1863 July 2nd

July 2 1863 Thursday

Battle of Gettysburg, PA
Baltimore Cross Roads, VA
Hunterstown, PA
Battle of Cabin Creek, IT (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Vicksburg Campaign – Siege of Vicksburg
Gettysburg Campaign
Siege of Port Hudson
Stuart’s Third Ride in Pennsylvania
Morgan’s Ohio Raid
Taylor’s Expedition to the Mississippi

Go to July 3 1863

Atlantic Ocean. CSS Alabama, Captain Raphael Semmes, captured the ship Anna F Schmidt in the South Atlantic with a cargo of clothes, medicines, clocks, sewing machines, and other goods. The prize was burned and the CSS Alabama headed for the Cape of Good Hope.

Gulf of Mexico. USS Juniata, Commander John M B Clitz, seized the blockade-running British schooner Don Jose at sea with a cargo of salt, cotton, and rum.

Cabin Creek, Indian Territory. Colonel James M Williams with his 1st Kansas Coloured Infantry and other detachments was leading a Union supply train from Fort Scott, Kansas, to Fort Gibson in the Indian Territory. As he approached the crossing of Cabin Creek in Mayes County, he learned that Confederate Colonel Stand Watie intended to assault him there with about 1,600 to 1,800 men. Watie was waiting for about 1,500 further reinforcements under the command of Brigadier-General William Lewis Cabell to join him before attacking the supply train. Cabell, however, was detained due to high water on the Grand River. Cabin Creek also had high water, preventing a crossing at first, but when it had receded sufficiently, Williams drove the Confederates off with artillery fire and two cavalry charges. The wagon train continued to Fort Gibson and delivered the supplies, making it possible for the Union forces to maintain their presence in the Indian Territory. Union casualties were reported as 10 and Confederate unknown. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Kentucky. Skirmish at Coal Run in Pike County.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Marrowbone.

Kentucky. Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan with 2,460 hand-picked cavalrymen in eleven regiments rode into Kentucky to disrupt the communications of the Union Army of the Cumberland. He was authorised to move freely in Kentucky but permission to head into Ohio was denied. Morgan was determined even before he set out to disregard that order and to make a big impact in Northern territory by advancing to or around Cincinnati, Ohio. One of his two brigades was commanded by Colonel Basil Wilson Duke (1,460 men) and the other by Colonel Adam Rankin Johnson (1,000) men with four guns. The force crossed the Cumberland River near Burkesville, midway between Nashville, Tennessee, and Barbourville, and eluded the Union troops posted to prevent his crossing.
The Union outposts along the crossings of the Cumberland River amounted to 10,000 men under Major-General George Lucas Hartsuff (XIII Corps) and Brigadier-General Henry Moses Judah. Union Brigadier-General Edward Henry Hobson commenced a 900-mile pursuit of Confederate Morgan’s raiders with his 300-man cavalry force and encountered Morgan briefly near Burkesville, Tennessee. The Union cavalry was driven back to Marrowbone.

Louisiana. Confederate cavalry raiders attacked and set fire to the Union supply depot at Springfield Landing near Port Hudson.

Louisiana, USS Cayuga, Lieutenant-Commander Dana, captured the blockade-running sloop Blue Bell in Mermentau River, with a cargo of sugar and molasses.

Mississippi. USS Covington, Acting Lieutenant George P Lord, captured the steamer Eureka near Commerce with a cargo of whisky.

Mississippi. Union pioneers at Vicksburg worked to widen the crater of the mine that was detonated on 1 July. Their aim was to make a space wide enough for an infantry column of four to pass through to make an assault.

Mississippi. As part of the continuous bombardment of Vicksburg, mortar ships joined the USS General Sterling Price, USS Benton, and USS Mound City to shell the heavy battery containing the heavy Confederate gun known as ”Whistling Dick”.

Mississippi. Confederate Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton sought the opinion of his four division commanders. Major-General John Horace Forney, Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson, Major-General Martin Luther Smith, and Major-General John Stevens Bowen, about the condition of their troops defending Vicksburg and, in particular, their capacity to make a break-out attack and to escape the siege. After forty-five days and forty-six nights in the trenches, mostly on half or quarter rations, none of the commanders felt that their troops were in a condition to undertake active operations. All concurred that they might endure the siege a while longer but could no longer sustain a long march. Pemberton resolved to request terms the following day, hoping that the impending celebration of Independence Day might result in magnanimity on the Union side.

