1862 October 8th

October 8 1862 Wednesday

Battle of Perryville, KY (CWSAC – Decisive Battle – Inconclusive)

Smith’s Invasion of Kentucky

Bragg’s Invasion of Kentucky

Cuba. The steamer Blanche, anchored off Havana, was set afire to prevent its seizure by USS Montgomery, Commander C Hunter.

Nova Scotia. CSS Alabama, Captain Raphael Semmes, captured and released on bond the packet Tonawanda southeast of Nova Scotia.

California. Expedition to Owen’s River ended.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Lawrenceburg.

Perryville, Kentucky, also known as Chaplin Hills. Three divisions of Confederate General Braxton Bragg’s Army of Mississippi were regrouping near the small crossroads town of Perryville. Their commander, Major-General Leonidas Polk, established a line of defence across the three roads leading into Perryville from the north and west with his first three brigades to arrive. These were three of the four brigades of Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner’s division. Brigadier-General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood’s brigade was placed at the north of town. Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson’s brigade was to Wood’s right, east of the Chaplin River near the Harrodsburg Pike, and Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell’s brigade formed on the crest of Bottom Hill, just east of Bull Run Creek, a tributary of Doctor’s Creek. One regiment, the 7th Arkansas Infantry, was sent forward as an outpost on Peters Hill on the other side of the creek.

Bragg rode from Harrodsburg to Perryville to take charge, and arrived about 10 am. He set up his headquarters at the Crawford house on the Harrodsburg Pike. Bragg was appalled at the condition of the battle line laid out by Polk, which contained gaps and was not properly anchored on the flanks.

The Union Army of the Ohio under Major-General Don Carlos Buell was converging on Perryville in three columns but the movements of the Union I and II Corps were delayed by having to deviate several miles from their line of march in search of water. Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook’s I Corps was camped eight miles from Perryville on the Mackville, on the left flank. On the right flank, Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden’s II Corps, accompanied by the army’s second-in-command Major-General George Henry Thomas, was ten miles from Perryville on the Lebanon road. Only Brigadier-General Charles Champion Gilbert’s III Corps was already on the field, west of Doctor’s Creek and astride the Springfield Pike. Buell was unable to oversee the deployment of his arriving corps in person. He had been thrown from his horse and suffered injuries that prevented him from riding. He established his headquarters at the Dorsey house about three miles due west of Perryville. Buell decided to delay his attack until 9 October when he would have completed his army’s concentration and deployment. He ordered each corps commander to avoid a general engagement.

Finding that there were algae-covered pools of water in the otherwise dry bed of Doctor’s Creek, troops from the 10th Indiana Infantry advanced to take advantage of the water supply. They encountered the forward positions of the 7th Arkansas on Peters Hill and shots were exchanged. At 2 am Union Brigadier-General Philip Henry Sheridan’s division moved forward to seize Peters Hill, as it protected several pools along Doctor’s Creek which were essential to provide the army with a water supply. Sheridan led an attack up the pike with Colonel Daniel McCook’s brigade (36/11/III) and halted just before the Confederate line. Sheridan then seized the hill, driving the Arkansans back to the main line of their brigade. He continued to push vigorously forward across the creek. Liddell’s brigade could not check the momentum of Sheridan’s thirsty soldiers. Buckner, Liddell’s division commander, was ordered by Polk not to reinforce him but to pull his brigade back. Polk was concerned about starting a general engagement to the west of the Chaplin River, out of a fear that he was outnumbered.

On the Union side, Gilbert was equally nervous about bringing on a general engagement against Buell’s orders. He ordered Sheridan to return back across the creek to Peters Hill. Sheridan argued that he was about to be attacked and could not safely withdraw. He continued to hold his advanced ground with his entire division. As the fighting petered out, Gilbert was reassured and he sent forward his two other divisions under Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf and Brigadier-General Robert Byington Mitchell. They took up a position along the road two miles from Perryville and across the Springfield Pike. Gilbert rode to army headquarters at 12.30 pm to report the successful advance and found that the two divisions of Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook’s I Corps were now arriving on his left flank from Mackville.

By mid-morning, Confederate cavalry under Colonel Joseph Wheeler and part of Liddell’s brigade were skirmishing with the two leading divisions) from McCook’s Union I Corps as it drew up against the Union left flank. They were commanded by under Brigadier-General James Streshly Jackson (10/I) and Major-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau (3/I). Unfortunately for the Confederates, their cavalry scouts withdrew before McCook placed an artillery battery (Lieutenant Charles Parsons) and the brigade of Brigadier-General William Rufus Terrill on Open Knob, a prominent hill at the northern end of the battlefield. McCook’s troops were now deploying north of Gilbert’s Corps but west of Doctor’s Creek, which flowed in an eastward turn between the two Corps.

