1863 July 1st

July 1 1863 Wednesday

Battle of Gettysburg, PA

Carlisle, PA

Vicksburg Campaign – Siege of Vicksburg

Gettysburg Campaign

Siege of Port Hudson

Stuart’s Third Ride in Pennsylvania

Taylor’s Expedition to the Mississippi

Tullahoma Campaign

Alabama. James M Tindel of Mobile proposed a scheme to the Confederate Secretary of State Judah Philip Benjamin to capture Pacific Mail Steamers. These were Union ships trading along the west coast. The proposed expedition of 125 men would proceed first to Matamoras and then divide. One group would travel overland to San Francisco in an attempt to capture one of the steamers sailing to and from the Isthmus of Panama. The other group sail aboard a neutral vessel from a port near Aspinwall in Panama, to make a similar attempt on the steamer sailing from that port. The Confederates recognised that such a mission would cause disrupt shipping in the area and expose the vulnerability of the Pacific Coast to attack. The Union Navy had already strengthened its Pacific Squadron in previous six months and the Confederate plans were can cancelled.

Arkansas. Expedition to Helena began.

Arkansas. Confederate Major-General Sterling Price’s expedition left Cotton Plant and Clarendon and began the fifty-mile approach march towards Helena, a Mississippi River port town at the terminus of Crowley’s Ridge and ringed by steep hills cut by heavily thicketed ravines. Union Major-General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss, in command of the District of Eastern Arkansas, had his headquarters at Helena. Helena had become a major Union supply depot on the Mississippi River, supporting the campaign further south at Vicksburg Although Prentiss commanded about 20,000 troops throughout the district, only one division under Brigadier-General Frederick Sigel Salomon from XIII Corps occupied the defences of Helena. Four artillery batteries with breastworks and rifle pits were placed in a semicircle around the town. The USS Tyler, a timber-clad gunboat, was also assigned to support the garrison.

California. James M Tindel proposed to Confederate Secretary of State Judah Philip Benjamin a plan to capture Pacific Mail Steamers, the Union ships carrying on an active trade along the west coast. The expedition would proceed first to Matamoras. There the expedition would be divided, with one group travelling overland to San Francisco to capture one of the steamers plying between that port and the Panama Canal. The other group would sail in a neutral vessel from Aspinwall (Panama), to make a similar attempt on a steamer sailing from that port. The Confederates hoped that the mission would disrupt shipping in the area but the US Navy had already strengthened its Pacific Squadron and the Confederate plans could not be implemented.

Indian Territory. Skirmish at Cabin Creek involving Confederate Colonel Stand Watie.

Kentucky. Confederate riders captured and burned a passenger train on the Louisville & Lexington Railroad at Christiansburg.

Mississippi. Expedition to Greenville and Snyder’s Bluff ended.

Mississippi. Skirmishes at the Big Black River, Hankinson’s Ferry, and Edwards Station.

Mississippi. During the evening Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston reached Brownsville on his way from Canton to relieve the siege of Vicksburg. The advance guard reached the Big Black River and spent two days in reconnaissance of the strong defences built by the Union covering forces of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman.

Mississippi. Union miners had worked to dig a new mine under the Confederate fortifications to the south from the crater left by the mine explosion on 25 June. The mine was eventually detonated on 1 July but no infantry attack followed the explosion to charge the breach.

Missouri. Operation at Pink Hill and Sibley ended.

Pennsylvania. Union Major-General George Gordon Meade began to lay out defensive positions south of Pipe Creek, near Taneytown. This would either become the army’s next position or would serve as a rallying point in the event of a retreat. He advised all his corps commanders that if they were attacked they could use their discretion to retreat to the Pipe Creek line. This was a major change to the aggressive intentions that he had expressed when he first took command of the army. Meade prepared to move his headquarters from Taneytown to the Pipe Creek line when he heard from Major-General John Fulton Reynolds that he had been engaged by a large number of Confederates twelve miles to the north at Gettysburg.

Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The head of Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart’s seventeen-mile long column arrived in Dover at 2 am with the rear guard arriving by 8 am. Stuart was in search of the Confederate II Corps but at Salem, he had learned that Major-General Jubal Anderson Early’s division had already passed through Dover and was heading westward towards Shippensburg. Stuart changed course and headed northward through the night along winding, hilly country roads, still trying to locate Early or Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell, thinking the latter was still near the Susquehanna River. He also found that the Confederates were no longer at York, six miles away, and had left two days earlier. Stuart paroled over 200 Union prisoners and gave his troopers a much needed six-hour rest. Stuart resumed his exhausting march towards Carlisle through the afternoon and early evening, seizing over 1,000 fresh horses from York County farms. Leaving Brigadier-General Wade Hampton’s brigade and the wagons at Dillsburg, Stuart headed with the other two brigades for Carlisle, hoping to find Ewell. Instead, Stuart found nearly 3,000 Pennsylvania and New York militia occupying the borough. His own cavalry was too exhausted to attack immediately. He demanded the surrender of the town or the evacuation of non-combatants. Union Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith dismissed the request. Stuart opened fire with one battery and the historic Union cavalry camp of instruction at Carlisle Barracks was burned. After nightfall, two couriers sent by General Robert Edward Lee found Stuart and informed him that the Confederate army was located at Gettysburg.

