1862 September 14th

September 14 1862 Sunday

Battle of South Mountain, MD (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Munfordville, KY

Battle of Harper’s Ferry, VA

Fox’s Gap, MD

Crampton’s Gap, MD

Davis’ Breakout, Harper’s Ferry, VA

Smith’s Invasion of Kentucky

Bragg’s Invasion of Kentucky – Siege of Munfordville

Maryland Campaign

Harper’s Ferry Campaign – Siege of Harper’s Ferry

Kanawha Campaign

Second Corinth Campaign

Azores. CSS Alabama, Captain Raphael Semmes, seized and burned the whaling ship Benjamin Tucker.

Kentucky. Siege of Munfordville began.

Kentucky. Siege of Woodsonville began.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Henderson.

Munfordville, Kentucky, also known as Green River. Munfordville was a station on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad where an important railroad bridge crossed the Green River. Union Colonel John Thomas Wilder commanded the Union garrison of three regiments, which was protected by extensive fortifications. Confederate Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers arrived with his division from Cave City and demanded the surrender. The Union garrison repulsed Chalmers’ attacks which cost 288 Confederate losses for the loss of 72 union casualties. While Chalmers returned to Cave City to regroup, Union reinforcements were sent to strengthen the defences.

Maryland. Skirmish at Petersville.

Maryland., Skirmish at Slaughter’s Gap.

Maryland. During the morning, Confederate Major-General Lafayette McLaws with ten brigades from his own and Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s divisions completed the deployment of artillery facing Harper’s Ferry on Maryland Heights. McLaws placed three brigades to his north to protect him from any advance from the direction of Crampton’s Gap. He was reassured by Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart, whose cavalry had ridden from Turner’s Gap, that only one Union brigade was at Crampton’s Gap. It was not until later when he rode to inspect the northern flank that McLaws found the cavalry in unexpected retreat from overwhelming opposition coming from Crampton’s Gap.

South Mountain, Maryland. South Mountain is the name given to the continuation of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Maryland. This significant natural obstacle separates the Hagerstown Valley and Cumberland Valley from the eastern part of Maryland. Fighting occurred at the Gaps through South Mountain and the overall battle is designated South Mountain, with names also assigned to the battles for each of the individual gaps (Crampton’s Gap, Fox’s Gap, etc).

South Mountain, Maryland, also known as Boonsboro Gap or Turner’s Gap. After Confederate General Robert Edward Lee divided his army to invest Harper’s Ferry, the Union Army of the Potomac under Major-General George Brinton McClellan advanced from Frederick towards South Mountain. The Union Left Wing (VI Corps and IV Corps) was sent towards Crampton’s Gap in the south. The Union Right Wing (I Corps and IX Corps) was sent towards Turner’s Gap and Fox’s Gap further north. The Centre Wing (II Corps and XII Corps) was held in reserve, along with Major-General Fitz John Porter’s V Corps, which was on its way but had not yet reached the Catoctin range. The 70,000 Union soldiers marched along and on either side of the National Road, down the western slope of the Catoctin range where they had camped overnight, and a further seven miles across the valley towards South Mountain.

Union Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasanton’s cavalry discovered Confederate Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill’s division in position to defend the northern passes of South Mountain. Hill stretched his 5,000 men over a front more than two miles long, to defend both Turner’s Gap and Fox’s Gap. The commander of the Union Right Wing, Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside, sent Major-General Joseph Hooker’s I Corps to the right towards Turner’s Gap. The Union Iron Brigade (1/1/I) led the attack against Colonel Alfred Holt Colquitt’s brigade astride the National Road, driving it back up the mountain, but it refused to yield the pass. Hooker also positioned three divisions opposite two peaks located one mile north of the gap. Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes’ brigade of Hill’s division was forced to withdraw because of its isolated position.

Confederate Major-General James Longstreet’s men began to arrive from Hagerstown at about 3 pm to reinforce Hill Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones’ division and Brigadier-General Nathan George Evans’ brigade stopped the retreat. Darkness and the difficult terrain prevented the complete collapse of Lee’s line and at nightfall, the Confederates still blocked Turner’s gap. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: SOUTH MOUNTAIN, MD

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
I Corps (Potomac): Major-General Joseph Hooker
1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Abner Doubleday
1st Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel Walter Phelps
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel J William Hoffman
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Marsena Rudolph Patrick
4th (Iron) Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Gibbon
2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Abram Duryée
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel William A Christian
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Lucas Hartsuff
3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Truman Seymour
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel Albert L Magilton
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas F Gallagher
Cavalry Division (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasonton
1st Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Potomac): Major Charles J Whiting
2nd Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Potomac): Colonel John F Farnsworth
3rd Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Potomac): Colonel Richard H Rush
4th Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Division (Potomac): Colonel Andrew T McReynolds