Mississippi. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston concluded that it was impossible to cross the Big Black River north of the railroad to attempt a relief of Vicksburg. He moved his four divisions further south towards Birdsong’s Ferry to find another way past the strong defences built by the Union covering forces of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman.

Nevada Territory. James W Nye resumed office as Governor of Nevada Territory.

Pennsylvania. Skirmish at Chambersburg.

Pennsylvania. At 1 am, Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart’s cavalry left Carlisle to rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia, thirty miles away at Gettysburg. They made their fifth night march in eight days and passed across Yellow Breeches Creek and over Mount Holly Pass in a state of severe exhaustion. During the early evening, Stuart arrived at Gettysburg with his three brigades of cavalry, and the 125 wagons and 400 prisoners taken at Rockville, along with other booty. Arriving a week after departing on his raid, he was met icily by General Robert Edward Lee, who had been deprived of his cavalry for reconnaissance and been drawn into an unplanned battle at Gettysburg.

Hunterstown, Pennsylvania. Confederate Brigadier-General Wade Hampton’s cavalry brigade fought a minor engagement with Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer’s Michigan cavalry near Hunterstown to the northeast of Gettysburg.

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Throughout the evening of July 1 and the morning of July 2, most of the remaining infantry of both armies reached or approached Gettysburg. The Union I Corps and XI Corps had fought to a standstill the day before, II Corps had arrived by dawn, and III Corps and XII Corps were largely in place. Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock had recognised the natural strength of the Union position, but he also reported to the army commander, Major-General George Gordon Meade, that the position could be outflanked from the north-east or south-west, threatening the main line of communications with Baltimore. This danger preoccupied Meade’s dispositions as reinforcements arrived during the night and morning. Meade arrived on the field at 3 am, having ridden the twelve miles from Taneytown.
By 9 am, the right flank of the Union line ran across Culp’s Hill southeast of the town (held by Major-General Henry Warner Slocum’s XII Corps (now that its two divisions had been reunited), with Brigadier-General James Samuel Wadsworth’s depleted division (1/I) Corps on the summit. The line extended northwest to Cemetery Hill just south of the town. The vital hill was held by the remnants of the other two divisions of I Corps, now assigned to Major-General John Newton, who was transferred from VI Corps to allow Major-General Abner Doubleday to return to the command of his division. Three divisions of XI Corps, one of them at nearly full strength and two badly damaged, also occupied Cemetery Hill and East Cemetery Hill.
The line then turned southwards for nearly two miles along Cemetery Ridge, petering just north of Little Round Top. Hancock’s II Corps covered most of the northern half of Cemetery Ridge and III Corps was moving in to take up a position on their left flank. Unknown to Meade, Major-General Daniel Edgar Sickles had decided to post his III Corps on a small knoll much further forward than Cemetery Ridge, occupying an elevation around a Peach Orchard and positions to either side on the Emmitsburg Road. This created an exposed salient and helped to deceive the Confederates about the true line of the Union defence. The shape of the Union line is popularly described as a “fishhook” in shape. The Union army enjoyed clear views across the entire field and enjoyed a central position. The far left flank was dominated by two hills, called Big Round Top and Little Round Top but Meade could not at first provide adequately for their defence. When V Corps arrived from Hanover during the morning, its three divisions became the general reserve behind Cemetery Ridge. The VI Corps was making forced marches from Manchester thirty miles away and was expected by late afternoon. All three Union cavalry divisions were available to guard the army’s flanks and rear. Brigadier-General John Buford’s cavalry division guarded the left flank, Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s division covered the rear and Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg protected the right flank.
At 9.30 am, Meade asked Slocum to advise whether an advance might be attempted on the right flank from Culp’s Hill after Major-General John Sedgwick arrived with VI Corps in the afternoon. Slocum reported that the terrain was unfavourable, and Meade abandoned any thought of taking the offensive. On the left flank, Sickles was dissatisfied with the position assigned him on the low, almost imperceptible, and marshy southern end of Cemetery Ridge. Seeing higher ground more suitable to artillery a half-mile west of the Ridge, he wanted to advance his corps to the slightly higher ground along the Emmitsburg Road. Meade did not visit to inspect his lines and when Sickles warned that he was dangerously exposed on a weak position, Meade did not afford any merit to the report. Sickles rode to visit Meade and sought confirmation whether he had discretion about the placement of his troops. Unaware of Sickles’ intention Meade approved. The Union Chief of Artillery Brigadier-General Henry Jackson Hunt returned with Sickles to give an opinion. He agreed with Sickles that the rise at the Peach Orchard offered a dangerous position for enemy artillery to bombard Cemetery Ridge but also remarked that occupation of the high ground would create an exposed salient that required more men than Sickles had available to defend it. He recommended but could not order Sickles to remain on Cemetery Ridge and rode away to report to Meade. Sickles moved forward to occupy the Peach Orchard position at about 3 pm. His new line ran from the woods around the Devil’s Den, northwest to the Sherfy farm’s Peach Orchard, and then northeast along the Emmitsburg Road to the south of the Codori farm. Brigadier-General Andrew Atkinson Humphreys’ division (along the Emmitsburg Road) and Major-General David Bell Birney’s division (to the south) occupied an untenable and unsupported salient about half a mile ahead of the rest of the army. The new position was twice as long as that occupied on Cemetery Ridge; there was little cover and was too thin to permit reserves or for a defence in depth.
The Confederates had little knowledge or observations of his enemy’s positions behind the crests and ridge lines. Apart from where Sickles had moved forward, the Confederate line paralleled the Union line about a mile to the west along Seminary Ridge, which was held by Sickles’ III Corps. The line of II Corps then ran eastwards through the town and curved southeast to a point opposite Culp’s Hill. The Confederate exterior line was nearly five miles long with no suitable roads behind the line, while the Union army had interior lines, with many roads to assist the movement of men.
During the night, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee initially focused on attacking the Union northern flank but Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell stated that he was not confident of being able to take Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill. Ewell suggested that Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s fresh I Corps might instead attack the Union left flank by the Round Top hills. A suggestion that Ewell’s II Corps might be brought around to attack the right flank was rejected because of the time delay involved and because it removed a threat that would pin down the Union right. However, the suggestion prompted Ewell to say that Major-General Edward Johnson’s division might, after all, be able to take Culp’s Hill. Lee conceded that Ewell should stay in place to make that attack. Ewell was asked to close in towards Hill’s Corps to shorten the line, but he delayed, seeking to extract his wounded.
Lee’s modified battle plan now required Longstreet’s Corps to attack the Union left flank. Lee believed erroneously that the Union left faced northeast across the Emmitsburg Road, exposing it to the risk of being rolled up from the right. This faulty intelligence was exacerbated in part by the absence of cavalry to scout the enemy positions. Lee rose at dawn and observations revealed that Little Round Top was still unoccupied by the enemy and that Union strong forces remained on Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill. More Union troops arrived to occupy Cemetery Ridge and extended the line southwards but Captain S R Johnston, an engineer on Lee’s staff, returned with news that Little Round Top remained undefended despite the extension of the Union line southwards. His reconnaissance took place at a fortuitous time, after Major-General John White Geary’s division of Union XII Corps had been recalled from Little Round Top to join the 1st Division on Culp’s Hill early in the morning. Lee confirmed that Longstreet’s attack was to begin in front of Little Round Top. It would proceed obliquely along the Emmitsburg Road from right to left with Major-General John Bell Hood’s and then Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ divisions. The third division of Confederate I Corps, commanded by Major-General George Edward Pickett, had only just begun a march early in the morning after guarding the trains at Chambersburg and it would not arrive until too late to participate. So Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s division of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps was named as the third division to take up the attack. Major-General William Dorsey Pender of III Corps was to put his division on alert along Seminary Ridge to exploit any successes but Major-General Henry Heth’s broken division was left in reserve. The progressive attack en echelon would prevent Meade from shifting troops from his centre to bolster his left and success would expose the rear of the forces on Cemetery Hill. At the same time, Major-General Edward Johnson’s and Major-General Jubal Anderson Early’s divisions of II Corps were to make a demonstration against Culp’s and Cemetery Hill.
Longstreet was reluctant to attack at all, favouring a tactical defensive posture that had served well at previous battles or, failing that option, to disengage and to move around the Union flank to the south. Lee insisted that Longstreet must attack by the right flank towards the supposed Union left flank northwest of the Round Tops. Longstreet’s attack was to be made as early as practicable. Three of Hood’s brigades and all of McLaws’ division were ready to move by 9 am but Longstreet received permission from Lee to await the arrival of his last brigade (Brigadier-General Evander McIvor Law’s) which had a twenty-four mile march from New Guilford. They arrived about noon and needed to rest before deploying. Longstreet also requested a delay for the eight batteries of his reserve artillery to arrive.