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Around 5 am, two brigades of Confederate Major-General Henry Heth’s division advanced towards Gettysburg from Cashtown. Union Brigadier-General John Buford recognised the significance of Gettysburg as a centre of the road network and organised his outnumbered cavalry to defend the approaches on three ridges west of Gettysburg: Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge, and Seminary Ridge. These offered good terrain for a delaying action by his small cavalry division against Confederate infantry forces. Buford’s aim was to buy time for the arrival of Union infantrymen from Major-General John Fulton Reynolds’ I Corps who could occupy the strong defensive positions south of the town at Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, and Culp’s Hill. Buford understood that if the Confederates gained control of these dominant heights, Major-General George Gordon Meade’s army would have difficulty dislodging them.

Heth’s division advanced with two brigades forward commanded by Brigadier-General James Jay Archer and Brigadier-General Joseph Robert Davis. They marched eastwards along the Chambersburg Pike. Three miles west of the town, at about 7:30 am, Archer’s brigade met light resistance from videttes of Union cavalry and deployed into line. Eventually, Heth’s men encountered the dismounted troopers of Colonel William Gamble’s cavalry brigade, who offered determined resistance from behind fence posts, generating heavy fire from their breech-loading carbines. By 8 am, the Confederates were under fire from six Union guns from a ridge about three-quarters of a mile further ahead. Confederate guns deployed and replied while the Confederates formed skirmish lines and advanced. Davis’ brigade was called up and deployed in support north of the turnpike. Reynolds joined Buford at the Lutheran Seminary at about 8.30 am and Reynolds agreed with Buford’s assessment that the cavalry should delay the Confederates long enough for Reynolds’ infantry to arrive and to occupy the key high ground. Reynolds sent for his own corps to increase its pace and also sent for Major-General Oliver Otis Howard to bring up XI Corps and Major-General Daniel Edgar Sickles to march to Gettysburg with his III Corps. More importantly, he advised Meade that he was facing an enemy in great strength and that he would hold the dominant high ground southeast of the town of Gettysburg.

Heavier fighting began at about 10 am and the cavalrymen held off piecemeal attacks by Heth’s division against Herr Ridge. By 10:20 am the Confederates had pushed the Union cavalrymen east to McPherson’s Ridge but the vanguard of Reynolds’ I Union Corps also began to arrive. Reynolds brought Brigadier-James Samuel Wadsworth’s division (1/I) from the Emmitsburg Road, cross-country to McPherson’s Ridge. The so-called Iron Brigade under Brigadier-General Solomon Meredith (1/1/I) went to the wooded ridge south of the turnpike and the other under Brigadier-General Lysander Cutler (2/1/I) went north of the turnpike. While General Reynolds was directing troop and artillery placements just to the east of the woods, he was shot by a sharpshooter and died instantly. Major-General Abner Doubleday assumed command of I Corps.

Heth applied more pressure and Archer’s brigade assaulted south of the pike through Herbst (also known as McPherson’s) Woods. Meredith’s Union Iron Brigade beat Archer to the crest of McPherson’s Ridge. They opened fire at close range as the Confederates laboured up the wooded ridge. Archer’s troops fell back down the ridge and across Willoughby Run at the foot, where they were struck by 24th Michigan Infantry on their southern flank. The attack captured 75 men, including Archer himself, the first Confederate general officer captured since General Robert Edward Lee assumed command of the Army over a year earlier. North of the turnpike Davis’ inexperienced brigade gained a temporary success against Cutler’s brigade. They made good progress, but part of the brigade was funnelled along an unfinished railroad bed passing through the ridge. Unable to fire up or out of the cutting the 2nd Mississippi Infantry and 42nd Mississippi Infantry were surrounded by troops sent from the south and 250 were captured. The remainder of Davis’ brigade fled westwards, leaving half of his comparatively green soldiers as casualties or prisoners.

Fighting in the Chambersburg Pike area lasted until about 12:30 pm and resumed around 2:30 pm, when Heth’s entire division engaged, adding the brigades of Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew and Colonel John M Brockenbrough. As Pettigrew’s brigade entered the action, they outflanked the 19th Indiana Infantry and drove the Iron Brigade back. The green 26th North Carolina Infantry (the largest regiment in the army with 839 inexperienced men) lost heavily, leaving the first day’s fight with only 212 men. Two companies of the regiment emerged with 2 men not hit and still standing out of 174. Slowly the Iron Brigade was pushed out of the woods toward Seminary Ridge. On the Union side, the divisions of Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson (2/I) and Major-General Abner Doubleday (3/I) entered the expanding battle.

Riding far ahead of his XI Corps, Union Major-General Oliver Otis Howard reached the field and found he was the senior officer after Reynolds’ death. He took control of the Union defence, strengthened I Corps along McPherson’s Ridge, and prepared to add his own XI Corps to the engagement.

Confederate Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill added Major-General William Dorsey Pender’s division to the assault and the Union I Corps was driven back through the grounds of the Lutheran Seminary and towards Gettysburg. Fighting died down around noon as the Union army consolidated its defences and the Confederates prepared for a further attack. While the fighting to the west of Gettysburg grew in scale, two divisions of Confederate Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s II Corps were marching towards Cashtown in accordance with Lee’s order for the army to concentrate in that vicinity. At Middletown, he heard from Hill that he was aiming for Gettysburg, so Ewell diverted course southwards on the Carlisle Road toward Gettysburg. This new threat to the two Union Corps at Gettysburg was significant and Howard urged Major-General Henry Warner Slocum (XII Corps) and Sickles (III Corps), still five and twelve miles away respectively, to march to Gettysburg with all speed. Around 2 pm, the Confederate II Corps division of Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes began arriving north of Gettysburg from Carlisle. Fortuitously, Major-General Jubal Anderson Early’s division was arriving from York further to the east about the same time. Rodes marched vigorously towards the sound of gunfire. Some miles behind Rodes, Major-General Edward Johnson continued towards Cashtown rather than Gettysburg, in order to protect the Corps supply trains.