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
Toombs’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs
Garnett’s Brigade, Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Brooke Garnett
Kemper’s Brigade, Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper
D R Jones’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel George Thomas Anderson
Hood’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Ripley’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
Rodes’ Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes
Anderson’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General George Burgwyn Anderson
Colquitt’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Alfred H Colquitt

South Mountain, Maryland, also known as Fox’s Gap, Maryland. Just to the south of Turner’s Gap, other elements of Confederate Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill’s division (most notably Brigadier-General Thomas Fenwick Drayton’s and Brigadier-General Samuel Garland’s brigades) defended Fox’s Gap against the Union IX Corps (Major-General Jesse Lee Reno).

At 9 am, an attack by Union Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox’s Kanawha Division (attached temporarily to IX Corps as its fourth division) secured much of the land south of the gap. Cox pushed on through Garland’s Confederates positioned behind a stone wall at the gap’s crest, but he failed to exploit his gains as his men were exhausted from ascending the steep pass. Cox’s pause allowed Confederate reinforcements to deploy in the gap around the Daniel Wise farm.

Confederate Brigadier-General John Bell Hood (who had been under arrest following a dispute with a fellow commander) was restored to field command and he led his division south into the battle at Fox’s Gap. Reno finally sent forward the rest of IX Corps but the timely arrival of Hood’s reinforcements meant that they failed to dislodge the defenders. Garland was killed early in the fighting at Fox’s Gap and Reno was killed near sundown as he inspected his lines.

ORDER OF BATTLE: FOX’S GAP, MD

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
IX Corps (Potomac): Major-General Jesse Lee Reno
1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Benjamin C Christ
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Welsh
2nd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Davis Sturgis
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Nagle
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Edward Ferrero
3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Isaac Peace Rodman
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Harrison S Fairchild
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Edward Harland
Kanawha Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox
1st Brigade, Kanawha Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Eliakim P Scammon
2nd Brigade, Kanawha Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Augustus Moor

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
Drayton’s Brigade, Jones’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Hood’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Hood’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel William Tatum Wofford
Whiting’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Evander McIvor Law
Evans’ Brigade, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Nathan George Evans
Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Garland’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Samuel Garland

South Mountain, Maryland, also known as Crampton’s Gap, Maryland. The Left Wing of the Army of the Potomac under Major-General William Buell Franklin, consisting of 18,000 men in his own VI Corps and Major-General Darius Nash Couch’s division now attached from IV Corps, was instructed to move at daybreak to capture Crampton’s Gap near Burkittsville. The aim was to cut off Confederate Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ division and then relieve the siege of Harper’s Ferry. They set off early to cover the twelve miles from Buckeystown.

Confederate cavalry and three brigades of McLaws’ division defended Brownsville Pass and Crampton’s Gap. McLaws was unaware of the approach of these 12,000 Union men and at first, had only 500 men under Colonel William A Parham thinly deployed at the eastern base of Crampton’s Gap behind a three-quarter mile long stone wall. Franklin spent three hours deploying his forces with Major-General Henry Warner Slocum’s division on the right and Major-General William Farrar Smith’s division on the left. They advanced and easily seized the gap, capturing 400 prisoners, most of whom were arriving as reinforcements from Brigadier-General Thomas Howell Cobb’s brigade.

McLaws brought three more brigades down from Maryland Heights to strengthen the line. By nightfall, the Confederates has been pushed out of the gap and into Pleasant Valley but Franklin delayed making a pursuit and permitted their escape.

By dusk, with Crampton’s Gap lost and his positions at Fox’s and Turner’s Gaps now precarious, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee ordered his supply trains to escape and his outnumbered forces withdrew from South Mountain overnight. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan was in a position to destroy Lee’s army before it could concentrate.

Union casualties from 28,000 engaged along South Mountain were 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, and 75 missing). The Confederates lost 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, and 800 missing) out of 18,000.

ORDER OF BATTLE: CRAMPTON’S GAP, MD

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
VI Corps (Potomac): Major-General William Buel Franklin
1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Major-General Henry Warner Slocum
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Alfred T A Torbert
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph J Bartlett
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Newton
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Major-General William Farrar Smith
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel William H Irwin
IV Corps (Potomac) (attached To VI Corps)
1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Major-General Darius Nash Couch

1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Devens
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Albion Parris Howe
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Cochrane

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
McLaws’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Cobb’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Howell Cobb
Semmes’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes
Barksdale’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Barksdale 

Mississippi. Skirmish at Burnesville.

