1865

USA: George Gordon Meade promoted Brigadier-General USA 7 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863. He concurrently held the grade of Major-General USV.

Meade, George Gordon / Spain / Born 31 December 1815 Cadiz, Spain / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 6 November 1872
USMA 1 July 1835 19/56 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1831 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 December 1835 / Resigned USA 26 October 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 19 May 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 August 1851 / Captain USA 19 May 1856 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Major USA 18 June 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Engineers 3 March 1863 / Brigadier-General USA 7 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863 / Mustered Out USV 23 September 1864 / Major-General USA 26 November 1864 to rank from 18 August 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1846 / WIA Glendale 30 June 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
2nd Brigade McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade McCall’s Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-12 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 June 1862-30 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 August 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-17 September 1862 / I Corps Potomac 17 September 1862-29 September 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 29 September 1862-25 December 1862 / V Corps Potomac 25 December 1862-26 January 1863 / Centre Grand Division Potomac 25 January 1863-4 February 1863 / V Corps Potomac 5 February 1863-16 February 1863 / V Corps Potomac 28 February 1863-28 June 1863 / Department of the Potomac 27 June 1863-30 December 1864 / Army of the Potomac 28 June 1863-1 September 1864 / Army of the Potomac 10 September 1864-30 December 1864 / Department of the Potomac 11 January 1865-27 June 1865 / Army of the Potomac 11 January 1865-24 January 1865 / Army of the Potomac 2 February 1865-22 February 1865 / Army of the Potomac 28 February 1865-28 June 1865 / Military Division of the Atlantic 27 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of the East 13 August 1866-2 January 1868 / Third Military District 28 December 1867-28 July 1868 / Department of the South 28 July 1868-13 March 1869

USA: Strong Vincent promoted Brigadier-General USV 2 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863 posthumously unconfirmed.

USA: Colonel Strong Vincent (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Vincent, Strong / Pennsylvania / Born 17 June 1837 Waterford, Pennsylvania / DOW Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 7 July 1863
1st Lieutenant USV Pennsylvania Militia 21 April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 25 July 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 83rd Pennsylvania Infantry 14 September 1861 / Colonel USV 27 June 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 2 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863 Unconfirmed posthumously / MWIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 20 May 1863-2 July 1863

USA: Colonel Elon John Farnsworth (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Farnsworth, Elon John / Michigan / Born 30 July 1837 Green Oak, Michigan / KIA Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 3 July 1863
1st Lieutenant USV 8th Illinois Cavalry 18 September 1861 / Captain USV 25 December 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster May 1862 / ADC (A Pleasonton) 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 29 June 1863 Unconfirmed posthumously
1st Brigade 3rd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 28 June 1863-3 July 1863

USA: Brigadier-General Samuel Kosciuszko Zook died of wounds received on 2 July at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Zook, Samuel Kosciuszko (Kurtz) / Pennsylvania / Born 27 March 1821 Tredyffrin, Pennsylvania / DOW Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 3 July 1863
Lieutenant Pennsylvania Militia 1840 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 6th New York Militia Infantry 7 July 1861 / Mustered Out USV 31 July 1861 / Colonel USV 57th New York Infantry 19 October 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Brevet Major-General USV 2 July 1863 posthumously / WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 MWIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 6 October 1862-24 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 24 January 1863-18 February 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 24 March 1863-15 May 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 May 1863-2 July 1863

 Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
    • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
  • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

  • District of Delaware: Daniel Tyler
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

  • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
  • District of Southeast Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
  • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron

Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
  • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
  • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
  • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully

Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Central Kentucky: Samuel Davis Sturgis
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
  • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
  • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • I Corps Potomac: John Newton
    • II Corps Potomac: William Hays temporary
    • III Corps Potomac: David Bell Birney temporary
    • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
  • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble was wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway / Pennsylvania-Kentucky / Born 15 May 1802 Culpeper, Virginia / Died Baltimore, Maryland 2 January 1888
USMA 1 July 1822 17/40 Artillery / Cadet USMA 3 November 1818 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1822 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1822 / Resigned USA 31 May 1832 / Colonel Engineers Provisional Army of Virginia May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 / Major-General PACS 17 January 1863 / Paroled Lynchburg, Virginia 16 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1822 / WIA Second Bull Run 29 August 1862 WIA & CIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863
2nd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 16 November 1861-5 February 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-26 June 1862 / 7th Brigade 3rd Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-9 August 1862 / Valley District 26 April 1863-15 June 1863 / ADC (R S Ewell) 15 June 1863-3 July 1863 / Pender’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 July 1862-3 July 1863

