1862 May 31st

May 31 Saturday

Battle of Fair Oaks, VA

Peninsula Campaign – Fair Oaks

Jackson‘s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Arkansas. Reconnaissance to Little Red River. Incident at Grande Glaize.

California. Skirmish with Indians on the Eel River near Van Dusen’s Creek.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Tuscumbia Creek.

Missouri. Skirmish at Florida on the Salt River.

Missouri. Skirmishes at Waynesville and Rensey’s Ferry.

Missouri. Skirmish against pro-Confederate Cherokee Indians and guerrillas near Neosho.

North Carolina. Expedition to Edenton ended.

North Carolina. Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan, commanding USS Philadelphia, reported the capture of the schooner W F Harris in Core Sound.

South Carolina. USS Keystone State, Commander William Edgar Le Roy, captured the blockade-running British schooner Cora off Charleston.

Virginia. Expedition to Norfolk ended. Evacuation of West Point.

Virginia. Skirmish at Front Royal.

Virginia. By noon, the majority of Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s force of 15,000 men, with 2,000 prisoners and a double train of supply wagons seven miles long were approaching Strasburg from Winchester. The brigade with the longest march, thirty-five miles distance from the outskirts of Harper’s Ferry, had halted in exhaustion four miles south of Winchester. Despite the fact that 50,000 Union troops were planning to trap Jackson, and 40,000 more were being diverted from the concentric advance on Richmond, it was proving impossible so far to encircle or capture his command.

Virginia. The Union Army of the Potomac was accompanied by the Army Balloon Corps commanded by Professor Thaddeus S C Lowe. Lowe had established two balloon camps on the north side of the river, one at Gaines’ Farm and one at Mechanicsville. Bad weather prevented the balloons from being launched before the start of the battle at Fair Oaks to provide an early warning of the attack. The aerostats or balloons Washington and Intrepid were finally launched after 2 pm but Lowe and his assistant were unable to see specific troop movements through the heavy forest from their position north of the river and provided no useful intelligence to the Union army at Fair Oaks.

Virginia. The first true machine-gun to be used successfully employed in battle was used by its inventor, Captain R S Williams, at Fair Oaks. The Williams Rapid-Fire Gun was a 1-pounder steel breech-loader with a 2-inch bore. The positive results persuaded the Confederate government to order six weapons. They formed the equipment of Williams’, later Schoolfield’s, battery in the western theatre. It is thought that two batteries of six guns were made at Lynchburg, four batteries at Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond and one at Mobile.

Fair Oaks, Virginia, also known as Seven Pines. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston attempted to overwhelm two Union corps that appeared to be isolated south of the Chickahominy River at Fair Oaks and Seven Pines.

The Confederate divisions of Major-General Ambrose Powell and Major-General John Bankhead Magruder screened the crossings of the Chickahominy River while Major-General Longstreet’s Centre Wing, reinforced by Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting’s division, marched to envelop the Union right flank along the Nine Mile Road. Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill’s division was to make a secondary attack along the Williamsburg Road while Major-General Benjamin Huger’s division came up to protect the Confederate right by marching south-eastwards along the Charles City Road.

The Confederate assaults were poorly coordinated and Longstreet took the Charles City Road and turned onto the Williamsburg Road, instead of taking the Nine Mile Road. This decision out him on the road prescribed for D H Hill and Huger. This delayed both of these divisions for many hours and also that of Whiting. Huger’s orders had not specified a time that an attack was scheduled to start and he was not awakened until he heard a division marching nearby and found his route blocked. Even when he got moving, Huger’s division became embroiled in the upper reaches of White Oak Swamp and could not find the enemy. His division contributed little to the attack.

Johnston and his second-in-command, Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith, unaware of Longstreet’s location or his misguided change of route or of Huger’s delay, waited at their headquarters for word or sound of the start of the battle. Five or six hours after the scheduled start of the battle at 1 pm, D H Hill became impatient and sent his brigades forward against Brigadier-General Silas Casey’s division of Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes’ IV Corps. Hill attacked alone across boggy, wooded terrain towards Seven Pines. Casey’s line was manned by inexperienced troops. Some units buckled, others retreated, while others  but fought fiercely for possession of their earthworks, resulting in heavy casualties on both sides. Four of Hill’s five brigades under Brigadier-General Samuel Garland, Colonel George Burgwyn Anderson, Brigadier-General Gabriel James Rains and Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes (who advanced separately on the right flank) suffered very severe losses of 1,094 out of 2,000 men taken into action. Casey sent for reinforcements but Keyes was slow in responding. Eventually, the Confederates broke through, seized a Union redoubt with eight guns, and Casey’s men retreated from Fair Oaks to the second line of defensive works at Seven Pines. Hill’s men pressed on towards Seven Pines.