The head of Crittenden’s Union II Corps arrived between 10 am and 11 am and, by 1 pm, it was reported that it was forming on Gilbert’s right flank across the Lebanon Pike and preparing to move north along the ridge (Chaplin heights) to occupy a position on right and east of Doctor’s Creek. Buell’s army was executing his plan promptly to concentrate for a powerful attack. Apart from the divisions of Brigadier-General Joshua Woodrow Sill, which was on its way from Frankfort, and Brigadier-General Ebenezer Dumont’s green troops who were still holding that town as a demonstration, Buell had his entire army of eight divisions concentrated with 55,000 men on a six-mile line. By the afternoon Buell’s army was in position with McCook’s I Corps on the left from the Benton Road to the Mackville Road, Gilbert’s III Corps in the centre on the Springfield Pike, and Crittenden’s II Corps on the right along the Lebanon Pike.

Buell faced only two Confederate divisions with a third approaching. The three Confederate divisions from right to left were under Buckner, Brigadier-General James Patton Anderson, and Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, who deployed near the town. Brigadier-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry continued to skirmish to the south against Crittenden but no infantry held that sector. As Bragg rode in from Harrodsburg at about 10 am, he observed some of McCook’s Union I Corps north of town, but he assumed that the primary threat remained on the Springfield Pike where the action against Gilbert’s III Corps had taken place early in the morning. He was unaware that Crittenden’s Union II Corps was approaching on the Lebanon Pike. He found that Polk was reconnoitring the high ground at the confluence of Doctor’s Creek and Chaplin River.

Bragg questioned Polk why he had not carried out the orders to attack and Polk explained that he believed Buell’s entire army to be present and that they had already advanced along the Springfield Pike. Polk said that he was poised to attack now that Cheatham’s division was in a position to attack the Union left flank north of Doctor’s Creek. Bragg approved Polk’s plan and Cheatham’s and Buckner’s divisions used the woods to conceal their deployment into Walker’s Bend between Doctor’s Creek and Chaplin River. Bragg assumed that this redirected attack would now strike the Union army’s open left flank. Two of Anderson’s brigades would join this attack while his other two brigades made a demonstration to the south and west. Cheatham’s division marched north from the town at 1 pm and prepared to open the attack on the Union left, which Bragg expected to be along the Mackville Road, beginning a large left wheel movement. Anderson’s two brigades would then strike the Union centre and Buckner’s division would follow up on the left. As the attack developed, the third of Anderson’s brigades under Colonel Samuel Powell would join the attack farther to the south along the Springfield Pike, with the fourth remaining in reserve.

The large clouds of dust raised by Cheatham’s division marching at the double-quick north prompted some of McCook’s men to believe that the Confederates were starting to retreat. Cheatham’s artillery bombardment began at 12.30 pm, but he did not immediately order his infantry forward. Union troops continued to file into line, extending their flank to the north, beyond the intended line of attack. Jackson’s Union division was instructed to advance to the banks of the Chaplin River where it could replenish its water. The division was preceded by a dense skirmish line from Terrill’s brigade.

At about 2 pm, Cheatham’s and Buckner’s reinforced divisions advanced and struck with concentrated force, emerging from their concealment in the woods. The Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General Daniel Smith Donelson (Cheatham’s division) was the first across the Chaplin River. They climbed the bluffs on the west bank and began their attack. Two of the brigade’s regiments had been detached leaving only three for the attack. The brigade found that instead of striking the open flank it had expected, it was in fact performing a frontal assault on the centre of a Union line. The 16th Tennessee Infantry under Colonel John H Savage raced ahead of the other two regiments, attempting to reach the artillery battery of Captain Samuel J Harris. As it moved west into a depression, it came under a crossfire from the 33rd Ohio Infantry and the eight guns of Parsons’ artillery on Open Knob, two hundred yards to the north. Parsons’ eight guns on the Open Knob were manned by inexperienced soldiers, some of whom were infantry recruits from the 105th Ohio Infantry of Terrill’s Brigade, which was posted to defend the guns. Donelson’s brigade could not withstand the fire and withdrew with heavy casualties to its starting point at 2.30 pm. Cheatham ordered the brigade of Brigadier-General George Edward Maney forward to deal with Parsons’ Battery on Open Knob. Maney’s brigade was able to approach Open Knob undetected through the woods, just as the Union troops’ attention was focused on Donelson’s attack. Eventually, the Union gunners redirected their fire and a fierce fight ensued at close range. Jackson was killed early in the action and command succeeded to Terrill, who immediately made a rash decision. Fearful for the safety of his artillery he ordered the 123rd Illinois Infantry to mount a bayonet charge down the hill. The 770 raw Union troops suffered heavy casualties at the hands of the veteran Confederates. As reinforcements arrived from the 80th Illinois Infantry and a detachment of infantry commanded by Colonel Theophilus Toulmin Garrard, the two sides were briefly stalemated.