CSA: Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper was wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Kemper, James Lawson / Virginia / Born 11 June 1823 Madison, Virginia / Died Orange, Virginia 7 April 1895
Captain USV Assistant Quartermaster 1st Virginia Infantry 30 January 1847 / Mustered Out USV 3 August 1848 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 1858 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 10 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-8 June 1861 / Colonel PACS 7th Virginia Infantry 2 May 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 15 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 3 June 1862 / Major-General PACS 19 September 1864 / Paroled Danville, Virginia 2 May 1865 / WIA & CIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 Rescued 3 July 1863 Recaptured July 1863 Exchanged 19 September 1863
A P Hill’s Brigade Longstreet’s Division Army of the Potomac 29 June 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-May 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-August 1862 / Kemper’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia August 1862-September 1862 / Kemper’s Brigade Jones’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 6 September 1862-October 1862 / Kemper’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia October 1862-25 February 1863 / Kemper’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 25 February 1863-1 April 1863 / Kemper’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Department of Southern Virginia 1 April 1863-May 1863 / Kemper’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1863-3 July 1863 / Reserve Forces of Virginia 30 April 1864-6 April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Armistead, Lewis Addison / North Carolina / Born 18 February 1817 New Bern, North Carolina / DOW Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 5 July 1863
USMA 1834-1836 / Cadet USMA 1 September 1834 / Resigned USMA 15 February 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 10 July 1839 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 March 1844 / Captain USA 6th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 26 May 1861 / Major ACSA CS Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 57th Virginia Infantry 25 September 1861 / Provost Marshal 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 April 1862 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 MWIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863
Provost Marshal Army of Northern Virginia 1861 / 4th Brigade Huger’s Division Department of Northern Virginia 1 April 1862-12 July 1862 / Armistead’s Brigade R H Anderson’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Army of Northern Virginia 12 July 1862-17 September 1862 / Provost Marshal General Army of Northern Virginia 4 September 1862 / 3rd Brigade R H Anderson’s Division Defences of Richmond September 1862-October 1862 / Armistead’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia October 186225 February 1863 / Armistead’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of North Carolina 25 February 19863-1 April 1863 / Armistead’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of Southern Virginia and North Carolina 1 April 1863-May 1863 / Armistead’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1863-3 July 1863

CSA: Brigadier-General Richard Brooke Garnett was killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Garnett, Richard Brooke / Virginia / Born 21 November 1817 Essex, Virginia / KIA Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 3 July 1863
USMA 1 July 1841 29 /52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 9 May 1855 / Resigned USA 17 May 1861 / Major ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Cobb’s Georgia Legion 31 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 November 1861
1st Brigade Valley District Army of the Potomac 14 November 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Brigade Valley District Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-1 April 1862 / Pickett’s Brigade D R Jones’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 5 September 1862-October 1862 / Garnett’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 November 1862-25 February 1863 / Garnett’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of Virginia and North Carolina 26 February 1863-1 April 1862 / Garnett’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Department of Southern Virginia 1 April 1863-May 1863 / Garnett’s Brigade Pickett’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1863-3 July 1863

CSA: Brigadier-General William Barksdale died of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Barksdale, William / Tennessee / Born 21 August 1821 Smyrna, Tennessee / DOW Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 3 July 1863
Private USV 2nd Mississippi Infantry 1847 / Captain USV Commissary of Subsistence 18 January 1847 / Discharged USV 31 August 1848 / Brigadier-General Adjutant-General Mississippi Militia 12 February 1861 / Quartermaster-General Mississippi Militia 15 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 13th Mississippi Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 12 August 1862
3rd Brigade Magruder’s Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 29 June 1862-July 1862 / 3rd Brigade McLaws’ Division Defences of Richmond August 1862 / Barksdale’s Brigade McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-2 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Department of East Tennessee: William Preston temporary
    • District of Abingdon: William Preston
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
    • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
    • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
    • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
    • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French temporary

  • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Philip Noland Luckett temporary
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead
  • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton
John Buford

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook DOW
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett KIA
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale DOW
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker

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