Mississippi. Incident at Iuka. Confederate Major-General Sterling Price marched the twenty miles from Corinth and occupied Iuka with about 14,000 men of his Army of the West. General Braxton Bragg was distant in Kentucky but he had given Price the discretion, if necessary, to request assistance from Major-General Earl Van Dorn, commanding the District of the Mississippi and the Army of West Tennessee at Holly Springs. Van Dorn, who was senior to Price, proposed instead that Price should combine his forces with Van Dorn’s in order to attack the extended Union lines in western Tennessee. President Jefferson Finis Davis resolved the matter in favour of Price’s plan.

The Union garrison commander at Iuka, Colonel Robert C Murphy set fire to the supplies of the depot and marched his 2,000-man brigade towards Corinth. The Confederates doused the flames, acquiring a large quantity of valuable supplies. Murphy was arrested and subsequently court-martialled.

Price’s army settled in Iuka and awaited the arrival of Van Dorn’s Army of approximately 7,000 men from Holly Springs, seven miles from Corinth. With Iuka occupied and Price’s plan now confirmed by the President, the two generals agreed to unite and attack the Union lines of communication in western Tennessee, in order to prevent Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant sending any more reinforcements to Major-General Don Carlos Buell in Kentucky.

Tennessee. Incident at Somersville.

Texas. Operation at Flour Bluffs ended.

Virginia. Incidents at Leesburg, Hawkinsville, Hazel River, and Bolivar Heights.

Davis’ Breakout, Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. While battles raged in the passes of South Mountain, Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson positioned his artillery around Harper’s Ferry. This included the hauling of four Parrott rifles to the summit of Maryland Heights, a task that required 200 men wrestling the ropes of each gun. Although Jackson wanted all of his guns to open fire simultaneously, Brigadier-General John George Walker on Loudoun Heights grew impatient and began an ineffectual bombardment with five guns shortly after 1 pm. Jackson ordered Major-General Ambrose Powell to move down the west bank of the Shenandoah in preparation for a flank attack on the Union left the next morning.

During the night, the Union commanders realised they had less than 24 hours left to escape capture but they made no attempt to recapture Maryland Heights. Only a single Confederate regiment now occupied the crest of Maryland Heights, after Major-General Lafayette McLaws had withdrawn the remainder of his division to oppose the Union assault at Crampton’s Gap. Union Colonel Benjamin Franklin Davis and Lieutenant-Colonel H Davis proposed to garrison commander Colonel Dixon S Miles that the 12th Illinois Cavalry, the Loudoun Rangers and some smaller mounted units, should attempt to break out. Cavalry forces were useless in the defence of the town. Miles dismissed the idea as “wild and impractical,” but Davis was adamant and Miles relented when he saw that he intended to break out with or without permission. Davis and Colonel Amos Voss led 1,400 cavalrymen out of Harper’s Ferry on a pontoon bridge across the Potomac, turning left onto a narrow road that wound to the west around the base of Maryland Heights in the north toward Sharpsburg. Despite a number of encounters with Confederates returning from South Mountain, the cavalry came upon a wagon train approaching from Hagerstown carrying Major-General James Longstreet’s reserve supply of ammunition. They tricked the teamsters into following them and they repulsed the Confederate cavalry escort at the rear of the column. Capturing more than 40 enemy ordnance wagons, Davis lost not a single man in the first great cavalry exploit of the war achieved by the Army of the Potomac. Nevertheless, About 12,000 men remained encircled at Harper’s Ferry.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox assumed temporary command of IX Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Jesse Lee Reno.

Cox, Jacob Dolson / Canada-Ohio / Born 27 October 1828 Montreal, Canada / Died Gloucester, Massachusetts 4 August 1900
Brigadier-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861-30 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 6 October 1862 Expired 3 March 1863 Reverted to Brigadier-General USV / Reappointed Major-General USV 7 December 1864 / Resigned USV 1 January 1866
Kanawha Brigade Department of the Ohio July 1861-25 July 1861 / Kanawha Brigade Army of Occupation 25 July 1861-11 October 1861 / District of the Kanawha 11 October 1861-26 July 1862 / Defences of Washington 30 August 1862-7 September 1862 / Kanawha Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-14 September 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 14 September 1862-8 October 1862 / District of Western Virginia 13 October 1862-December 1862 / District of Ohio 14 April 1863-16 November 1863 / District of Michigan 2 June 1863-5 June 1863 / XXIII Corps Ohio 21 December 1863-10 February 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio 3 March 1864-31 March 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 4 April 1864-9 April 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 9 April 1864-26 May 1864 / Army of the Ohio 25 May 1864-27 May 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 26 May 1864-27 May 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 27 May 1864-14 September 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 14 September 1864-22 October 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 22 October 1864-30 November 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 30 November 1864-1 December 1864 /3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 1 December 1864-13 January 1865 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 17 January 1865-9 February 1865 /3rd Division XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 9 February 1865-15 February 1865 / Cox’s Provisional Corps Department of North Carolina 25 February 1865-31 March 1865 / District of Beaufort North Carolina 25 February 1865-18 March 1865 / XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 31 March 1865-19 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 31 March 1865-16 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 19 June 1865-27 June 1865