At about 1.30 pm, Rodes’ division advanced around the flanks of Oak Hill and increased his pace to hit the exposed Union flank.

The Union XI Corps had begun to arrive on the Taneytown Road between noon and 1 pm but instead of reinforcing the western front along the Chambersburg Turnpike, Howard was forced to send it north of Gettysburg to oppose Rodes’ advance which already threatened the right flank of I Corps. One division of XI Corps was placed on the dominating Cemetery Hill south-east of the town but the other two divisions marched through the town to extend the right flank north of Gettysburg, at right angle to the line of I Corps. They were joined by two of Doubleday’s brigades. The Union line was trying to form a semicircle west, north, and northeast of Gettysburg but did not have enough troops for the entire length of their line; Cutler, who was north of the Chambersburg Pike, had his right flank in the air in the direction of Oak Hill, a dominant height a mile north of the Chambersburg Pike. The leftmost division of the XI Corps was unable to deploy in time to connect properly to Cutler so Doubleday was forced to move his I Corps reserve to fill the line. Rodes moved one brigade against the arriving Union force north of the town, kept one in reserve and sent three brigades angling towards the Union flank on McPherson’s Ridge and Seminary Ridge. By 2 am they were in battle formation and moved forward to attack. The right-hand brigade of Colonel Edward Asbury O’Neal stalled quickly with heavy losses and the left brigade drifted wide. The centre brigade under Brigadier-General Alfred Iverson pressed on alone but was halted by Union troops who emerged to fire from behind a stone wall. This surprise flanking fire reduced the brigade to half-strength in a matter of minutes. Iverson panicked and reported that an entire regiment had surrendered. Rodes realised that his precipitate attack, rushed forward without a reconnaissance had got his division into a difficult fight. At this point, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee arrived on the field, having heard gunfire at his headquarters in Chambersburg. Hill could not explain what was happening, saying only that Heth’s division had been heavily engaged but had fallen back to reform; Pender’s division was formed up ready to attack and Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s third division of III Corps was marching to the guns.

At about 2.20 pm, Lee reached the front and saw the results of Heth’s failed attack. Lee had wanted to avoid a general engagement and he denied permission to Heth or Hill to resume his advance while his army was still groping for the enemy with insufficient cavalry. However, he soon saw Rodes’ reserve brigade going into action to the far left. It dislodged the Union line behind the stone wall and joined the left-hand brigade in penetrating a quarter-mile gap in the Union line. Just as Rodes probed forward, Early’s division was spotted beyond his line, as it deployed on the York Pike. Blind chance had provided a perfect opportunity and the Union right flank, held by the unlucky XI Corps, began to disintegrate.

Finding more than a third of his army already involved and in an unplanned but advantageous situation, Lee decided that he had to concentrate his full strength at Gettysburg. He ordered Hill to send forward Heth’s and Pender’s divisions to exploit the success on the left. They took McPherson’s Ridge but Heth was wounded in the attack, as also was Meredith on the Union side. One of Meredith’s Iron Brigade regiments, the 24th Michigan Infantry, was left with 97 men out of its original 496. The brigade lost a third of its strength in ferocious fighting as it withdrew to Seminary Ridge. Pender’s fresh division surged up Seminary Ridge and broke the Union resistance.

Northeast of Gettysburg Early’s division profited from a blunder made by Brigadier-General Francis Channing Barlow when he advanced his division (1/XI) to Blocher’s Knoll and this his point became an exposed salient in the XI Corps line, susceptible to attack from many sides. Early’s troops quickly overran Barlow’s division, which constituted the right flank of the Union Army. Barlow was wounded and captured in the attack while brigade commander Brigadier-General Alexander Schimmelfennig was forced to hide in a woodshed behind Confederate lines for three days. The collapse of XI Corps accelerated and quickly exposed the right flank of I Corps on Seminary Ridge. Doubleday was forced to withdraw I Corps from its untenable position.

As Union positions collapsed both north and west of town, Howard ordered a retreat to the high ground south of town at Cemetery Hill, where he had left the division of Brigadier-General Adolph Wilhelm August Frederick von Steinwehr (2/XI) as a last reserve. The broken parts of the Union I Corps and XI Corps poured through Gettysburg and around it to reach the security of the heights.

Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill, and the rocky saddle between them rose almost a hundred feet above the plain to the southeast of Gettysburg and offered a perfect defensive position on which the Union troops could rally and make a stand. Lee understood the defensive value to the Union if they held this high ground. He asked Hill whether he could take it but Hill declined as his two divisions were fought to a standstill and had run out of ammunition. Anderson’s division would not arrive before dusk. Unable to asses the state of Ewell’s troops in person, Lee sent discretionary orders at 4.30 pm to Ewell that Cemetery Hill should be taken “if he found practicable.” Lee was still ignorant of the Union army’s location and added in his orders to Ewell and Hill that they should avoid any wider engagement until Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s I Corps could arrive.

Longstreet arrived in person in the late afternoon and reported that his troops would not arrive until the following day. They had marked time at Cashtown while Johnson’s division of II Corps arrived and took over the head of the column. Longstreet surveyed the field and suggested that the ground offered a chance to move around the Union flank towards Washington until the army could adopt a strong defensive position and gain the much-needed victory. Lee was reluctant and unwilling to make such a dangerous disengagement without cavalry reconnaissance. He proposed to remain in position and to complete the successful attacks already begun at Gettysburg.