While Maney’s artillery pounded the inexperienced defenders, Maney ordered a charge up the steep slope. He swept the Union men from the hill and captured most of Parsons’ guns. Maney’s attack continued to the west, down the reverse slope of the Open Knob, through a cornfield and across the Benton Road. After the road was another steep ridge, occupied by the 2,200 men in the Union Brigade of Colonel John Converse Starkweather (28/3/I), supported by twelve guns. Starkweather had placed his 21st Wisconsin Infantry in the cornfield about the time that Maney was attacking Parsons’ battery. The inexperienced men of the 21st Wisconsin could see little through the high cornstalks of the cornfield. They were surprised as the remnants of Terrill’s brigade retreated through their position. Terrill convinced the regimental adjutant to order yet another bayonet charge. Two hundred men advanced and were quickly overwhelmed by the oncoming Confederates. While the Union men had to hold their fire to prevent shooting their retreating comrades, artillery fire from Starkweather’s batteries caused numerous casualties among their own men. The 21st Wisconsin managed to fire a volley into the Confederate ranks, but it was decimated by the reply and the survivors fled toward the Benton Road.

The attack had routed Terrill’s inexperienced troops but could not dislodge Starkweather’s brigade and his powerful line of guns made Open Knob an untenable position. To fill a gap in the Confederate line where Donelson’s brigade had fought, Cheatham committed the brigade of Brigadier-General Alexander Peter Stewart and they joined Maney’s brigade in the advance against Starkweather. The 1st Tennessee Infantry attacked the northern end of the hill while the remainder of Maney’s brigade assaulted directly up the slope. Starkweather’s position was a strong one, however, and the Confederates were initially repulsed by strong infantry and artillery fire. A second charge and vicious hand-to-hand fighting brought the Confederates to the crest and among the batteries. Meanwhile, Terrill returned to the fight, leading his troops up the reverse slope of the hill. He was mortally wounded by an artillery shell and died the following morning. Colonel Albert S Hall, who had most recently been leading the remnants of Terrill’s brigade, now assumed command of Jackson’s Division. Hall began the day as regimental commander of the 105th Ohio Infantry but the deaths of Jackson, Terrill, and Colonel George Webster elevated him right up to division command. Starkweather was able to extract six of his twelve guns and moved them 100 yards further west and on to the next ridge. Once again the Union troops had adopted a strong defensive position with good artillery support, and they could line a stone wall at the top of a steep slope.

Meanwhile, the rest of Bragg’s attack became a large pincer movement, forcing both flanks of McCook’s Corps back into a concentrated mass. This mass converged at the Dixville Crossroads, where the Benton Road crossed the Mackville Road. If this intersection were seized, the Confederates could turn the right flank of McCook’s Corps, effectively cutting it off from the rest of the army. However, the northern jaw of the pincer had already been blocked by Starkweather’s defence.

The southern jaw of the attack was launched north of the Mackville Road by two fresh brigades from Buckner’s division: Liddell’s and Wood’s against Colonel Leonard A Harris’ and Colonel William H Lytle’s Union brigades of Rousseau’s division. The initial target of the assault was Colonel George Webster’s brigade of Jackson’s division. Webster was mortally wounded during the fighting. Webster’s infantry, supported by Captain Harris’ artillery battery posted on a hill near the Benton Road, shot Wood’s attackers to pieces and they were forced to fall back. They regrouped at the base of the hill and renewed their assault. Harris’ battery ran low on ammunition and had to withdraw, and a renewed Confederate attack pushed Webster’s men back toward the crossroads. The Union units moved supplies and equipment through the endangered intersection and consolidated their lines on a chain of hills 200 yards to the northwest.

At around 2 pm, the sound of artillery fire reached army headquarters where Buell was having dinner with Gilbert. Hitherto, the two generals had assumed that it was Union artillery practicing and firing ranging shots and they sent word for Sheridan not to waste powder. Sheridan was actually his artillery into the Confederate assault to the north but when Gilbert arrived from the rear he feared that Sheridan would be attacked and isolated across the creek and ordered him back to his entrenchments.

With army headquarters unaware of McCook’s struggle and with his two divisions approaching demoralisation, McCook made belated attempts to secure aid for his beleaguered corps. At 2.30 pm, he sent an aide to Sheridan on Peters Hill, requesting that he secure I Corps’ right flank and dispatched a second staff officer at 3 pm to obtain assistance from the nearest unit from III Corps. The officer encountered Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf, commanding the 1st Division (in III Corps’ reserve). Unwilling to act on his own authority, Schoepf referred the staff officer to Gilbert, who in turn referred him to Buell’s headquarters more than two miles away. The arrival of McCook’s staff officer at about 4 pm surprised the army commander, who had heard little battle noise and found it difficult to believe that a major Confederate attack had been underway for some time. Finally aware of the fact that his army was under serious attack Buell ordered two brigades from Schoepf’s division to support I Corps. The gap was filled by brigades under Colonel Michael Gooding’s Brigade (Mitchell’s division) from Gilbert’s corps and Colonel James Blair Steedman’s brigade of Schoepf’s division.