As late as 2.30 pm, Union Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman reported to McClellan, who  was still sick in bed, that he had received no word from Keyes. On the Confederate side, Johnston was only two and a half miles from the front, but an acoustic shadow prevented him from hearing the sounds of cannons and musketry and he and his staff did not know the battle had begun until despatches were received at about 4 pm.

The Union launched a counter-attack with a bayonet charge led by Brigadier-General Henry Morris Naglee’s brigade (1/2/IV), which allowed Casey (2nd Division of IV Corps) to extract his artillery to a safer line. The other IV Corps division of Brigadier-General Darius Nash Couch led a counter-attack by 7th Massachusetts Infantry and 62nd New York Infantry to reinforce the 23rd Pennsylvania Infantry and 61st Pennsylvania Infantry on his right flank. Despite the aggressive riposte, the Confederates crushed this flank and Couch was forced back to avoid encirclement, joining Brigadier-General John Joseph Abercrombie’s brigade (2/1/ IV) at Seven Pines.

Around 4.40 pm, Hill, finally strengthened by reinforcements from Longstreet, hit the secondary Union line near Seven Pines, which was held by the remnants of Casey’s division. Casey was reinforced by Couch, and also by Brigadier-General Philip Kearny’s division from Heintzelman’s III Corps. Hill organized a flanking manoeuvre, sending four regiments under Colonel Micah Jenkins from Longstreet’s command to attack Keyes’ right flank. The attack drove the Union line back to the Williamsburg Road, a mile and a half beyond Seven Pines. A later attack by Brigadier-General Richard Heron Anderson’s brigade pushed the advance a little further. Longstreet committed two more brigades under Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox and Colonel James Lawson Kemper on the Williamsburg Road and those of Brigadier-General Raleigh Edward Colston and Brigadier-General Roger Atkinson Pryor on the right flank.

Union Brigadier-General John James Peck’s brigade (1/1/ IV) held the left flank at Fair Oaks for two hours before withdrawing in good order. Hurrying forward over muddy roads from Bottom’s Bridge, Union Brigadier-General Philip Kearny’s division (3/III) reinforced Peck’s weakening line. When further reinforcements from Brigadier-General Hiram Gregory Berry’s (3/3/III) and Brigadier-General Charles Davis Jameson’s (1/3/III) brigades arrived, Casey attempted to regain some of his lost ground but was repulsed. Late in the afternoon, the 10th Massachusetts Infantry was led across half a mile of open ground by Union IV Corps commander, Keyes, to a critical point which secured this third defensive line for the Union. Fighting ceased in this sector around 6 pm. Huger’s division never arrived to join the attack.

Just before Hill’s attack began, Johnston jad received a note from Longstreet requesting that he come to join the battle, the first news he had heard of the fighting. Johnston went forward on the Nine Mile Road with three brigades of Whiting’s division and encountered stiff resistance near Fair Oaks Station, the right flank of Keyes’ line.

At 2.30 pm McClellan had finally responded to the sound of gunfire by ordering his II Corps under Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner to cross the rain-swollen Chickahominy River at the Grapevine Bridge as reinforcements. Sumner had heard the sounds of battle from his position north of the river and on his own initiative dispatched a division under Brigadier-General John Sedgwick over the sole remaining bridge. The treacherous “Grapevine Bridge” was near collapse from the swollen river, but the weight of the crossing troops helped to hold it steady against the rushing water. After the last man had crossed safely, the bridge collapsed and was swept away. Sedgwick arrived at Fair Oaks at about 4 pm, just as Whiting’s Confederate division arrived along the Nine Mile Road to reinforce D H Hill at Fair Oaks. Whiting was the vanguard of Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith’s troops. They turned to face the new arrivals, attacked, were repulsed and then driven back. The collision prevented Sumner from striking Longstreet’s exposed left flank and Whiting from hitting the right flank of Keyes, so the outcome was a stalemate.