Longstreet’s column began marching early in the afternoon behind the concealment of her Ridge towards the assigned attack position on the right flank. It soon came within sight of a Union signal station on Little Round Top. Countermarching to avoid detection and poor leadership by the assigned guides wasted more and more time. Two hours after setting out the head of the column was still not very far from its departure point. The three-mile direct route was extended to double or even triple that distance. The troops marched with little access to water in scorching sunshine.
After ensuring that Longstreet was in motion to his assigned attack position Lee returned to confer with Ewell. Although Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill were being fortified and strengthened continually he ordered Ewell to turn the planned demonstration into a full-scale attack if the opportunity presented itself. Lee returned to Seminary Ridge at about 11 am and waited for Longstreet to launch his attack.
After their delayed approach march, Longstreet’s two divisions arrived on the Emmitsburg Road at about 3 pm. They took time to deploy and Longstreet did not launch his attack for another hour. Instead of being beyond the Union forces’ left and attacking their flank, Longstreet’s left division under McLaws actually faced the front of Sickles’ III Corps directly and unexpectedly in their path. Sickles had only moved to occupy the Peach Orchard salient at about 3 pm. The change in circumstances led McLaws to request a modification to his line of advance and Hood reported that the ground towards Little Round Top was unoccupied and offered a more favourable direction of attack. Longstreet insisted despite repeated objections from his division commanders that Lee’s orders must be followed to the letter and the attack launched up the Emmitsburg Road.
As the Confederate artillery opened fire Meade came to see Sickles and was appalled at the exposed position of III Corps. It was too late to withdraw them safely. Meade told Sickles that the V Corps would be available from the reserve, as well as the reserve artillery, and a division from II Corps. Meade released V Corps to go to Sickles’ aid, and it was replaced in reserve by the three divisions of VI Corps which were arriving wearily on the Baltimore Pike. Meade rode off and “Sickles’ Salient” was subjected to a ferocious attack. Hood’s division advanced at 4 pm after a brief artillery preparation. The assault was forced to deviate from Lee’s plan because Sickles’ salient required Hood to move in a more easterly direction than anticipated, losing its alignment with the Emmitsburg Road, and advancing more towards Devil’s Den and Little Round Top. Brigadier-General Evander McIver Law’s brigade of Hood’s division was at the extreme right of the Confederate attack and it opened the advance en echelon. Law refused to expose his right flank by following the ordered line of attack past the Devil’s Den and veered easterly towards the southern slopes of Little Round Top. His two flanking regiments even ascended the southern slopes of Big Round Top further south, but it was heavily wooded ground and offered no military advantage. They drove off Union sharpshooters and continued with the rest of Law’s men towards the rugged, barren crown of Little Round Top. Confederate Brigadier-General Jerome Bonaparte Robertson’s brigade conformed on Law’s left and entered the maze of boulders and ravines that was called the Devil’s Den. The brigades of Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning and Brigadier-General George Thomas Anderson were also drawn towards the fight in the Devil’s Den. Hood was severely wounded early in the battle and his experienced direction of the advance was lost.
Union Brigadier-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren, Chief of Engineers, soon recognised the threat to the Union left flank and directed troops to occupy Little Round Top. It was presently occupied only by a signals detachment, but infantry arrived at the double only fifteen minutes ahead of Law’s leading troops. Warren managed to place parts of Colonel Strong Vincent’s brigade (3/1/V) on the southern slope of the hill. Battery D, 5th US Light Artillery under Lieutenant Charles Hazlett also manhandled some guns up the rocky hillside and into position. Warren then found Brigadier-General Stephen Hinsdale Weed’s brigade (3/2V) marching past towards the Peach Orchard. He immediately diverted the last regiment of the column, Colonel Patrick O’Rorke’s 140th New York, onto the western slope and then finally turned the other three regiments around to join it before they had gone too far.
