1863 January 1st

January 1 1863 Thursday

Battle of Stones River, TN

La Vergne, TN

Battle of Galveston, TX (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Sherman’s Yazoo River Expedition

Morgan’s Second Kentucky Raid

Carter’s Upper Tennessee Valley Raid

Stones River Campaign

Marmaduke’s Missouri Raid

Stuart’s Fairfax Raid

Forrest’s First West Tennessee Raid

Grant’s Central Mississippi Campaign

USA. Caleb Blood Smith resigned as US Secretary of the Interior.

USA. John Palmer Usher succeeded as interim US Secretary of the Interior.

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, issued provisionally on 23 September 1862, was signed and took effect. The decree proclaimed as free all slaves in territories held by the Confederate States “still in rebellion”, and emphasised the enlistment of black soldiers in the Union Army. By a technicality, the proclamation could not apply directly to Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee, or Missouri, nor did it cover the parts of Virginia and Louisiana under Federal military control. The proclamation was viewed by Lincoln as having no substantive constitutional or legal justification and it was issued primarily under the pretext of a military measure.

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln, having previously opposed the raising of regiments of free black troops, called for the recruitment of four regiments of black troops. By the end of the war, 300,000 black soldiers had been enrolled in 166 regiments (145 regiments of infantry, 7 regiments of cavalry, 12 regiments of heavy artillery, 1 regiment of field artillery, and 1 regiment of engineers). About sixty of these regiments undertook active field duty and 143 white officers and 2,751 enlisted men were killed in action. Black sailors had always been accepted by the US Navy.

CSA. The Confederate Congress enacted legislation to create a Provisional Navy of the Confederate States.  The aim was to enable the promotion of younger and more active officers in the Provisional Navy by side-lining officers who deserved retirement in the Regular Navy. The senior officers retained their grade and rank in the Regular Navy while more junior officers could now be promoted to higher grades and commands in the Provisional Navy with the minimal offence. At the same time, Congress provided for men to transfer from the Army into the Navy to compensate for an acute shortage of seamen.

Alabama. USS Kanawha captured the schooner Dart, bound from Havana to Mobile.

Arkansas. Confederate partisan rangers surprised and captured an outpost of 30 men from the command of Brigadier-General Willis Arnold Gorman near Helena.

District of Columbia. Union Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside attended a military conference with President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln advised him that there were reports of demoralisation in the Army of the Potomac and received an assurance from Burnside that he would act prudently in his plans to cross the Rappahannock River for his next offensive campaign. Lincoln requested the General-in-Chief Major-General Henry Wager Halleck to visit Burnside and to inspect the army at Falmouth. Halleck was offended by the terms of the written instruction and threatened to resign on principle. Lincoln withdrew the instruction but concluded that Halleck would never become the decisive and assertive field commander he required and should be allowed to serve in his best capacity as an administrator and organiser.

Georgia. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis visited Montgomery and Atlanta and went on to reach Augusta during the evening.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Bath Springs.

Mississippi. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman planned to continue his operations against Vicksburg by way of an attack at Haines Bluff on the Yazoo River. The ships that were due to transport Major-General Frederick Steele’s division were fog-bound and could not proceed upriver. At 4 am, Sherman called a halt to the attack and ordered a retreat to the mouth of the Yazoo River. Having heard nothing from Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant since the destruction of the Union supply depot at Holly Springs, he decided that the operation against the northern flank of Vicksburg from the Yazoo River was doomed to fail and had to be abandoned.

New York Horatio Seymour succeeded Edwin Denison Morgan as Governor of New York.

North Carolina. Zebulon Vance was elected Governor of North Carolina.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Stewart’s Creek.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Clifton involving Confederate Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest.

Tennessee. After evading a concentration of Union forces at Lebanon, Kentucky, Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan’s raiders left Springfield, crossed the state border, and passed through Campbellsville to reach Columbia.

Tennessee. Confederate Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s raiders crossed the Tennessee River at Clifton on the flatboats previously concealed nearby for the purpose. They completed the crossing by dawn and ended their spectacular raid through western Tennessee. They replaced their casualties with new recruits and killed or paroled as many Union troops as they had set out with: namely, about 2,100 men. Furthermore, they had distracted and harassed as many as 20,000 Union troops in the scattered garrisons across western Tennessee. More importantly, they had permanently severed the line of communications along the railroad from Jackson to the Kentucky border.