When Lee’s message reached Ewell, he consulted with Rodes and Early. They felt that they could make the attack but only if assisted by an advance Hill from the west. Lee responded that Hill could only add long-range artillery support, but no forward movement could be expected. By 5.30 pm even the artillery fire had subsided, and the Confederate army remained in place while retreating Union troops reached the heights, regained their nerve and began to dig in vigorously.

At 7 pm, Lee rode to meet Ewell to assess the prospects of an attack before darkness fell. Ewell had decided that an assault was impracticable in the darkening light and did not attempt it. Protestations by Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble, who was acting as a volunteer aide to Ewell while recuperating from wounds, did not sway the decision.

During the evening, a courier reached Lee from his chief of cavalry, Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart. Lee sent word for Stuart to cover the thirty miles to rejoin the army with his cavalry as quickly as possible, but realised that they could not be expected until the following day.

Further south, Meade was still preparing his defences at along Pipe Creek and was largely oblivious to the scale of the fight developing at Gettysburg. During the afternoon a newspaper correspondent arrived with news of the doubtful conflict and the death of Reynolds. A despatch from Howard confirmed the story at 2 pm and included the calls for Slocum and Sickles to reinforce the Union troops at Gettysburg. This would mean that over half of the army was already committed to battle at Gettysburg and the plans to stand at Pipe Creek were no longer applicable. A note timed at 3.20 pm came from Buford, estimating that two-thirds of the Confederate army was in action and threatening to break the Union line. The Union II Corps had been at Taneytown since noon. Meade told Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock to hand II Corps over to his senior divisional commander and to ride immediately to Gettysburg. Hancock was given plenipotentiary powers, with instructions to organise the defence. Meade assured him that he was to take command on the field although outranked by other officers already there. Most importantly he was to recommend whether this was an advantageous place to bring on a general engagement. Meade remained with the main body of the army near Pipe Creek. Hancock reached Cemetery Hill at 4 pm to find much of the army in disastrous retreat and fewer than 7,000 unbroken troops available to hold the heights. He examined the ground with Howard and the army’s Chief Engineer Officer, Brigadier-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren. Howard disputed Hancock’s authority briefly, but both agreed that this was a good place to fight. Hancock sent a message to Meade that he could hold till nightfall and that the position would be suitable for the army to defend. Hancock’s strong fighting reputation, military bearing, and decisiveness brought a new spirit and conviction to the demoralised army and efforts were redoubled to rally and fortify the hills. He ordered the line extended to protect Cemetery Hill and placed troops partway down the hill behind stone walls, as a show of strength. A battery was deployed across Baltimore Pike, where the direct from Gettysburg ascended the hill. Hancock ordered its commander to hold that position at all costs. There were insufficient troops to extend the line to Culp’s Hill and only one of Doubleday’s regiment could be spared to occupy the summit. Since Doubleday’s forces had lost so many casualties, Doubleday decided to place Wadsworth’s division, now no larger than a small brigade, on the rocky hilltop.

Wadsworth’s remnants did not have to hold for long because the head of Slocum’s XII Corps soon began to arrive south of Culp’s Hill and camped on the Baltimore Pike. Slocum was at the rear of the column, fulfilling an over-inflated role as “wing commander” so, at about 5 pm, Hancock intervened and ordered Brigadier-General John White Geary to take his division (2/XII) to the south where it would occupy Little Round Top, a commanding eminence guarding the army’s left flank. More troops arrived during the evening.

Sickles arrived at about 6 pm and deployed one of his two divisions of III Corps on Cemetery Ridge behind Doubleday’s and Howard’s remnants. When Sickles second division arrived overnight, along with Hancock’s three, they would extend this line southwards along Cemetery Ridge.

Slocum arrived finally at 7 pm and Hancock conceded command of the field to him by reason of seniority. Hancock rode back to Taneytown to give an account of the situation and to argue for the army to be concentrated at Gettysburg. He arrived at 9.30 pm to find that Meade had already decided to abandon the Pipe Creek project and to follow his recommendations. Orders had already been issued to II Corps, V Corps, and VI Corps to head with all haste to Gettysburg. By this time about one-quarter of Meade’s army (22,000 men) and one-third of Lee’s army (27,000) were already committed to the unplanned action. The day’s fighting definitely favoured the Confederates, who had taken over 4,000 prisoners. This success emboldened Lee to persist with the battle and not to withdraw overnight, which would concede the advantages already gained. Casualties during the day were about 8,000 for the Confederates and 9,000 for the Union.

Union Major-General John Fulton Reynolds was killed at Gettysburg. Confederate Brigadier-General James Jay Archer was captured at Gettysburg.