Fighting raged in the Wheatfield and Devil’s Den, but Vincent kept a precarious hold on the key point of Little Round Top until he was killed. His four regiments held on and repelled repeated assaults by Law’s brigade. The most vulnerable point of the line, the very end of the left flank of the army was manned by Colonel Joshua L Chamberlain’s 20th Maine. O’Rorke, Weed, and Hazlett were all killed in the fighting, the latter two shot side by side by the same long-range marksman. The Confederate attack was determined although it was made by exhausted men without artillery and without reinforcements and with fewer men than the defenders. The Confederate attack petered out and when 20th Maine made a desperate bayonet charge, the Confederates of Law’s brigade broke and ran. They were joined by the retreating remnants of Robertson’s, Bunning’s, and Anderson’s brigades who had captured three guns but finally been forced out of the Devil’s Den. Hood’s troops reformed on the western slopes of Devil’s Den and held off the attacks of the two divisions of V Corps that had been sent to stop them.
McLaws’ division pressed forward at 5.30 pm, more than an hour after Hood. Each brigade, in turn, extended the fight northwards, starting with Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw, then Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes and Brigadier-General William Tatum Wofford, and finally Brigadier-General William Barksdale. Kershaw entered the Wheatfield north of the Devil’s Den and struck Birney’s Union III Corps division defending a stone wall. Semmes and Wofford added their fire and gradually the Union defence, stiffened by two brigades from the V Corps division of Brigadier-James Barnes, crumbled. Semmes was mortally wounded, and the attack faltered. On the Union side, Sickles fell seriously wounded and handed III Corps over to Birney. Barnes’ men finally gave way on their left at the edge of the Wheatfield and Birney’s III Corps division followed suit on their right. McLaws’ brigades pursued as far as Plum Run Valley (later renamed the “Valley of Death”). They met the arriving Pennsylvania Reserves division of V Corps and the II Corps division of Brigadier-General Curtis Caldwell. Caldwell’s division was virtually destroyed, two of its four brigadiers were killed and one wounded, but they turned the Confederates back to the Wheatfield. The battle degenerated into a blind and aimless struggle across the Wheatfield.
On the left of McLaws’ brigade, Barksdale charged up the Emmitsburg Road and overwhelmed the Union defenders of Humphrey’s division of III Corps in Sherfy’s Peach Orchard. Four guns and almost a thousand prisoners were taken in an irresistible charge. As Barksdale pointed the brigade towards Cemetery Ridge he was shot down and killed. The brigade advanced towards the ridge, but forty guns had been collected by Hunt to oppose them and the attack was smashed. The Confederates fell back after losing half of their men.
The Union III Corps also suffered badly, losing 4,000 casualties in two hours, all but wrecking the corps. Eleven Confederate brigades with 15,000 men engaged twenty-two Union brigades and were fought to a standstill a half-mile to a mile from their starting points on the Emmitsburg Road. However, they had failed to take Little Round Top or the southern end of Cemetery Ridge.
The attack passed on to Hill’s Corps further north, but it proved to be negligible in scale and effect. Only Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s division made any semblance of an advance towards Cemetery Ridge and this was half-hearted. They started forward on McLaws’ left around 6.20 pm, just as Barksdale’s brigade abandoned its advance on Cemetery Ridge. From left to right, Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, Colonel David Lang, and Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright’s led their brigades in an attack en echelon. The next brigade of Brigadier-General Carnot Posey had three of his four regiments deployed as skirmishers and only one regiment advanced in battle line as far as the Emmitsburg Road. The feeble attack faltered from this point onwards. On Posey’s left Brigadier-General William Mahone refused to advance at all because he thought his brigade was the reserve and not involved in the first attack. Lacking firm command from their divisional commander and support from the rest of the division, Wilcox, Lang, and Wright nevertheless worked their way towards Cemetery Ridge. They were approaching a weak point that had been denuded by sending Caldwell’s division of II Corps to reinforce Sickles against Hood and McLaws. Hancock trusted that the Confederate attack would not be extended further north so he ordered his other two divisions of Brigadier-General John Gibbon and Brigadier-General Alexander Hays to move south along Cemetery Ridge in a counter-attack. At the head of the two divisions was the 1st Minnesota under Colonel William Colvill. The 262 Minnesotan soldiers launched a suicidal charge against the advancing Confederates. Only 47 men escaped alive and unharmed, only three of them being officers. They bought the few minutes needed for Hancock to bring up reserves and to occupy the crest of the ridge. By the time Wilcox and Lang reached the foot of the slop, Gibbon was in place and delivering volleys down at them. Union artillery added its fire from the south after the repulse of Barksdale’s brigade and Wilcox and Lang’s men fell back without reaching the crest. Wright’s brigade kept moving forward and hit the ridge about four hundred further north. They reached the crest, broke the unprepared Union line, and overrun some guns but they were too few to remain there. Gibbon and Hays organised a counter-attack from the front and on both sides. Hancock was reassured that Meade had already ordered three divisions from Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill to the threatened sector. Wright believed the moment of victory was within reach when he saw thousands of Union troops scattered across the landscape beyond the ridge. However, he also saw heavy reinforcements moving against his single unsupported brigade and he reluctantly ordered a withdrawal, forcing aside the Union troops who had infiltrated into his rear. He abandoned the twelve guns seized on the ridge and they were soon crewed and opened fire on his retreating brigade, now with only half the men it had when it set out an hour earlier.
