1862 September 12th

September 12 1862 Friday

Battle of Harper’s Ferry, VA

Smith’s Invasion of Kentucky
Bragg’s Invasion of Kentucky
Maryland Campaign
Harper’s Ferry Campaign – Siege of Harper’s Ferry
Kanawha Campaign

Go to September 13 1862

CSA. The Confederate Congress debated whether the President had the exclusive right to nominate General Officers, presenting a proposal to involve State Governors in the decision making. The proposal was dropped. For his part, President, Jefferson Finis Davis questioned whether commissions granted by the Provisional Government even required reconfirmation by the Permanent Government, Ultimately, on 23 September 1862, the Senate adopted a Resolution requiring reconfirmation. The sensitive underlying reason for the proposal was the opportunity to weed out unsuitable 0fficers appointed in the early days of the Confederacy, by denying reconfirmation.

Kentucky. Confederate occupation of Glasgow.

Kentucky. Skirmishes at Brandenberg (or Brandenburg) and Woodburn.

Maryland. Skirmish at Maryland Heights.

Maryland. Skirmish at Frederick.

Maryland. The advance guard of the Union Army of the Potomac began to concentrate at Frederick.

Maryland.  Union Major-General John Pope was formally relieved of command of the Army of Virginia when it was discontinued and merged into the Army of the Potomac during the march into Maryland. The original concept of the Army of Virginia – to consolidate all field forces in northern Virginia into a single unified command and to gradually absorb the units of the Army of the Potomac – had finally been accomplished, albeit in reverse.
Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan organised the expanded Army of the Potomac temporarily into three wings. The former I Corps of the Army of Virginia was mostly assigned to a new XI Corps (Potomac). The former II Corps of the Army of Virginia was renamed as the new XII Corps (Potomac). The former III Corps of the Army of Virginia was renamed as the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac, resuming its original designation prior to being assigned to the Army of Virginia, and was taken over by Major-General Joseph Hooker.
Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside was given the Right Wing. He commanded I Corps under Major-General Joseph Hooker and Burnside’s own IX Corps under Major-General Jesse Lee Reno. IX Corps was reinforced by the temporary attachment of Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox’s Kanawha Division transferred temporarily from western Virginia, and by the accession of several newly raised regiments.
The Left Wing was commanded by Major-General William Buell Franklin, with Franklin’s own VI Corps reinforced by Major-General Darius Nash Couch’s 3rd Division of IV Corps attached. Couch’s men had been transported by sea to Maryland while the other two divisions of IV Corps remained around Yorktown.
The Centre Wing of II Corps and XII Corps was placed under Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner. The newly formed XII Corps consisted of the two divisions from the renamed II Corps (Virginia) that had been serving under Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks. At the same time, the new XI Corps (Potomac) was established, made up of the three divisions formerly in I Corps (Virginia). Often referred to as the “German Corps”, it was not released from garrison duties at Washington, DC, for the impending campaign and remained in general reserve.
McClellan was also given authority over Major-General Fitz John Porter’s V Corps but this was not assigned to one of the Wings and held as the general reserve. Thirty-five new regiments had been distributed through the army since the defeat at Manassas. With the accession of Cox’s troops from western Virginia, McClellan fielded 88,000 men in seventeen divisions and seven corps.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Coldwater Railroad Bridge.

Virginia.  Union reconnaissance in Loudoun County.

Virginia. Skirmish at Leesburg,

Virginia. Evacuation of Martinsburg.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Charles Town, Hurricane Bridge, and Gauley Bridge.

Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. During the early morning hours, Confederate Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ division arrived at Brownsville, six miles northeast of Harper’s Ferry. He left 3,000 men near Brownsville Gap to protect his rear and moved 3,000 others toward the Potomac River to seal off any eastern escape route from Harper’s Ferry. He dispatched the brigades of Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw and Brigadier-General William Barksdale to seize Maryland Heights. The delayed march of Confederate Brigadier-General John George Walker’s division to Loudoun Heights meant that the proposed attack on the town was deferred. Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s men were also delayed at Martinsburg so the proposed attack on Harper’s Ferry planned for 11 September was postponed. This delay increased the risk that Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan might engage and destroy a portion of Lee’s army while it was divided.
In Harper’s Ferry, the Union garrison commander, Colonel Dixon S Miles interpreted his orders literally to hold the town and insisted on keeping most of his troops in or near the town instead of taking up commanding positions on the surrounding heights. A force posted on the most important position, Maryland Heights, was expected to deter raiders but could not expect to hold the heights against a strong attack. There was a powerful artillery battery halfway up the heights, comprising two 9-inch Dahlgren Naval rifles, one 50-pounder Parrott rifle, and four 12-pounder smoothbores. On the crest, Miles assigned Colonel Thomas H Ford of the 32nd Ohio Infantry to command parts of four regiments, numbering 1,600 men in all. Some of these men, including the 126th New York Infantry, were raw recruits. They erected primitive breastworks and posted skirmishers a quarter-mile away in the direction of the Confederates. They encountered the approaching men from Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw’s brigade, who had been moving slowly through the very difficult terrain on Elk Ridge. Rifle volleys from behind the improvised abattis caused the Confederates to halt for the night.

Union Organisation

USA: The Army of Virginia was discontinued and its forces merged into the Army of the Potomac.
USA: Major-General George Brinton McClellan retained command of the Army of the Potomac and assumed command of the field forces of the discontinued Army of Virginia.

USA: III Corps (Virginia) was discontinued and incorporated into I Corps (Potomac).
USA: I Corps (Potomac) was re-established in the Army of the Potomac, comprising the forces of the discontinued III Corps (Army of Virginia).
USA: Major-General Joseph Hooker assumed command of I Corps (Potomac).

USA: I Corps (Virginia) was discontinued and incorporated into XI Corps (Potomac).
USA: XI Corps (Potomac) was established in the Army of the Potomac, comprising the forces of the discontinued I Corps (Virginia).
USA: Major-General Franz Sigel assumed command of XI Corps (Potomac).

USA: II Corps (Virginia) was discontinued and incorporated into XII Corps (Potomac).
USA: XII Corps (Potomac) was established in the Army of the Potomac, comprising the forces of the discontinued II Corps (Virginia).
USA: Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams assumed temporary command of XII Corps (Potomac).

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Charles Henry Davis
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander Logan
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • Army of the Southwest: Frederick Steele
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Pensacola: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

  • Army of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby interim James Henry Carleton awaited

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: John Pope awaited

  • District of Wisconsin: Washington Lafayette Elliott

Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright

  • District of Louisville: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • I Corps Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
    • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
    • IX Corps Potomac: Jesse Lee Reno
    • XI Corps Potomac: Franz Sigel
    • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary

Department of the South: John Milton Brannan temporary

  • X Corps South: John Milton Brannan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Military District of Washington: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of East Tennessee was extended by adding the area east of the Hiwassee River. The area west of the Hiwassee River was added to the Western Department.

CSA: Brigadier-General Paul Octave Hébert arrived to command the District of Texas.

CSA: William Steele promoted Brigadier-General PACS 26 September 1862 to rank from 12 September 1862.

CSA: James Fleming Fagan promoted Brigadier-General PACS 26 September 1862 to rank from 12 September 1862.

CSA: William Read Scurry promoted Brigadier-General PACS 12 September 1862.

CSA: Allison Nelson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 26 September 1862 to rank from September 12 1862.

CSA: Francis Asbury Shoup promoted Brigadier-General PACS 26 September 1862 to rank from 12 September 1862.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

Department of East Tennessee: John Porter McCown

  • Army of Kentucky: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill

  • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Valley District: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

Department of Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • District of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Braxton Bragg

  • District of the Mississippi: Daniel Ruggles temporary
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: vacant
    • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: vacant
    • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
    • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
  • District of the Tennessee: Sterling Price
  • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
  • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
    • Right Wing Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • Left Wing Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Army of the West: Sterling Price

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
William Nelson
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield*
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Jesse Lee Reno
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Joseph King Fenno Mansfield)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Saloman
James Streshly Jackson
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
Francis Preston Blair
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
William Rufus Terrill
Edward Ferrero

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Edwin Starke
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Allison Nelson
Francis Asbury Shoup

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