ORDER OF BATTLE: GETTYSBURG, PA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
I Corps (Potomac) Major-General John F Reynolds
1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Samuel Wadsworth
1st Brigade “Iron Brigade”, 1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Solomon Meredith
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Lysander Cutler
2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Gabriel Rene Paul
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Baxter
3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Major-General Abner Doubleday
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Algeo Rowley
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel Roy Stone
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Jefferson Stannard
II Corps (Potomac): Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Edward E Cross
2nd Brigade “Irish Brigade”, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Patrick Kelly
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Kosciusko Zook
4th Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Rutter Brooke
2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Gibbon
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Harrow
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Stewart Webb
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Norman Jonathan Hall
3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Hays
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Samuel Sprigg Carroll
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Alfred Smyth
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel George L Willard
III Corps (Potomac): Major-General Daniel Edgar Sickles
1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Major-General David Bell Birney
1st Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Kinnaird Graham
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Henry Hobart Ward
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Philippe Régis Dénis De Keredern De Trobriand
2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Bradford Carr
2nd Brigade “Excelsior Brigade”, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel William R Brewster
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Samuel Bowman
3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Washington Lafayette Elliott (Division detached to Maryland Heights)
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Hopkins Morris
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Warren Keifer
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Benjamin Franklin Smith
V Corps (Potomac): Major-General George Sykes
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Barnes
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel William Stowell Tilton
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Jacob Bowman Sweitzer
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Strong Vincent
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Romeyn Beck Ayres
1st Regular Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Hannibal Day
2nd Regular Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Sidney Burbank
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Stephen Hinsdale Weed
3rd “Pennsylvania Reserve” Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford
1st Brigade, 3rd “Pennsylvania Reserve” Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel William McCandless
3rd Brigade, 3rd “Pennsylvania Reserve” Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Washington Fisher
VI Corps (Potomac): Major-General John Sedgwick
1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Jackson Bartlett
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Allen Russell
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Albion Parris Howe
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Lewis Addison Grant
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Hewson Neill
3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Newton
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Shaler
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Henry Lawrence Eustis
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton
XI Corps (Potomac): Major-General Oliver Otis Howard
1st Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Francis Channing Barlow
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Leopold Von Gilsa
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames
2nd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Adolf Wilhelm August Frederick von Steinwehr
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Charles L Coster
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Orland Smith
3rd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Major-General Carl Schurz
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Schimmelfennig
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Wladimir Bonaventura Krzyzanowski
XII Corps (Potomac): Major-General Henry Warner Slocum
1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Colonel Archibald L McDougall
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Hayes Lockwood
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger
2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John White Geary
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Colonel Charles Candy
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Colonel George Ashworth Cobham
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sears Greene
Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Major-General Alfred Pleasonton
1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Buford
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel William Gamble
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin
Reserve Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt
2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Baillie McIntosh
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Pennock Huey
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac) Colonel John Irvin Gregg
3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Elon John Farnsworth
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer
Reserve Artillery (Potomac): Brigadier-General Robert Ogden Tyler

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
I Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General James Longstreet
McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Semmes’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes
Barksdale’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Barksdale
Wofford’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Tatum Wofford
Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General George Edward Pickett
Garnett’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Richard Brooke Garnett
Armistead’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead
Kemper’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper
Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General John Bell Hood
Anderson’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Thomas Anderson
Law’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Evander McIvor Law
Robertson’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Benning’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning
II Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell (Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble supernumerary)
Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Jubal Anderson Early
Hays’ Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Harry Thompson Hays
Smith’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Smith
Hoke’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Isaac Erwin Avery
Gordon’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Brown Gordon
Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Edward Johnson
Steuart’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Hume Steuart
Walker’s “Stonewall Brigade”, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Alexander Walker
Jones’ Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Marshall Jones
Nicholls’ Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Jesse Milton Williams
Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes
Daniel’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Junius Daniel
Doles’ Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Pierce Doles
Iverson’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Alfred Iverson
Ramseur’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Rodes’ Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Edward Asbury O’Neal
III Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Richard Heron Anderson
Wilcox’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Mahone’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Mahone
Wright’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright
Posey’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Carnot Posey
Perry’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel David Lang
Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Henry Heth
Pettigrew’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew
Archer’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Jay Archer
Davis’ Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Robert Davis
Field’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel John Mercer Brockenbrough
Pender’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General William Dorsey Pender
Lane’s Brigade, Pender’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Henry Lane
Thomas’ Brigade, Pender’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Lloyd Thomas
Scales’ Brigade, Pender’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Alfred Moore Scales
McGowan’s Brigade, Pender’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Abner Monroe Perrin
Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart
Hampton’s Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Wade Hampton
Robertson’s Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Beverly Holcombe Robertson
Fitzhugh Lee’s Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee
Jenkins’ Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Albert Gallatin Jenkins
W H F Lee’s Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
Jones’ Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Edmondson Jones
Imboden’s Command (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden

Tennessee. Skirmish near Bethpage Bridge on the Elk River.

Tennessee. Skirmishes at Manchester and Bob’s (or Bobo’s) Cross Roads.

Tennessee. Union Major-General William Stearns Rosecrans requested gunboat assistance from Captain Alexander Moseley Pennock USN at Cairo, Illinois, to support his operations on the Tennessee River. The Confederates repeatedly established bases along the river to disrupt traffic. The Union Navy had stationed several gunboats on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to frustrate such moves and to guard the army’s line of communications.

Tennessee. Union Major-General William Stearns Rosecrans’s Army of the Cumberland occupied Tullahoma after its evacuation by the Confederates.

Tennessee. The Confederate Army of Tennessee reached Decherd on its retreat from Tullahoma. Confederate General Braxton Bragg consulted his two corps commanders whether the army should stand and fight below the Elk River or further south at the foot of the mountains at Cowan. Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk and Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee both recommended a stand at the mountain. The Cowan position proved to be indefensible and the army remained there only until the evening of 2nd July.

Virginia. Union expedition to White House, Bottom’s Bridge, and South Anna River began.

Virginia. Skirmish at Baltimore Cross Roads.

Virginia. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis decided that the obstructions in the James River below Richmond should not be opened for the steam ironclad CSS Richmond to attack Union shipping until a second ironclad was ready.