Two of Anderson’s brigades had failed to add their weight to Wright’s breakthrough, but Pender’s entire Confederate division remained on the alert along Seminary Ridge, awaiting orders to attack. Pender’s four brigades faced the sector of Cemetery Ridge abandoned by Hancock to repel Anderson’s attack further south. Pender had been fatally wounded by long-range artillery fire as he waited for the order to advance. The division passed to Brigadier-General James Henry Lane, but he was reluctant to advance alone without positive orders. Hill, his corps commander, was far away, conferring with Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes. Lacking direction or an understanding of the battle, Lane decided not to attack.
The three hours of attacks came to an end with 22,000 Confederates managing to unsettle the 40,000 Union men they attacked but could not break them. The disjointed and delayed Confederate attack cost nearly 7,000 casualties and gained little ground and no tactical advantage. On the Union side, a series of resourceful and determined commanders, Warren and Hancock in particular, had responded to the sequence of threats and parried them with initiative and the timely movement and commitment of reserves. Throughout Longstreet’s attack, Meade fed in Union reinforcements continually and brigades or divisions from V Corps, VI Corps, I Corps, and XII Corps all arrived to plug gaps, exploiting interior lines to anticipate the next point of attack.
With Longstreet’s I Corps spent, the onus of attack passed to Ewell’s II Corps’ below Culp’s Hill. Ewell’s three divisions had occupied a concave line, Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes around Gettysburg with Major-General Jubal Anderson Early and then Major-General Edward Johnson’s fresh division to their left and forming the army’s flank. Ewell was expected to make a diversionary attack when Longstreet’s attack was audible, but he also had the discretion to develop it further if he felt he could take either or both Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill. If he could achieve that, he would dominate the Baltimore Pike and Taneytown Road and be in a good position to threaten the Union rear. When the guns could be heard from Longstreet’s sector, Ewell ordered six batteries to ascend Benner’s Hill, an isolated height one mile east of the town and half a mile northeast of Culp’s Hill across Rock Creek. The twenty-four guns deployed on open ground and opened fire at about 5 pm. They were outnumbered by Union artillery on the two higher hills and after an hour Major James Latimer was forced to abandon Benner’s Hill as being untenable. Four guns stayed in action to maintain a semblance of a diversion, but Latimer was mortally wounded, and all the batteries were badly reduced by counter-battery fire. Ewell gave the attack orders at 6pm and the three divisions moved forward at 7 pm. By this time, Meade had reduced the force on Culp’s Hill to strengthen his left. It was now held by the remnants of three divisions of XI Corps, one single brigade under Brigadier-General George Sears Greene (3/2/XII) from XII Corps, and the depleted 1st Division of I Corps. As the surrounding divisions were being drawn away to the south, Greene insisted on constructing strong defensive works.
The three Confederate divisions were thinly spread and separated by the town of Gettysburg and Rock Creek. On the far-left flank, three of Johnson’s Confederate brigades crossed the chest-deep Rock Creek and began to climb the steep northern and north-eastern faces of Culp’s Hill. Brigadier-General James A Walker’s Stonewall brigade was held back as a reserve. Only half an hour remained until nightfall for them to advance a mile uphill. As they reached the crest, the brigades of Colonel J M Williams (Nichol’s brigade) and Brigadier-General John Marshall Jones were stopped by heavy fire from the I Corps troops hidden behind breastworks. Further left, Brigadier-General George Hume Steuart made more progress over the undefended southern extremity of the hill. They overran an abandoned line of works and then came across Sears’ Union brigade behind another defensive position. The Union defence was determined and all the efforts of Steuart’s men were repelled for two hours until night had blanketed the landscape. When reinforcements arrived, the heavier Union fire forced the Confederates to melt back down the slope. Johnson’s attack had failed to seize the crest of Culp’s Hill.