USA: Major-General Jesse Lee Reno was killed at South Mountain.

Reno, Jesse Lee (Renault) / Virginia-Pennsylvania / Born 20 June 1823 Wheeling, (West) Virginia / KIA South Mountain, Maryland 14 September 1862
USMA 1 July 1846 8/59 Ordnance / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / Ordnance 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1853 / Captain USA 1 July 1860 / Brigadier-General USV 12 November 1861 / Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 posthumously / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 CIA Mount Vernon, Alabama 4 January 1861 Exchanged
Reno’s Brigade North Carolina Expedition December 1861-7 January 1862 / Reno’s Brigade Department of North Carolina 7 January 1862-2 April 1862 / 2nd Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 22 July 1862-3 August 1862 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of Virginia 3 August 1862-3 September 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 3 September 1862-14 September 1862

USA: Joseph Jackson Bartlett promoted Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 to rank from 14 September 1862 Unconfirmed

Bartlett, Joseph Jackson / New York / Born 21 November 1834 Binghamton, New York / Died Baltimore, Maryland 14 January 1893
Private USV April 1861 / Major USV 27th New York Infantry 21 May 1861 / Colonel USV 21 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 to rank from 14 September 1862 Expired Unconfirmed 4 March 1863 / Brigadier-General 4 October 1862 to rank from 2 April 1862 Unconfirmed / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 30 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 / WIA Wilderness 5 May 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 13 May 1862-November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac December 1862-1 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 1863-4 July 1863 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 5 August 1863-6 November 1863 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-4 August 1863 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 6 November 1863-31 December 1863 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 3 February 1864-3 April 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 3 April 1864-20 July 1864 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 21 June 1864-9 August 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 9 August 1864-17 August 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 1 October 1864-23 December 1864 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 24 December 1864-4 January 1865 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 6 January 1865-27 January 1865 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 7 March 1865-1 April 186 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Washington 22 March 1865–3 May 1865 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 1 April 1865-25 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander Logan
      • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • Army of the Southwest: Frederick Steele
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of Pensacola: Lewis Golding Arnold
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby interim James Henry Carleton awaited
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope awaited
    • District of Wisconsin: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Louisville: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • I Corps Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
      • IX Corps Potomac: Jacob Dolson Cox temporary
      • XI Corps Potomac: Franz Sigel
      • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary
  • Department of the South: John Milton Brannan temporary
    • X Corps South: John Milton Brannan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Military District of Washington: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Samuel Garland was killed at South Mountain.

Garland, Samuel (Jr) / Virginia / Born 16 December 1830 Lynchburg, Virginia / KIA Fox’s Gap, Maryland 14 September 1862
Captain Virginia Militia 1859 / Captain PACS 11th Virginia Infantry 24 April 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 15 June 1861 / Colonel PACS 11th Virginia Infantry July 1861 / 1st Lieutenant PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 16 November 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 September 1862 to rank from 23 May 1862 posthumously / WIA Williamsburg 5 May 1862
1st Brigade 4th Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 24 May 1862-June 1862 / 3rd Brigade D H Hill’s Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia June 1862-14 September 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: John Porter McCown
    • Army of Kentucky: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
  • Department of Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Missouri: Sterling Price
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Mississippi: Daniel Ruggles temporary
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: vacant
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: vacant
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • District of the Tennessee: Sterling Price
    • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • Right Wing Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • Left Wing Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of the West: Sterling Price

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
William Nelson
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield*
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Jesse Lee Reno KIA
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Joseph King Fenno Mansfield)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Saloman
James Streshly Jackson
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
Francis Preston Blair
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
William Rufus Terrill
Edward Ferrero
Calvin Edward Pratt

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland KIA
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Edwin Starke
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Allison Nelson
Francis Asbury Shoup

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