La Vergne, Tennessee. Confederate cavalry under Brigadier-General Joseph Wheeler harassed the Union lines of communication from Murfreesboro to Nashville. He attacked a wagon train at La Vergne, dispersing the guards and burning 30 wagons. A stockade near the town manned by Colonel William Power Innes and the 1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics resisted several attacks, refusing all demands to surrender. Wheeler’s cavalry continued to harass the Union lines of communication on the turnpike back to Nashville. Convoys of Union wounded had to travel under heavy escort to be protected from the cavalry, and Wheeler interpreted these movements as preparations for a retreat, and he reported such to General Braxton Bragg. Encouraged by his sense that he had won the battle, Bragg was content to wait at Stones River for Rosecrans to retreat.

Stones River, Tennessee. The Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee marked time after the fighting of the day before. Confederate General Braxton Bragg surmised from cavalry reports that Union Major-General William Starke Rosecrans would soon withdraw and was convinced that the sound of wagons moving heralded their abandonment of the field. This was, in fact, the sound of ambulances ferrying away the wounded. The Union Army of the Cumberland had already lost about 12,000 casualties.

Rosecrans revived his original plan of an attack by his left wing and ordered Brigadier-General Horatio Van Cleve’s division (now commanded by Brigadier-General Samuel Beatty following Van Cleve’s wounding the previous day) to cross Stones River and to occupy the heights there, protecting two river crossing sites and providing a good platform for artillery. The rest of the day was relatively quiet as both armies observed New Year’s Day by resting and tending to their wounded. A Union brigade arrived as reinforcements from Nashville, accompanied by a mob of stragglers gathered along the way.

At 3 am, Confederate Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk launched two probes of the Union line. In the light of morning Bragg found the Union army still in position. However, Polk discovered that the Union had abandoned the Round Forest and occupied it. He could not proceed further because of the strong Union presence beyond and the Confederates inherited the task of dealing with the many dead and wounded piled up among the trees.

Galveston, Texas, also known as Second Galveston. Confederate Major-General John Bankhead Magruder gave the recapture of the vital port of Galveston his top priority. The town had been occupied by Union troops since 24 December 1862. At 3 am four Confederate vessels including the improvised cotton-clad gunboats CSS Bayou City (a side-wheel river steamboat) and CSS Neptune (a small stern-wheeler) and two tenders John F Carr and Lucy Gwin, were led down the Buffalo Bayou toward Galveston by Major Leon Smith. The vessels had been hastily prepared at Houston with cotton bales packed around their vulnerable points. The CSS Bayou City was given a single 32-pounder rifle in front of its smokestacks and the CSS Neptune had no more than a mass of railroad iron packed into its bow to form a ram.

The Union forces in Galveston were three companies (D, G, I) of the 42nd Massachusetts Infantry under the command of Colonel Isaac S Burrell but they were protected by a naval squadron with 28 guns, mostly heavy, under Captain William Bainbridge Renshaw comprising USS Harriet Lane, USS Owasco, USS Corypheus, USS Sachem, USS Clifton, and USS Westfield.

The Confederates’ land attack was made by about 500 men under Colonel Thomas Green, all of whom were survivors of the disastrous expedition to Valverde. Green’s veterans surprised the garrison while the Union naval squadron was caught completely off guard by the sudden appearance of Magruder’s flotilla. The Confederate infantry attacked soon after midnight but could not scale the Union barricades as their ladders were too short. They started an exchange of fire but could not break the defence.

USS Westfield ran aground almost immediately on Pelican Island bar in Bolivar Channel. CSS Bayou City opened fire twice and missed and then its lone gun exploded with the third round. The USS Harriet Lane rammed CSS Bayou City but caused little damage. In turn, she was rammed by CSS Neptune. The impact broke off the improvised ram and a shot taken at the waterline caused CSS Neptune to settle in eight feet of water. CSS Bayou City turned and rammed USS Harriet Lane so heavily that the two ships could not be separated. The troops from the Confederate cotton-clad boarded USS Harriet Lane and Commander Jonathan M Wainwright USN was killed in the hand-to-hand combat and his ship was captured. Seeing the Union ship run up the white flag the others followed suit. The grounded USS Westfield was set afire to prevent her capture but Renshaw and a boat crew were killed when the ship’s magazine blew up prematurely.

