1862 May 30th

May 30 1862 Friday

Booneville, MS

Front Royal, VA

Siege of Corinth Ended, MS (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Peninsula Campaign

First Corinth Campaign

Jackson‘s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Mississippi. Occupation of Corinth. Incidents at Tuscumbia Bridge and Tuscumbia Creek.

Corinth, Mississippi. Confederate forces under General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard had evacuated Corinth overnight to avoid the impending siege by Union Major-General Henry Halleck’s larger force. The Union armies were deceived by the Confederates’ elaborate ruses and waited to receive an attack at dawn. However, the Confederates did not deliver attack but had slipped away undetected, withdrawing towards Tupelo by way of the Tuscumbia River. When Union patrols finally entered Corinth during the morning, the Confederates had gone. The entire population, apart from two families, had also abandoned the town to the invaders. Halleck rightly claimed a significant victory after taking the vital intersection in seven weeks of inexorable progress, but he had failed to engage pr defeat the Confederate army that had eluded him. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Booneville, Mississippi. The Union pursuit to Bonneville began. The Union consolidated their position in northern Mississippi after the capture of Corinth. Union Major-General John Pope’s Army of the Mississippi conducted a brief pursuit from Corinth and captured some stragglers and deserters but failed to contact the enemy’s main force. However, at Booneville, Union Colonel Philip Henry Sheridan and his cavalry distinguished themselves and gained a reputation for aggressiveness. Sheridan’s troops captured or destroyed 10,000 small arms, three artillery pieces, and large quantities of clothing and ammunition. Sheridan paroled 2,000 Confederate prisoners.

North Carolina. Skirmish at Tranter’s Creek near Washington, involving Union Captain George F Jocknick (3rd New York Cavalry.

Tennessee. Destruction of Cypress Creek Bridge and Tuscumbia bridge.

Texas. Martial law was declared in Texas.

Virginia. Union raid to Shaver’s River against Confederate guerrillas.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Zuni, Lewisburg, Greenwich, and Harper’s Ferry.

Virginia. Skirmish at Fair Oaks.

Virginia. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston knew that he could not withstand a regular siege at Richmond and decided to attack Union George Brinton McClellan’s Army of the Potomac before a siege could be instigated. His original plan was to attack the Union right flank north of the Chickahominy River before Major-General Irvin McDowell’s Corps could arrive from Fredericksburg to strengthen it. When Johnston learned that McDowell’s corps had now been diverted to the Shenandoah Valley and would not be reinforcing the Army of the Potomac, he decided against making an attack that denied him the natural defence line of the Chickahominy River. His new plan was to exploit the Union army’s separation into two parts by the Chickahominy and to attack the two corps south of the river, while they were beyond immediate support from the other three corps north of the river. If executed correctly, Johnston would attack with two-thirds of his army (about 51,000 men) against the 33,000 men in the Union III and IV Corps.

The Confederate attack plan was simple but required the timely coordination of columns that were marching out of sight of each other to converge simultaneously at one point.  The plan called for the divisions of Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill and Major-General John Bankhead Magruder to engage lightly and distract the Union forces north of the river, while Major-General James Longstreet, commanding the main attack south of the river, converged on the Union IV Corps at Fair Oaks from three directions. Six brigades under Longstreet’s immediate command and four brigades under Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill were to advance on separate roads to a crossroads known as Seven Pines (named after a cluster of seven large pine trees). Three brigades under Major-General Benjamin Huger were assigned to march from Richmond to support D H Hill’s right. Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting’s division (formerly the division of Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith) was to follow Longstreet’s column as a reserve.

The Confederate plan had excellent potential for success because the foremost division of IV Corps, manning the earthworks a mile west of Seven Pines, was the least experienced in the Union corps. These 6,000 men were commanded by Brigadier-General Silas Casey. If the entire  Union IV Corps under Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes could be defeated quickly, the III Corps further east, could then be trapped against the Chickahominy and overwhelmed before reinforcements crossed the river.

The complex plan was mismanaged from the start and showed poor staff work. Johnston chose to issue his orders to Longstreet orally in a long and rambling meeting. The other generals received written orders that were vague and contradictory. He also failed to notify all of the division commanders that Longstreet was in tactical command south of the river, vene over officers who were senior to him. This missing detail was a serious oversight because both Huger and Smith technically outranked Longstreet. On Longstreet’s part, he either misunderstood his orders or chose to modify them without informing Johnston. Rather than taking his assigned avenue of advance on the Nine Mile Road, his column joined D H Hill’s on the Williamsburg Road, which not only delayed the advance but limited the attack to a narrow front with only a fraction of its total force. Exacerbating the problems on both sides, there  was a severe thunderstorm during the night, which flooded the river, destroyed most of the Union bridges, and turned the roads into morasses of mud. At least one Union soldier and four Confederates were killed by lightning strikes.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson started to withdraw towards Strasburg, leaving one brigade under Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder as a rearguard to hold up pursuit from Harper’s Ferry by Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks and Brigadier-General Rufus Saxton. Jackson’s wagon train of captured supplies and arms was eight miles long and was weighed down with valuable booty. Jackson then learned that Front Royal had been recaptured by the advanced guard of Major-General Irvin McDowell arriving from Manassas (the division of Brigadier-General James Shields), He also learned that the forces of Major-General John Charles Frémont were already closer to Strasburg than Jackson was himself, threatening to cut off his line of retreat. Jackson’s main body had to make  a twenty-five march to escape the trap, while the rearguard brigade was thirty-eight miles distant from the escape route. Confederate Brigadier-General Turner Ashby’s cavalry skirmished energetically with Frémont’s troops to delay their advance.

Front Royal, Virginia. Front Royal had been occupied by the Confederates since 23 May and the valuable supplies captured there were left under the guard of Colonel Z T Connor and the 12th Georgia Infantry from Brigadier-General Edward Johnson’s command. At about 11.30 am, Union Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball’s brigade, which was heading the return of Brigadier-General James Shields’ 1st Division of the Department of the Rappahannock to the Shenandoah Valley, approached Front Royal after an all-night march. Conner panicked and left immediately for Winchester to report. In his absence, Captain William F Brown began to burn the supply depot before retreating towards Winchester. A Union troop of 30 men from the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry started a pursuit and took 156 prisoners for the loss of 14 men. The Confederate spy Belle Boyd was captured during their occupation of the town and 24 Union prisoners were released from captivity. On hearing of the surprise defeat at Front Royal, Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson put Conner under arrest.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Mississippi: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
    • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
      • District of St Louis: Lewis Merrill
      • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
      • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
        • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
      • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Adams Dix
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont
    • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
    • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Central and Northern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell
    • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
    • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
    • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Reserve Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman awaited
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn interim Thomas Carmichael Hindman awaited
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore

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