While Liddell’s men fired at an unknown unit less than 100 yards east of the Dixville crossroad, Polk rode forward to see who had been the victims of the supposedly friendly fire. Polk asked the commander the identity of the unit and found that he had ridden by mistake into the lines of the 22nd Indiana Infantry of Gooding’s brigade. In his dark grey uniform, he was able to pretend he was a Union commander and bluffed his way out, shouting at the Union troops to cease firing. When he had escaped, he shouted to Liddell and the Confederates opened fire, killing Colonel Squire Keith and causing heavy casualties. Polk later blundered into the ranks of the Union 87th Indiana Infantry and again escaped by relying on his dark uniform to conceal his identity. Gooding’s and Steedman’s brigades counter-attacked the Confederate spearhead in Doctor’s Creek and pushed it back. Wood’s Confederates withdrew and were replaced by Liddell’s.

While these attacks were underway the Confederates were also attacking en echelon with Anderson’s division in the centre. At about 2:45 pm, the same time that Maney’s first attack was being repulsed on the Open Knob, the brigade of Colonel Thomas M Jones (Walthall’s) began its attack across a valley commanded by a large sinkhole. Jones had received no orders to attack from Anderson or Hardee but moved forward on his own initiative when he heard the sound of firing to his right. As they entered the valley, his men were cut down by musketry and fire from twelve artillery pieces on the next ridge, where a Union brigade under Colonel Leonard A Harris (Rousseau’s division) was posted. Confederate artillery of Captain Charles Lumsden’s battery returned fire. An optical illusion made the two successive ridges looked the same and they were unable to fix the appropriate range and their fire had no effect on the Union line. Jones’ men were unable to make headway. At 3.30 pm the Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General John Calvin Brown moved up to take the place of Jones’ retreating men. By this time, most of the Union artillery had withdrawn to replenish their ammunition, so Brown’s men did not suffer the same fate as Jones’. Nevertheless, they made no progress against the infantry units in place until successes on the Confederate left had increased the pressure on the Union position.

Almost all of McCook’s I Corps units in this sector were posted at the beginning of the battle on land owned by Henry P Bottom. The corps’ right flank was held by Colonel William H Lytle’s brigade on a ridge on which Squire Bottom’s house and barn were situated, overlooking a bend in the Chaplin River and a hill and farm owned by R F Chatham on the other side. The Confederate attack against this area began with Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson’s brigade descending Chatham House Hill at about 2:45 pm, crossing the almost-dry riverbed and attacking the 3rd Ohio Infantry, commanded by Colonel John Beatty. The attack was disorganised. The last-minute changes of orders from Buckner were not distributed to all of the participating units and friendly fire from Confederate artillery broke their lines while they still stood on Chatham House Hill. When the infantry attack eventually moved up the hill, fighting from stone wall to stone wall, Confederate artillery bombarded the 3rd Ohio and set afire Squire Bottom’s log barn. The Ohioans withdrew and were replaced in their position by the 15th Kentucky Infantry. As Johnson’s men ran low on ammunition, Brigadier-General Patrick Cleburne’s Confederate brigade (Buckner’s division) entered the battle at about 3:40 pm. Cleburne was wounded but he kept his troops moving forward. As they advanced up the slope, they were subjected to artillery fire from their own side, perhaps because many were wearing blue uniform trousers taken from the Union garrison at Richmond. As the Confederate attack en echelon developed, the brigade of Colonel Samuel Powell (Anderson’s division) was ordered to advance in conjunction with Brigadier-General Daniel Weisiger Adams’ brigade, on Cleburne’s left. The two brigades were widely separated, however, with Powell’s moving on Edwards House Hill, immediately west of Perryville. Adams’ brigade joined the attack against the Union 15th Kentucky, which had been reinforced by three companies of the 3rd Ohio. The Union troops retreated to the west toward the Russell House, which housed McCook’s headquarters. Lytle was wounded as he attempted to rally his men. He was left for dead and captured. While Lytle’s brigade was being beaten back, the left flank of Sheridan’s division was now only a few hundred yards away to the south on Peters Hill. At about 4 pm, Powell received orders from Bragg to advance west on the Springfield Pike to silence the battery of Captain Henry Hescock, which was firing into the left flank of the assault. This was assumed to be an isolated battery but the three regiments of Powell’s brigade encountered Sheridan’s division and although Sheridan was initially concerned by the Confederates’ aggressive attack and sent for reinforcements, the three regiments were quickly repulsed. Sheridan hesitated to pursue the smaller force and also refused a request by one of his brigade commanders, Colonel Daniel McCook, to move north in support of his brother’s Corps.