Virginia. To support Brigadier-General George Washington Getty’s advance to the South Anna Bridge and in order to threaten Richmond during the Gettysburg Campaign, Union Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes led 6,000 men of IV Corps up the Yorktown peninsula towards Bottom’s Bridge on the Chickahominy River. After a tiring all-day march over muddy roads, the Union forces made contact with Confederate troops gathered by Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill near Baltimore Cross Roads and bivouacked overnight at Bottom’s Bridge.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Oliver Otis Howard assumed field command of the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg until the arrival of Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock, deputising for Major-General George Gordon Meade. Meade retained actual command of the Army of the Potomac.

USA: Major-General Oliver Otis Howard later resumed command of XI Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Carl Schurz.

Howard, Oliver Otis / Maine / Born 8 November 1830 Leeds, Maine / Died Burlington, Vermont 26 October 1909
USMA 1 July 1854 4/46 Ordnance / Cadet USMA 1 September 1850 / Ordnance 1 July 1854 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 February 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1857 / Colonel USV 3rd Maine Infantry 4 June 1861 / Resigned USA 7 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 3 September 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 11 May 1865 to rank from 21 December 1864 / Mustered Out USV 1 January 1869 / Superintendent of USMA 21 June 1881-1 September 1882 / Major-General USA 19 March 1886 / Retired USA 8 November 1894 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1854 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Medal of Honor 1 June 1862 / WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 WIA Pickett’s Mill 27 May 1864
3rd Brigade 3rd Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-August 1861 / Howard’s Brigade Army of the Potomac August 1861-25 November 1861 / 1st Brigade Sumner’s Division Army of the Potomac 25 November 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-1 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 27 August 1862-17 September 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 17 September 1862-26 January 1863 / II Corps Potomac 26 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 7 February 1863-1 April 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 2 April 1863-25 September 1863 / XI Corps Cumberland 25 September 1863-21 January 1864 / XI Corps Cumberland 25 February 1864-10 April 1864 / IV Corps Cumberland 10 April 1864-27 July 1864 / Department of the Tennessee 27 July 1864-28 November 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 25 July 1864-18 May 1865

USA: Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock assumed field command of the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg until  the arrival of Major-General George Gordon Meade, succeeding Major-General Oliver Otis Howard, and deputising for Major-General George Gordon Meade. Despite Hancock being junior to Howard, Howard conceded to the orders from Meade giving Hancock effective field command. Meade retained actual command of the Army of the Potomac.

Hancock, Winfield Scott / Pennsylvania / Born 14 February 1824 Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania / Died Governor’s Island, New York 9 February 1886
USMA 1 July 1840 18/25 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 6th US Infantry 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 30 June 1848-1 October 1849 / Regt Adjutant 1 October 1849-7 November 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 27 June 1853 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 7 November 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 23 September 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Major USA Assistant Quartermaster 30 November 1863 / Brigadier-General USA 12 August 1864 / Mustered Out USV 26 July 1866 / Major-General USA 26 July 1866 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863
3rd Brigade SW F Smith’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 1 March 1862-18 May 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-17 September 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1862-24 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 20 February 1863-22 May 1863 / II Corps Potomac 22 May 1863-1 July 1863 / II Corps Potomac 2 July 1863-3 July 1863 / II Corps Potomac 24 March 1864-118 July 1864 / II Corps Potomac 27 June 1864-26 November 1864 / I Veteran Reserve Corps 27 November 1864-27 February 1864 / Department of West Virginia 28 February 1865-1 March 1865 / Middle Military Division 27 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of West Virginia 8 March 1865-20 March 1865 / Army of the Shenandoah 7 March 1865-18 April 1865 / Department of West Virginia 22 March 1865-22 April 1865 / Middle Department 27 June 1865-8 August 1865 / Middle Department 6 September 1863-23 October 1865 / Middle Department13 November 1865-21 December 1865 / Middle Department 29 December 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of the Missouri 6 August 1866-19 August 1867 / Fifth Military District 27 August 1867-16 March 1868 / Military Division of the Atlantic 28 March 1868-29 March 1869

USA: Major-General Abner Doubleday assumed temporary command of I Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General John Fulton Reynolds.

Doubleday, Abner / New York / Born 26 June 1819 Ballston Spa, New York / Died Mendham, New Jersey 26 January 1893
USMA 1 July 1842 24/56 Artillery-Infantry / Cadet USMA USA 1 July 1838 /3rd US Artillery 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 4 February 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / Major USA 17th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 February 1862 to rank from 3 February 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 17th US Infantry 20 September 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Colonel USA 35th US Infantry 15 September 1867 / 24th US Infantry 15 December 1870 / Retired USA 11 December 1873 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 17 September 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 2 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
Chief of Artillery Department of Pennsylvania 18 June 1861-19 July 1861 / Chief of Artillery Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Defences North of the Potomac Military District of Washington March 1862-6 May 1862 / Doubleday’s Brigade Department of the Rappahannock 6 May 1862-26 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-30 August 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia 30 August 1862-12 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-14 September 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 14 September 1862-22 December 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 22 December 1862-28 December 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 2 January 1863-4 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 4 January 1863-18 January 1863 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 18 January 1863-3 February 1863 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 5 February 1863-30 June 1863 / I Corps Potomac 12 June 1863-16 June 1863 / I Corps Potomac 25 June 1863-29 June 1863 / I Corps Potomac 30 June 1863-2 July 1863 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 18863-11 July 1863 / Defences South of the Eastern Branch Department of Washington 12 July 1864-16 July 1864

USA: Brigadier-General John Gibbon assumed temporary command of II Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock.