In the centre, once he heard that Johnson was engaged, Early led two brigades under Brigadier-General Harry Thompson Hays and Colonel Isaac E Avery (Hoke’s Brigade) forward. Another of Early’s brigades (under Brigadier-General William Smith was posted as a flank guard to the east two miles down the York Pike. The fourth under Brigadier-General John Brown Gordon was in reserve. Hays advanced on the right with Avery on his left towards the step north-eastern face of Cemetery Hill. Avery fell mortally wounded very early in the attack but both brigades pressed on, surmounting three lines of Union infantry in strong positions behind stone walls and breastworks or in rifle pits. Short of the crest they broke through an abattis and headed for the summit. Union infantry and artillery fire were impaired by poor light and the need to shoot downhill at short range. The two Confederate brigades struck the demoralised men of Major-General Oliver Otis Howard’s XI Corps and broke them, taking prisoners cowering in the rifle pits. Hays’ men ascended the plateau and found that no supports or reinforcements were in sight to exploit their unexpectedly successful surge. Hays tried to establish a foothold on Cemetery Hill. Union Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames’ brigade (2/1/XI), now under Colonel Andrew L Harris, recovered quickly despite losing half of their men; they recaptured some artillery positions and then drove the Confederates off with help from Colonel Samuel Sprigg Carroll’s brigade (1/3/II) which appeared from the south when Hancock realised the impending danger. The arrival of further Union reinforcements from II Corps forced Hays’ and Avery’s brigades to withdraw down the hill in good order. Hays was furious because he had received no help either from Gordon’s brigade from reserve or Rodes’ division to his right even though he had gained the crucial heights. The Confederate command had vacillated at all levels. Early had withheld Gordon’s brigade when it was clear that Rodes was not advancing on his right. Rodes failed to move because Lane had not gone forward with Pender’s division to his right. Once Rodes heard the fighting on top of the hill he tried to get his division moving forward but they were not ready in their start positions in a sunken road southwest of the town and were slow to organise. When they were finally underway the firing had already subsided on Cemetery Hill. Early’s two brigades had already retreated, and it was clear to Rodes that a night attack would be futile.
The fighting petered out on Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill and the Confederate attacks on the Union left and right flanks, despite tantalising moments of missed opportunity, had been stopped. Lee had observed the action after giving his initial orders and barely intervened in the uncoordinated and clumsy development of his attack. He believed that good progress had been made and with “proper concert of action” it might have gained a victory. Lee began to plan how to achieve that coordination on the third day of the battle and how to use Pickett’s division, the ninth and last to arrive, when it reached his headquarters at about 6.30 pm. He did not meet with or summon his three corps commanders and considered his options alone. By midnight Lee had chosen his plan of attack for the morning and he sent orders for Ewell to resume his attack in the morning, reinforced by two brigades from Hill’s Corps and supported by massed artillery. Longstreet received no new orders and Pickett was not assigned to join this early advance with his fresh troops.
On the Union side, Meade held a council of war at his headquarters on the Taneytown Road at about 11 pm. He felt that his line had barely survived the day’s fierce attacks and it had been near to breaking on both his left and right flanks. Only the prompt insertion of reserves and reinforcements had averted disaster at several points. In response to the late attack on Culp’s Hill, he ordered Slocum to concentrate his XII Corps on the heights and to counter-attack at dawn. Meade contemplated a general withdrawal to the strong Pipe Creek line five miles to the south and the necessary orders were written and available for circulation if he chose to make that decision. Apart from Major-General Alfred Pleasonton of the Cavalry Corps, who was scouting the Pipe Creek line, all seven of the surviving corps commanders (Newton, Hancock, Birney, Sykes, Sedgwick, Howard and Slocum) attended the council of war, along with two senior divisional commanders (Gibbon of II Corps and Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams of XII Corps). Meade’s chief of staff Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield and Warren raised the number to twelve men when they convened at 11 pm. Meade proposed three matters: firstly, whether the army should stand or withdraw; secondly, if it stood, should it attack; and thirdly, if it did attack, when and where. Each officer responded in turn from the most junior to the most senior, beginning with Gibbon. All agreed that the army should not withdraw and that it should not attack either. At midnight, the Union leaders returned to prepare their men for another hot day’s fighting but Meade held back Gibbon, whose division manned Cemetery Ridge, and warned that his line would be the enemy objective in the morning. Lee had tried both flanks and failed, and Meade assured him that he would now try the centre.
Union Brigadier-General Stephen Hinsdale Weed was killed and Union Brigadier-General Samuel Kosciuszko Zook was mortally wounded on the second day at Gettysburg. Confederate Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes was mortally wounded, and Brigadier-General William Barksdale was killed.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Estil (or Estill) Springs