McCook’s requests for reinforcements proved invaluable as they began to arrive. Union Colonel William Passmore Carlin’s brigade (Mitchell’s division) moved up on Sheridan’s right. Carlin’s men moved aggressively in pursuit of Powell, chasing them toward Perryville. As they reached the cemetery on the western outskirts of town, a fierce artillery duel began. Carlin pressed forward and was joined by the Colonel George Day Wagner (Wood’s division, II Corps), and captured 15 ammunition wagons, proving that they were breaking into the Confederate rear. They were poised to capture the town and batteries were put into position west of the town to dominate the critical crossroads which controlled Bragg’s avenue of withdrawal. As darkness fell an order from Gilbert to Mitchell curtailed the advance, despite Mitchell’s furious protestations.

Maney’s and Stewart’s men attempted three more assaults to break the Union line in the north, they were all unsuccessful, and they withdrew to the vicinity of the Open Knob at around 5.30 pm. Two of Polk’s brigades were pulled back to the left rear to oppose the attack on Perryville and all hopes of a further advance were ended. Bragg had fought aggressively with 16,000 men against an army of 55,000. He had pushed his opponent back for over a mile but his precarious situation now became clear when he finally learned about the presence of Union II Corps’ presence on the Lebanon Pike, far beyond his exposed left flank. Aware at last that he faced the whole Union army and not an isolated portion as he had imagined, Bragg met with his subordinates at the Crawford House at 9 pm and gave orders to begin a withdrawal after midnight, leaving only a picket line in place. His army marched to join Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith at Harrodsburg.

Late in the day, Buell understood the opportunity before him and he sent a courier to order Thomas to advance with Crittenden’s corps. The courier got lost in the swampy Doctor’s Creek and only arrived after sunset. Thomas responded that he thought he was faced by a strong face but he would advance in the morning when he heard firing to the left. Buell insisted that Crittenden’s Corps should move up during the night and to attack vigorously at daylight. The orders were repeated in person and transmitted to Crittenden at 1.30 am. For most of the day, Crittenden and Gilbert were at Buell’s headquarters only two miles away from the action but a phenomenon of acoustic shadow kept them largely oblivious of the fact that McCook and Sheridan were heavily engaged not far away. Gilbert’s III Corps with 20,000 men had been distracted by just 2,500 Confederates. Only nine Union brigades, mostly from McCook’s I Corps and its 12,500 men, were engaged in the battle while fifteen others were within supporting distance but did not enter the fight. Crittenden’s II Corps with 22,500 men remained unengaged, facing Wheeler’s 1,200 Confederate cavalry and two guns masquerading as a stronger force in his front.

Union casualties were 4,276 (845 to 894 killed, 2,851 to 2,911 wounded, 471 to 515 captured or missing). Confederate casualties were 3,396 to 3,401 (510 to 532 killed, 2,635 to 2,641 wounded, 228 to 251 captured or missing). (CWSAC – Decisive Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: PERRYVILLE, KY