Gibbon, John / Pennsylvania-North Carolina / Born 20 April 1827 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Baltimore, Maryland 6 February 1896
USMA 1 July 1847 20/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant 4th US Artillery 13 September 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 12 September 1850 / Captain USA 2 November 1859 / Brigadier-General USV 3 May 1862 to rank from 2 May 1862 / Major-General USV 7 June 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 36th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 7th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Brigadier-General USA 10 July 1885 / Retired USA 20 April 1891 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1847 Brevet Major USA 17 September 1862 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 December 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 4 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 WIA Big Hole Pass, Montana 9 August 1877
3rd Brigade 3rd Division Department of the Rappahannock 7 May 1862-26 June 1862 / 4th Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 4th Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-5 November 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 5 November 1862-13 December 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 11 April 1863-1 July 1863 / II Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-2 July 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 1863-4 July 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 21 December 1863-31 July 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 22 August 1864-4 September 1864 /XVIII Corps James 4 September 1864-22 September 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 September 1864-8 October 1864 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 19 October 1864-23 December 1864 / XXIV Corps James 15 January 1865-27 April 1865 / XXIV Corps James 17 May 1865-8 July 1865

USA: Major-General Carl Schurz assumed temporary command of XI Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Oliver Otis Howard.

Schurz, Carl / Germany / Born 2 March 1829 Liblar-am-Rhein, Prussia / Died New York, New York 14 May 1906
Lieutenant Prussian Army 1848 / Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1862 to rank from 15 April 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863 / Resigned USV 6 May 1865
3rd Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-19 January 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 19 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 45 February 1863-5 March 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 5 March 1863-2 April 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 Aril 1863-25 September 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-1 July 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-21 January 1864 / XI Corps Cumberland 21 January 1864-25 February 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of Georgia 1 April 1865-27 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Middle Military Division 27 April 1865-6 May 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams assumed temporary command of XII Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Henry Warner Slocum.

Williams, Alpheus Starkey / Connecticut / Born 20 September 1810 Saybrook, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 21 December 1878
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1st Michigan Infantry 8 December 1847 / Mustered Out USV 29 July 1848 / Brigadier-General Michigan Militia 24 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Mustered out USV 15 January 1866 / WIA New Hope Church 26 May 1864
1st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 18 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1st Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-4 September 1862 / II Corps Virginia 4 September 1862-12 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 12 September 1862 – 15 September 1862 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 15 September 1862-17 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 17 September 1862-20 October 1862 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 20 October 1862-1 July 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-4 July 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-11 August 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 31 August 1863-13 September 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1863-25 September 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-22 December 1863 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 30 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 July 1864 / XX Corps Cumberland 28 July 1864-27 August 1864 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 27 August 1864-11 November 1864 / XX Corps Georgia 11 November 1864-2 April 1865 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of Georgia 2 April 1865-4 June 1865

USA: John Buford promoted Major-General USV 16 December 1863 to rank from 1 July 1863 posthumously.

Buford, John / Kentucky-Illinois / Born 4 March 1826 Woodford, Kentucky / Died Washington, District of Columbia 16 December 1863
USMA 1 July 1848 16/38 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 17 February 1849 / 1st Lieutenant USA 9 July 1853 / Regt Quartermaster 9 May 1855-4 August 1858 / Captain USA 9 March 1859 / Major USA Assistant Inspector-General 12 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 27 July 1862 / Major-General USV 16 December 1863 to rank from 1 July 1863 posthumously / WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862
Cavalry Brigade II Corps Army of Virginia 27 July 1862-12 September 1862 / Cavalry Brigade Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 12 February 1863-22 May 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 22 May 1863-27 May 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 9 June 1863-15 August 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 15 September 1863-21 November 1863

USA: Alexander Stewart Webb confirmed Brigadier-General USV 1 July 1863 to rank from 23 June 1863.

Webb, Alexander Stewart / New York / Born 15 February 1835 New York City, New York / Died Riverdale, New York 12 February 1911
USMA 1 July 1855 13/34 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1851 / 4th US Artillery 1 July 1855 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 20 October 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 28 April 1861 / Captain USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Major USV 1st Rhode Island Artillery 14 September 1861 / ADC (W F Barry) April 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 20 August 1862-28 June 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 1 July 1863 to rank from 23 June 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 44th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 5th US Infantry 5 March 1869 / Discharged USA 5 December 1870 / Brevet 2 Lt USA 1 July 1855 Brevet Major USA 3 July 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11 October 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 12 May 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Medal of Honor 3 July 1863 / WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864
2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 28 June 1863-15 August 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 15 August 1863-10 December 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-12 May 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of the Potomac 11 January 1865-28 June 1865 / Assistant Inspector-General Military Division of the Atlantic 1 July 1865-21 February 1866

USA: Major-General John Fulton Reynolds was killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Reynolds, John Fulton / Pennsylvania / Born 20 September 1820 Lancaster, Pennsylvania / KIA Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 1 July 1863
1837 / USMA 1 July 1841 26/52 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 23 October 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 25 October 1850-1 March 1852 / Captain US 3 March 1855 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 8 September 1860-25 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 14th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 August 1861 to rank from 20 August 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Colonel USA 5th US Infantry 1 June 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841 Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 27 June 1862 Unconfirmed / CIA Boatswain’s Swamp 28 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
1st Brigade McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1st Brigade McCall’s Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-12 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 June 1862-28 June 1862 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 26 August 1862-12 September 1862 / I Corps Potomac 29 September 1862-2 January 1863 / I Corps Potomac 4 January 1863-1 March 1863 / I Corps Potomac 9 March 1863-1 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
    • District of Southeast Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Central Kentucky: Samuel Davis Sturgis
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • I Corps Potomac: Abner Doubleday temporary
      • II Corps Potomac: John Gibbon temporary
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton
  • Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
  • Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill assumed temporary command of the Department of Richmond, succeeding Major-General Arnold Elzey.