Tennessee. Skirmishes at Bethpage Bridge, Rock Creek Ford, Jones’ Ford, Morris’ Ford, and Kelly’s Ford on the Elk River.

Tennessee. Skirmishes at Pelham and Elk River Bridge.

Tennessee. The Confederate Army of Tennessee occupied temporary positions at Cowan, south of the Elk River, after retreating from Tullahoma.

Virginia. Skirmish at Bottom’s Bridge.

Virginia. USS Samuel Rotan, Acting Lieutenant William W Kennison, seized the schooner Champion off the Piankatank River.

Baltimore Cross Roads, Virginia, also known as Crump’s Cross Roads, Crump’s Store or Baltimore Store. Union Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes and 6,000 men of IV Corps were encamped at Bottom’s Bridge on the Chickahominy. In the morning Keyes withdrew along the New Kent Road to Baltimore Cross Roads to guard against attacks from his flank or rear. Colonel Robert Mayhew West, commanding the advance guard of three regiments on the outward march, became the rearguard covering the withdrawal of brigades under Brigadier-General Henry Dwight Terry (1/1/IV) and Colonel B Porter. West was attacked at sunset and fought a delaying action back to the crossroads. Porter’s brigade provided support. The Confederates under Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill broke off the action before contacting Keyes’ main force. The failure of Keyes’ command to accomplish an effective diversion would result in 20,000 apparently idle Union troops being transferred from Major-General John Adams Dix’s Department of Virginia to Washington DC, in order for them to be employed more usefully elsewhere.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Beverly between Confederate Brigadier-General William Lowther Jackson and Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell.

Union Organisation

USA: The Army of the Kanawha was established in the Department of West Virginia.
USA: Brigadier-General George Crook assumed command of the Army of the Kanawha.

USA: Major-General George Gordon Meade resumed direct field command of the Army of the Potomac, succeeding Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock who had exercised temporary field command.

USA: Major-General John Newton assumed command of I Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Abner Doubleday.

USA: Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock resumed command of II Corps (Potomac), succeeding Brigadier-General John Gibbon.

USA: Brigadier-General David Bell Birney assumed temporary command of III Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Daniel Edgar Sickles.

USA: Strong Vincent was promoted Brigadier-General USV 2 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863 posthumously unconfirmed.

USA: Colonel Strong Vincent (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

USA: Brigadier-General (unconfirmed) Stephen Hinsdale Weed was killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

USA: Brigadier-General Samuel Kosciuszko Zook was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

USA: Brigadier-General Charles Kinnaird Graham was captured at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
    • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
  • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

  • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
  • District of Southeast Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
  • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron

Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
  • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
  • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
  • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully

Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Central Kentucky: Samuel Davis Sturgis
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
  • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
  • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • I Corps Potomac: John Newton
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • III Corps Potomac: David Bell Birney temporary
    • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
  • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General William Dorsey Pender was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

CSA: Brigadier-General William Barksdale was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

CSA: Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Department of East Tennessee: William Preston temporary
    • District of Abingdon: William Preston
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
    • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
    • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
    • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
    • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French temporary

  • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Philip Noland Luckett temporary
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead
  • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton
John Buford

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker

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