During the chaos Johnston was struck in the right shoulder by a bullet, immediately followed by a shell fragment hitting him in the chest. He fell unconscious from his horse and was evacuated to Richmond. Command of the Confederate Army and Department of North Virginia devolved temporarily to Smith. Smith was plagued with ill health, and was soon almost paralysed by a nervous affliction. He was not clear about Johnston’s plan and was indecisive about the next steps for the battle. President Jefferson Finis Davis and General Robert Edward Lee, his military adviser had ridden from the capital to observe the action and concluded that Smith was not capable of leading the battle in the morning.

The first day of fighting favoured the Confederates despite their parlous staff work and command confusion. They had taken 10 guns and 347 prisoners. However, the cost in killed and wounded was higher for the Confederates.

ORDER OF BATTLE: FAIR OAKS, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
II Corps (Potomac): Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner
1st Division, II: Major-General Israel Bush Richardson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II: Brigadier-General Oliver Otis Howard
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II: Brigadier-General Thomas French Meagher
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II: Brigadier-General William Henry French
2nd Division, II: Major-General John Sedgwick
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II: Brigadier-General Willis Arnold Gorman
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II: Brigadier-General William Wallace Burns
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II: Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
2nd Division, III: Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker
1st Brigade2nd Division, III: Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, III: Brigadier-General Daniel Edgar Sickles
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III: Brigadier-General Francis Engle Patterson
3rd Division, III: Brigadier-General Philip Kearny
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III: Brigadier-General Charles Davis Jameson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III: Brigadier-General David Bell Birney
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III: Brigadier-General Hiram George Berry
IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes
1st Division, IV: Brigadier-General Darius Nash Couch
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV: Brigadier-General John James Peck
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV: Brigadier-General John Joseph Abercrombie
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV: Brigadier-General Charles Devens
2nd Division, IV: Brigadier-General Silas Casey
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV: Brigadier-General Henry Morris Naglee
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV: Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV: Brigadier-General Innis Newton Palmer

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of Northern Virginia: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Left Wing: Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith
Smith’s Division: Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting
Whiting’s Brigade, Smith’s Division: Colonel Evander M Law
Hood’s Brigade, Smith’s Division: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Hampton’s Brigade, Smith’s Division: Brigadier-General Wade Hampton
Hatton’s Brigade, Smith’s Division: Brigadier-General Robert Hatton
Pettigrew’s Brigade, Smith’s Division: Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew
A P Hill’s Division: Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Field’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Charles William Field
Branch’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Laurence O’Bryan Branch
J R Anderson’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson
Gregg’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg
Centre Wing: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
McLaws’ Division: Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Semmes’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division: Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division: Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Cobb’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division: Brigadier-General Howell Cobb
Griffith’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division: Brigadier-General Richard Griffith
Jones’ Division: Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
D R Jones’ Brigade, D R Jones’ Division: Colonel George T Anderson
Toombs’ Brigade, D R Jones’ Division: Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs
Right Wing: Major-General James Longstreet
Longstreet’s Division: Brigadier-General Richard Heron Anderson
R H Anderson’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division: Colonel Micah Jenkins
A P Hill’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division: Colonel James L Kemper
Pickett’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division: Brigadier-General George Edward Pickett
Colston’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division: Brigadier-General Raleigh Edward Colston
Wilcox’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division: Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Pryor’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division: Brigadier-General Roger Atkinson Pryor
D H Hill’s Division: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Featherston’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Colonel George B Anderson
Garland’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Samuel Garland
Rains’ Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Gabriel James Rains
Rodes’ Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes
Wise’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise
Huger’s Division: Major-General Benjamin Huger
Armistead’s Brigade, Huger’s Division: Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead
Mahone’s Brigade, Huger’s Division: Brigadier-General William Mahone
Blanchard’s Brigade, Huger’s Division: Brigadier-General Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Reserve Artillery: Brigadier-General William Nelson Pendleton
Cavalry: Brigadier-General James Ewell Brown Stuart
Department of North Carolina: Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Holmes’ Division: Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Ransom’s Brigade, Holmes’ Division: Brigadier-General Robert Ransom
Holmes’ Brigade, Holmes’ Division: Colonel Junius Daniel
Walker’s Brigade, Holmes’ Division: Brigadier-General John George Walker
Ripley’s Brigade, Unattached: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
Forces in Richmond: Colonel Charles Dimmock

Union Organisation

USA: Silas Casey promoted Major-General USV 31 May 1862.