After a fire-fight lasting four hours, the Union garrison on shore lost heart with the loss of the two ships and surrendered. The remainder of the Union blockading force decided that this continuation of the land attack was a breach of their previous truce. They hauled down their white flags and ran through heavy fire into the open sea. They stood out to sea to resume the blockade. Magruder’s bold stroke, despite the mishaps in its execution, had removed all Union presence on Texan land. Magruder moved his headquarters from Houston to Galveston and prepared to face the backlash.

In all, 8 Union sailors were killed, 10 were wounded and 110 captured; the Army prisoners lost onshore raised the loss to a total of about 600 men. Only the regiment’s adjutant escaped. The Confederates reported 143 casualties. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: GALVESTON, TX

Union Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Army of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Forces in Galveston: Colonel Isaac S Burrell
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
Galveston Flotilla: Commodore William B Renshaw USN
USS Harriet Lane, USS Owasco, USS Corypheus, USS Sachem, USS Clifton, USS Westfield

Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department: Lieutenant-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Western Sub-District of Texas: Brigadier-General Henry Eustace McCulloch
Galveston Flotilla: CSS Bayou City, CSS Neptune, John F Carr, Lucy Gwin

Virginia. Incidents at Bunker Hill and Cockletown.

Virginia. A boat expedition from USS Western World and USS Crusader destroyed two Confederate schooners aground at Milford Haven.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart rejoined the Army of Northern Virginia near Fredericksburg after a six-day raid cavalry raid across the Rappahannock River. He had captured 200 prisoners and 20 wagons, a small recompense for the effort. The cavalry went into winter quarters and focused on gathering forage for the next two months.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Colorado Territory was discontinued in the Department of the Missouri.

USA: Command of the Department of New York became vacant.

USA: Commodore Henry Eagle USN (Retired) retired.

Eagle, Henry / Born 7 April 1801 New York, New York/ Died New York, New York 26 November 1882
Midshipman USN 1 January 1818 / Passed Midshipman USN 1826 / Lieutenant USN 3 March 1827 / Commander USN 4 June 1844 / Captain USN 14 September 1855 / Commodore USN 16 July 1862 / Retired USN 1 January 1863 / Rear Admiral USN Retired 25 July 1866
USS Monticello May 1861 / USS Santee June 1861

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
        • Right Wing XIV Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
        • Left Wing XIV Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
        • Centre XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: Neal S Dow
    • District of La Fourche: Godfrey Weitzel
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas W Cahill
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Lewis Merrill
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: John Montgomery Glover
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Willis Arnold Gorman
    • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
    • Army of the Frontier: John McAllister Schofield
    • Army of Southeastern Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of New York: vacant
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: Washington Lafayette Elliott temporary
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Central Kentucky: Gordon Granger
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Jonathan Cranor
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Western Virginia: Jacob Dolson Cox
      • Sub-District of the Kanawha: Eliakim Parker Scammon
    • Army of Kentucky: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Army of the Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • Right Grand Division: Edwin Vose Sumner
        • II Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
        • IX Corps Potomac: Orlando Bolivar Willcox temporary
      • Left Grand Division Potomac: William Buel Franklin
        • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
        • VI Corps Potomac: William Farrar Smith
      • Centre Grand Division Potomac: Joseph Hooker
        • III Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
        • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • Reserve Grand Division Potomac: Franz Sigel
        • XI Corps Potomac: Franz Sigel
        • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
  • Department of the South: John Milton Brannan temporary
    • X Corps South: John Milton Brannan
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Memphis: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Corinth: Charles Smith Hamilton
    • District of Jackson: Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
    • District of Columbus: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen August Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Charles Smith Hamilton
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Military District of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
      • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John Porter McCown
      • Gulf District: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
        • II Corps Mississippi: Sterling Price
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: William Edmondson Jones
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Southwest Army: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: vacant

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton
Jacob Dolson Cox
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
William Wallace Burns
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Abram Duryée
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Ebenezer Dumont
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Edward Ferrero
Francis Laurens Vinton
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Henry Hastings Sibley
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
John Milton Thayer
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Thomas Campbell
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson

Joshua Thomas Owen
James Barnes

Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris

John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson

Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Robert Christie Buchanan
James Hewitt Ledlie
Wladimir Bonawentura Krzyzanowski
James Allen Hardie
Isham Nicolas Haynie
Frederick Shearer Stumbaugh
David Stuart
John Blair Smith Todd
Orlando Metcalfe Poe
Thomas Greely Stevenson

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
David Rumph Jones
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Daniel Smith Donelson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Robert Augustus Toombs
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Edward Johnson
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
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