Union Department of the Ohio: Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
District of Louisville: Brigadier-General Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Army of the Ohio: Major-General Don Carlos Buell, Major-General George Henry Thomas (second-in-command)
I Corps (Ohio): Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook
2nd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Joshua Woodrow Sill
4th Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel H M Buckley
5th Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel Edward Needles Kirk
6th Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel W H Gibson
3rd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau
9th Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel Leonard A Harris
17th Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel William Haines Lytle
28th Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel John Converse Starkweather
10th Division, I Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General James Streshly Jackson
33rd Brigade, 10th Division, I Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General William Rufus Terrill
34th Brigade, 10th Division, I Corps (Ohio): Colonel George P Webster
II Corps (Ohio): Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
4th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General William Sooy Smith
10th Brigade, 4th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel William Grose
19th Brigade, 4th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel William Babcock Hazen
22nd Brigade, 4th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Charles Cruft
5th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
11th Brigade, 5th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel Samuel Beatty
14th Brigade, 5th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel Pierce Butler Hawkins
23rd Brigade, 5th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel Stanley Matthews
6th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood
15th Brigade, 6th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Milo Smith Hascall
20th Brigade, 6th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel Charles Garrison Harker
21st Brigade, 6th Division, II Corps (Ohio): Colonel George Day Wagner
III Corps (Ohio) “Army of Kentucky”: Brigadier-General Charles Champion Gilbert
1st Division, III Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf
1st Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Ohio): Colonel Moses B Walker
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Speed Smith Fry
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General James Blair Steedman
9th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Robert Byington Mitchell
30th Brigade, 9th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Colonel Michael Gooding
31st Brigade, 9th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Colonel William Passmore Carlin
32nd Brigade, 9th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Colonel William W Caldwell
11th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Philip Henry Sheridan
35th Brigade, 11th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Lieutenant-Colonel Bernard Laiboldt
36th Brigade, 11th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Colonel Daniel McCook
37th Brigade, 11th Division, III Corps (Ohio): Colonel Nicholas Gruesel
7th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General George Washington Morgan (transferred to Ohio from Cumberland Gap)
8th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General James Scott Negley
7th Brigade, 8th Division (Ohio): Colonel J F Miller
29th Brigade, 8th Division (Ohio): Colonel T R Stanley
12th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General Ebenezer Dumont
38th Brigade, 12th Division (Ohio): Colonel M W Chapin
39th Brigade, 12th Division (Ohio): Colonel G T Limberg
40th Brigade, 12th Division (Ohio): Colonel A O Miller
Ward’s Brigade, 12th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward
Cavalry Division (Ohio): Colonel J Kennett
1st Brigade, Cavalry Division (Ohio): Colonel Edward Moody McCook
2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division (Ohio): Colonel L Zahm
3rd Brigade, Cavalry Division (Ohio): Captain E Gay
Department of the Missouri: Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis
Army of the Mississippi: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans
1st Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John McAuley Palmer
1st Brigade, 1st Division (Mississippi): Colonel G W Roberts
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Dada Morgan

Confederate Western Department: General Braxton Bragg
Army of Mississippi: Major-General Leonidas Polk
Right Wing (Mississippi): Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Cheatham’s Division, Right Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Daniel Smith Donelson
Donelson’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, Right Wing (Mississippi): Colonel John H Savage
Stewart’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, Right Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Alexander Peter Stewart
Maney’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, Right Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General George Edward Maney
Smith’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, Right Wing (Mississippi): Colonel Preston Smith
Wharton’s Cavalry Brigade, Right Wing (Mississippi): Colonel John A Wharton
Left Wing (Mississippi): Major-General William Joseph Hardee
Anderson’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Patton Anderson
Brown’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Calvin Brown
Adams’ Brigade, Anderson’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Daniel Weisiger Adams
J P Anderson’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Colonel Samuel Powell
Walthall’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Colonel Thomas M Jones
Buckner’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner
Cleburne’s Brigade, Buckner’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Liddell’s Brigade, Buckner’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson’s Brigade, Buckner’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson
Wood’s Brigade, Buckner’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
Breckinridge’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge
Pillow’s Brigade, Breckinridge’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Colonel J B Palmer
Hanson’s Brigade, Breckinridge’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Robert Weightman Hanson
Jackson’s Brigade, Breckinridge’s Division, Left Wing (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John King Jackson
Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Major-General Jones Mitchell Withers
Deas’ Brigade, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Colonel J Q Loomis
Chalmers’ Brigade, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers
J P Anderson’s Brigade, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Colonel A M Manigault
Army of Kentucky: Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith
McCown’s Division (Kentucky): Major-General John Porter McCown
Ector’s Brigade, McCown’s Division (Kentucky): Brigadier-General Matthew Duncan Ector
Rains’ Brigade, McCown’s Division (Kentucky): Brigadier-General James Edwards Rains
McNair’s Brigade, McCown’s Division (Kentucky) Brigadier-General Evander McNair
Wheeler’s Cavalry Brigade (Kentucky): Colonel Joseph Wheeler
Buford’s Cavalry Brigade (Kentucky): Brigadier-General Abraham Buford
Pegram’s Cavalry Brigade (Kentucky): Brigadier-General John Pegram

Kentucky. At long last, Confederate General Braxton Bragg was close enough to assert field command of the Army of Kentucky under Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith. He began to direct Smith as a part of his own Army of the Mississippi, initially as an autonomous force and ultimately as a corps of his army. Smith had been operating with fierce independence, but was now too close to the ranking Army officer not to cooperate with Bragg. The three senior Major-Generals in Bragg’s army  were Leonidas Polk, William Joseph Hardee, and Smith – but Smith was the junior of the three. This state of affairs lasted only one day as the imminent announcement of the first promotions to Lieutenant-General in the Confederate Army would rank Smith above both Polk and Hardee at that grade.

Maryland. Virginia. The departure of Union Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox to western Virginia with the Kanawha division left the command of the IX Corps in the hands of Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox. Brigadier-General William Wallace Burns took command of the 1st Division and Brigadier-General George Washington Getty took over the 3rd Division after the death of wounds of Brigadier-General Isaac Peace Rodman.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Conrad’s Ferry to Leesburg.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance by Major-General Franz Sigel from Fairfax Court Hosue to Aldie began.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox assumed temporary command of IX Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox.