Casey, Silas / Rhode Island / Born 12 July 1807 East Greenwich, Rhode Island / Died Brooklyn, New York 22 January 1882
USMA 1 July 1826 39/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 1st Lieutenant USA 28 June 1836 / Captain USA 1 July 1839 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 9th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 9 October 1861 / Major-General USV 31 May 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Colonel USA 4th US Infantry / Retired USA 8 July 1868 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Casey’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-22 October 1861 / Casey’s Division Army of the Potomac 23 October 1861-17 March 1862 / 3rd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 17 March 1862-7 June 1862 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 7 June 1862-24 June 1862 / Casey’s Brigade Military District of Washington August 1862-October 1862 / Casey’s Division Military District of Washington October 1862-2 February 1863 / Provisional Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 2 February 1863-24 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Mississippi: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of St Louis: Lewis Merrill
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Adams Dix
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont
    • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
    • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Central and Northern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell
    • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
    • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
    • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman arrived to command the Trans-Mississippi District, succeeding Major-General Earl Van Dorn.

Hindman, Thomas Carmichael / Tennessee / Born 28 January 1828 Knoxville, Tennessee / Died Helena, Arkansas 28 September 1868
2nd Lieutenant USV 2nd Mississippi Infantry 1846 / Captain USV 7 December 1846 / Mustered Out USV August 1848 / Colonel PACS 2nd Arkansas Infantry 21 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 16 April 1862 to rank from 14 April 1862 / No Record of Parole / WIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863 WIA Kennesaw Mountain 27 June 1864
1st Brigade 1st Division Army of Central Kentucky 28 October 1861-29 March 1862 / 1st Brigade III Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862 / 1st Brigade and 3rd Brigade III Corps Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-7 April 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 6 May 1862-2 June 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 10 May 1862-26 May 1862 / Trans-Mississippi District 26 May 1862-3 July 1862 / District of Arkansas 28 May 1862-7 March 1863 /Trans-Mississippi Department 20 June 1862-16 July 1862 / I Corps Trans-Mississippi Army 28 September 1862-30 January 1863 / Southwest Army 28 September 1862-16 January 1863 / Hindman’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 13 August 1863-10 September 1863 / Hindman’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 12 September 1863-13 September 1863 / Hindman’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 19 September 1863-20 September 1863 / Hindman’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 1 October 1863-31 October 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 15 December 1863-27 February 1864 / Hindman’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 25 February 1864-27 June 1864

CSA: Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith assumed temporary command of the Department of Northern Virginia, succeeding General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.

CSA: Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith assumed temporary command of the Army of Northern Virginia, succeeding General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.

Smith, Gustavus Woodson / Kentucky / Born 1 January 1822 Georgetown, Kentucky / Died New York, New York 24 June 1896
USMA 1 July 1842 856 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 January 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 18 December 1854 / Major-General PACS 19 September 1861 / Resigned as Major-General PACS 17 February 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard 1863 / Major-General Georgia Militia 1 June 1864-26 April 1865 / Paroled 26 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / CIA Macon 20 April 1865
2nd Division Army of the Potomac 25 September 1861-5 February 1862 / II Corps Potomac 25 September 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-23 March 1862 / Left Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862 -25 June 1862 / 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia 5 May 1862-May 1862 / District of Aquia 22 March 1862-6 September 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / Defences of Richmond 2 July 1862-30 August 1862 / Department of Richmond 30 August 1862-12 December 1862 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 19 September 1862-14 January 1863

CSA: Brigadier-General (unconfirmed) Robert Hopkins Hatton was killed at Fair Oaks.

Hatton, Robert Hopkins / Ohio-Tennessee / Born 2 November 1826 Steubenville, Ohio / KIA Fair Oaks, Virginia 31 May 1862
Captain PACS 7th Tennessee Infantry 7 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 26 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 May 1862 Unconfirmed
4th Brigade 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia 10 May 1862-May 1862 / 4th Brigade 1st Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-31 May 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith temporary
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith temporary
      • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Reserve Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman awaited
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore

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