Hill, Daniel Harvey / South Carolina / Born 12 July 1821 York, South Carolina / Died Charlotte, North Carolina 24 September 1889
USMA 1 July 1842 28 /56 Artillery-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1842 / 3rd US Artillery 20 October 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 13 October 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Resigned USA 28 February 1849 / Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 10 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 25 March 1862 to rank from 26 March 1862 / Resigned PACS 1 January 1863 Refused / Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 11 July 1863 Unconfirmed Expired 11 October 1863 / Reverted Major-General PACS 15 October 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 5 May 1864-17 May 1864 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 21 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General 10 July 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Big Bethel 10 June 1861
Department of South Carolina 27 May 1861-20 August 1861 / Department of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Army of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Department of Fredericksburg 17 July 1861-22 October 1861 / District of Pamlico 29 September 1861-16 November 1861 / Hill’s Division Army of the Peninsula November 1861 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northern Virginia 16 November 1861-January 1862 / Hill’s Division District of the Potomac January 1862-March 1862 / 4th Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Centre Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Hill’s Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-10 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 17 July 1862-19 September 1862 / Valley District 6 September 1862-29 December 1862 / Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 January 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 January 1863-16 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 23 February 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 28 May 1863-1 July 1863 / Department of Richmond 1 July 1863-13 July 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 24 July 1863-14 October 1863 / Hill’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 10 July 1864 / District of Georgia 21 January 1865-10 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 22 February 1865-16 March 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 16 March 1865-8 April 1865 / Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Major-General Samuel Gibbs French assumed temporary command of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, succeeding Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill.

French, Samuel Gibbs / New Jersey / Born 22 November 1818 Gloucester, New Jersey / Died Florala, Florida 20 April 1910
USMA 1 July 1843 14 /39 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 12 January 1848 / Resigned USA 31 May 1856 / Colonel Ordnance Mississippi Militia 12 February 1861 / Major ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 October 1861 / Major-General PACS 31 August 1862 / Paroled Mobile, Alabama 26 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 / WIA Buena Vista 23 February 1847
1st Brigade District of Aquia 7 November 1861-15 March 1862 / District of Cape Fear 15 March 1862-17 March 1862 / District of Cape Fear 20 March 1862-17 July 1862 / District of Pamlico 17 March 1862-20 March 1862 / Sub-District of Cape Fear 19 September 1862-16 November 1862 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 17 February 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of Southern Virginia 1 April 1863-28 May 1863 / French’s Division Army of Mississippi June 1863-July 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 1 July 1863-14 July 1863 / French’s Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana July 1863-28 January 1864 / French’s Division Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 28 January 1864-04 May 1864 / French’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 4 May 1864-14 December 1864 / French’s Division District of the Gulf January 1865-April 1865

CSA: Colonel Philip Noland Luckett (3rd Texas Infantry) assumed temporary command of the Eastern Sub-District of the District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, succeeding Brigadier-General William Read Scurry.

Luckett, Philip Noland / Born 1824 Augusta, Virginia / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 21 May 1869
USMA 1841-?/ Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 / Resigned USMA / Surgeon Texas Rangers 1847 / Mustered Out USV 1848 / Colonel Quartermaster-General Texas Militia 28 March 1861 / ADC (E Van Dorn) May 1861 / Colonel PACS 3rd Texas Infantry 4 September 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 May 1863 Revoked 18 October 1863
Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 1 July 1863-15 August 1863 / Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 29 August 1863-23 November 1863

CSA: Henry Harrison Walker promoted Brigadier-General PACS 1 July 1863.

Walker, Henry Harrison / Virginia / Born 15 October 1832 Sussex, Virginia / Died Morristown, New Jersey 22 March 1912
USMA 1 July 1853 41/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1849 / 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 May 1857 / Resigned USA 3 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 40th Virginia Infantry November 1861 / Colonel PACS 40th Virginia June 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 1 July 1863 / Judge Advocate 7 November 1864 / Paroled Richmond, Virginia 7 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / WIA Gaines’ Mill 27 June 1862 WIA Spotsylvania 10 May 1864
Defences of Richmond September 1862-1 July 1863 / Field’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 11 July 1863-March 1864 / Archer’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 11 July 1863-October 1863 / Walker’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia March 1864-10 May 1864

CSA: Brigadier-General James Jay Archer was captured at Gettysburg.

Archer, James Jay / Maryland / Born 19 December 1817 Bel Air, Maryland / Died Richmond, Virginia 24 October 1864
Captain USA US Infantry 23 February 1847 / US Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 / Discharged USA 31 August 1848 / Captain USA 9th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 14 May 1861 / Captain PACS 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 5th Texas Infantry 2 October 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 3 June 1862 / Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA and CIA Gettysburg 1 July 1863 Exchanged 3 August 1864
5th Brigade 2nd Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 27 May 1862 / Archer’s Brigade A P Hill’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 3 June 1862-27 July 1862 / 5th Brigade A P Hill’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 27 July 1862-30 May 1863 / A P Hill’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-1 July 1863 / Archer’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 19 August 1864-29 October 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: William Preston temporary
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French temporary
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Philip Noland Luckett temporary
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds KIA
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton
John Buford

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker

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