Willcox, Orlando Bolivar / Michigan / Born 16 April 1823 Detroit, Michigan / Died Coburg, Ontario, Canada 190 May 1907
UMA 1 July 1847 8/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 April 1850 / Resigned USA 10 September 1857 / Captain Michigan Militia 1857 / Colonel USV 1st Michigan Infantry 1 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 19 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Major-General USV 5 February 1863 Withdrawn 12 February 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 29th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 12th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Brigadier-General USA 13 October 1886 / Retired USA 16 April 1887 / Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 Brevet Major-General USA 2 March 1867 Medal of Honor 21 July 1861 / WIA and CIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 Exchanged 15 August 1862
2nd Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia June 1861-21 July 1861 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 8 September 1862-8 October 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 8 October 1862-16 January 1863 / 1st Division IX Corps Department of Virginia 7 February 1863-8 March 1863 / IX Corps Virginia 8 March 1863-17 March 1863 / 1st Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 19 March 1863-13 April 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 6 April 1863-5 June 1863 / District of Central Kentucky 10 April 1863-3 June 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 5 June 1863-5 June 1863 / District of Indiana and Michigan 5 June 1863-11 September 1863 / Forces in east Tennessee 6 October 1861-21 November 1863 / District of the Clinch 21 November 1863-17 January 1864 / IX Corps Ohio 17 January 1864-26 January 1864 / IX Corps Ohio 16 March 1864-19 April 1864 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 19 April 1864-1 September 1864 / IX Corps Potomac 1 September 1864-10 September 1864 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 10 September 1864-13 September 1864 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 30 September 1864-31 December 1864 / IX Corps Potomac 31 December 1864-12 January 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 12 January 1865-24 January 1865 / IX Corps Potomac 24 January 1865-2 February 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 2 February 1865-20 February 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 7 March 1865-24 April 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Department of Washington 24 April 1865-17 June 1865 / District of Washington 26 April 1865-2 August 1865 / IX Corps Washington 17 June 1865-2 July 1865 / Department of the Ohio 26 December 1865-13 January 1866

USA: Lovell Harrison Rousseau promoted Major-General USV 22 October 18632 to rank from 8 October 1862.

Rousseau, Lovell Harrison / Kentucky / Born 4 August 1818 Stanford, Kentucky / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 7 January 1869
Captain USV 2nd Indiana Infantry 22 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 23 June 1847 / Colonel USV 3rd Kentucky Infantry 9 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1861 / Major-General USV 22 October 1862 to rank from 8 October 1862 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 / Brigadier-General USA 28 March 1867 / Brevet Major-General USA 28 March 1867
1st Brigade Department of the Cumberland 5 October 1861- 9 November 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1862-11 July 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Ohio 11 July 1862-28 September 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 1st Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-17 January 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 29 March 1863-26 July 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 21 September 1863-10 November 1863 / District of Nashville 10 November 1863-30 May 1864 / m3rd Division XII Corps Department of the Cumberland 2 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 4th Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 February 1865 / District of Tennessee 30 May 1864-28 February 1865 / District of Middle Tennessee 28 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of the Columbia 29 April 1867-4 April 1868 / Department of Louisiana 28 July 1868-7 January 1869

USA: James Birdseye McPherson promoted Major-General USV 8 October 1862.

McPherson, James Birdseye / Ohio / Born 14 November 1828 Clyde, Ohio / KIA Atlanta, Georgia 22 July 1864
USMA 1 July 1853 1/52 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1849 / Engineers 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 December 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA 13 December 1858 / Captain USA 6 August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA ADC (H W Halleck) 9 November 1861-30 November 1861 / 12 November 1861 / Colonel USA Staff 1 May 1862 / Colonel USA ADC (U S Grant) 1 May 1862-4 June 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 15 May 1862 / Major-General USV 8 October 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 4 August 1863 to rank from 1 August 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853
Chief Engineer Department of the Missouri 30 November 1861-23 December 1861 /Chief Engineer Army of West Tennessee 23 December 1861-11 March 1862 / Chief Engineer Army of the Tennessee 11 March 1862-1 May 1862 / Chief Engineer Department of the Mississippi 4 June 1862-4 October 1862 / Right Wing XIII Corps Tennessee 1 November 1862-27 November 1862 / Centre XIII Corps Tennessee 27 November 1862-22 December 1862 / XVII Corps Tennessee 22 December 1862-12 March 1864 / Department of the Tennessee 12 March 1864-22 July 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 26 March 1864-22 July 1864

USA: Brigadier-General James Streshly Jackson was killed at Perryville.

Jackson, James Streshly / Kentucky / Born 27 September 1823 Fayette, Kentucky / KIA Perryville, Kentucky 8 October 1862
Private USV 1st Kentucky Cavalry 9 June 1846 / 3rd Lieutenant USV 9 July 1846 / Resigned USV 10 October 1846 / Colonel USV 3rd Kentucky Cavalry 13 December 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 19 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862
Cavalry 5th Division Army of the Ohio April 1862-May 1862 / Jackson’s Brigade Cavalry Army of Kentucky 25 August 1862-30 August 1862 / 10th Brigade Army of the Ohio September 1862-29 September 1862 / 10th Brigade I Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-8 October 1862

USA: Brigadier-General William Rufus Terrill was killed at Perryville.

Terrill, William Rufus / Virginia / Born 21 April 1834 Covington, Virginia / KIA Perryville, Kentucky 8 October 1862
USMA 1 July 1853 16/52 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1849 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 4 November 1853 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 March 1856 / Captain USA 5th US Artillery 14 May 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 September 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853
Assistant Inspector-General Department of Washington 1861 / 33rd Brigade 10th Division Army of the Ohio September 1862-29 September 1862 / 33rd Brigade 10th Division I Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-8 October 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
      • Army of the Southwest: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Lewis Merrill
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • Army of Southwestern Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of Pensacola: Neal S Dow
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Wisconsin: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Louisville: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Western Virginia: Jacob Dolson Cox
      • Sub-District of the Kanawha: Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • I Corps Ohio: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • II Corps Ohio: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • III Corps Ohio: Charles Champion Gilbert
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
      • IX Corps Potomac: Orlando Bolivar Willcox temporary
      • XI Corps Potomac: Franz Sigel
      • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary
  • Department of the South: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
    • X Corps South: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Sub-District of Jackson: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Colorado: John Milton Chivington
  • Military District of Washington: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of Kentucky was subordinated temporarily to the Army of Mississippi for the subsequent duration of operations in Kentucky.

CSA: Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith retained command of the Army of Kentucky.

Smith, Edmund Kirby / Florida / Born 16 May 1824 St Augustine, Florida / Died Sewanee, Tennessee 28 March 1893
USMA 1 July 1845 25/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 / 5th US Infantry 1 July 1845 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 22 August 1846 / 1st Lieutenant 9 March 1851 / Captain USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Major USA 31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 6 April 1861 / Major ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 13 October 1861 to rank from 11 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 to rank from 9 October 1862 / General PACS 19 February 1864 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1845 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Old Fort Atchison, Texas 13 May 1859 WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 CIA Texas 26 May 1865
Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the Shenandoah June 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Shenandoah June 1861-20 July 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-21 July 1861 / Department of Middle and East Florida 10 October 1861-21 October 1861 / 4th Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-5 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-21 February 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 25 February 1862-31 August 1862 / Army of East Tennessee 9 March 1862-25 August 1862 / Army of Kentucky 16 August 1862-20 November 1862 / III (Smith’s) Corps Mississippi 13 October 1862-20 November 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 20 October 1862-11 November 1862 / III Corps Tennessee 20 November 1862-23 December 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 23 December 1862-3 February 1863 / Trans-Mississippi Department 14 January 1863-19 April 1865 / Southwest Army 14 January 1863-8 February 1863 / Trans-Mississippi Army 9 February 1863-19 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Department 22 April 1865-26 May 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Army 22 April 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: Elkanah Brackin Greer confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 4 October 1862 to rank from 8 October 1862.

Greer, Elkanah Brackin / Mississippi-Texas / Born 11 October 1825 Paris, Tennessee / Died 25 March 1877
Private USV 1st Mississippi Rifles 1845-1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Texas Cavalry 1 July 1861 / South Kansas and Texas Cavalry August 1861 / Resigned PACS 1 June 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 4 October 1862 to rank from 8 October 1862 / No Record of Parole / WIA Pea Ridge March 1862
Cavalry Brigade Army of the West 13 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi 27 March 1865-26 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of East Tennessee: John Porter McCown
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton awaited
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
  • Department of Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: States Rights Gist temporary
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • District of Middle and East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Southwest Army: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: vacant
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Tennessee: John Porter McCown
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Samuel Jones
    • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
    • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk temporary
      • Army of Kentucky: Edmund Kirby Smith
      • Right Wing Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • Left Wing Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of West Tennessee: Earl Van Dorn

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton
Jacob Dolson Cox
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
James Streshly Jackson KIA
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
Francis Preston Blair
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
William Rufus Terrill KIA
Edward Ferrero
Francis Laurens Vinton
Henry Jackson Hunt
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Henry Hastings Sibley
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
John Milton Thayer
Solomon Meredith

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
David Rumph Jones

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
John Sappington Marmaduke
Elkanah Brackin Greer

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