1862 March 7th

March 7 1862 Friday

Battle of Pea Ridge, AR

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Pea Ridge Campaign

Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

New Madrid Campaign

CSA. William M Browne was appointed interim Confederate Secretary of State.

Arkansas. Reconnaissance to Berryville ended.

Pea Ridge, Arkansas, also known as Elkhorn Tavern, Bentonville or Leetown. At dawn, the Union Army of the Southwest under Brigadier-General Samuel Ryan Curtis discovered that the 17,000 Confederates and 60 guns under Major-General Earl Van Dorn had disappeared from their front at Pea Ridge. The Union force had about 10,500 men and fifty guns.

Van Dorn had planned for both of his divisions to reach Cross Timber Hollow in the Union rear but by dawn, only the head of Major-General Sterling Price’s division had made it that far. Because of the delay, the Confederate army commander instructed Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch’s division to take the Ford Road from Twelve Corner Church and to meet Price at Elkhorn Tavern. Union patrols detected both threats during the morning, and Curtis became aware for the first time of the threat about to appear from a valley that ran north-south from beyond Pea Ridge into his unprotected rear. The option to retreat northwards was no longer feasible as his withdrawing column would be exposed to attack while in flight across a desolate region. A southward retreat would be disastrous with the Confederates lying across his lines of communication. The only possible decision was to accept battle.

Brigadier-General Franz Sigel’s two divisions (Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus and Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth) were on the Union right and Curtis’ two divisions on the left (Colonel Eugene Asa Carr and Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis). They changed face towards the north and, not knowing exactly where the Confederate main body was located, Curtis sent Colonel Grenville Mellen Dodge’s brigade of Carr’s 4th Division northeast up the Wire Road to join the 24th Missouri Infantry at Elkhorn Tavern. Dodge was still worried about the threat to the Union rear and disobeyed orders to pull his brigade back to Pratt’s Store. This had made it unexpectedly available to reinforce Elkhorn.

Curtis also sent a mixed force under the command of Osterhaus north to reconnoitre along Ford Road onto the western flank past Leetown. Davis was moved forward to support him soon afterward. Asboth’s division formed the reserve on the Wire Road under Sigel’s direction. Osterhaus’ force consisted of Colonel Nicholas Greusel’s brigade of his own 1st Division, several cavalry units led by Colonel Cyrus Bussey, and 12 guns.

McCulloch’s Confederate force consisted of a brigade of cavalry under Brigadier-General James McQueen McIntosh, a brigade of infantry under Colonel Louis Hébert, and a combined force of Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole Indians under Brigadier-General Albert Pike. McCulloch’s troops swung west on the Ford Road and struck Union elements at Leetown. At 11.30 am Osterhaus rode north through a belt of timber onto Foster Farm and witnessed an astonishing sight. McCulloch’s entire division was marching eastwards along Ford Road only a few hundred yards away. In spite of the odds, Osterhaus ordered Bussey’s small force to attack in order to buy time for his infantry brigade to deploy. Three guns began shelling the Confederates, killing at least ten men. McCulloch wheeled McIntosh’s 3,000 horsemen to the south and ordered them to attack. The massed Confederate charge mobbed the Union attackers. They stampeded Bussey’s force and captured all three guns.

A little further west, two companies of the 3rd Iowa Infantry ran into a Cherokee ambush and were similarly routed, losing 24 men killed and 17 wounded. After the early clashes few of the Indian troops, apart from Colonel Stand Watie’s Cherokees, were willing to take an active part in this unfamiliar kind of warfare.

South of the belt of timber lay Oberson’s Field. Greusel had time to form his brigade and nine guns on the edge of the forest on the south side of Oberson’s Field. Confederate Colonel Sullivan Ross alertly led the 6th Texas Cavalry in pursuit of Bussey’s force. But when Ross rode into the field, his men were fired on and quickly fell back. Greusel posted two companies of skirmishers from the 36th Illinois Infantry along the southern edge of the belt of timber between Oberson’s and Foster’s fields. The Union gunners began lobbing shells over the belt of timber. Although the howitzers were fired blindly, their first shell bursts panicked the Cherokees, who retreated rapidly and could not be rallied.

Meanwhile, McCulloch had formed Louis Hébert’s 4,000-man infantry brigade across a wide front and sent them south. Hébert took control of the four regiments east of the north-south Leetown Road, while McCulloch took charge of the four regiments west of the road. McCulloch rode forward into the belt of timber to personally reconnoitre the Union positions. While in the belt of timber he rode into the range of the Illinois skirmishers and was shot through the heart. McIntosh was quickly notified of McCulloch’s death and that he was now in local command. Fearing that the death of their popular leader would dishearten his soldiers, McCulloch’s staff made the unwise decision not to share the bad news with many of the subordinate officers. Without consulting Hébert, McIntosh impulsively led his former regiment, the dismounted 2nd Arkansas Mounted Rifles Regiment into the attack. As the unit reached the southern edge of the belt of timber, it was met with a massed volley from Greusel’s brigade and McIntosh was killed.

In the meantime, unaware that he was had now succeeded suddenly to command of the division after McIntosh, Hébert led the left wing of the attack south into the woods. The colonels of the right wing regiments decided to pull back and wait for orders and Hébert’s powerful attack was stopped by Davis and the Union 3rd Division. Davis was originally destined for Elkhorn, but Curtis had diverted his troops to Leetown after Osterhaus’ report reached him. The four Confederate regiments nearly overran Davis’ leading brigade under Colonel Julius White. Davis ordered a cavalry battalion to charge, but this effort was easily routed by the Southern infantry. When Colonel Thomas Pattison’s brigade arrived, Davis sent them up a forest trail to envelop Hébert’s open left flank. Untroubled by the inert Confederate units on Foster’s Farm, Osterhaus was able to box in Hébert’s right flank. After very hard fighting in dense woods, the Confederates, pressed from three sides, were driven back to the Ford Road. In the smoky confusion, Hébert and a small party, having become separated from the rest of the left wing, rode through a gap in the Union lines and got lost in the woods. Later that day, a Union cavalry unit captured Hébert and his group. At this point, command of McCulloch’s division would normally have devolved upon Colonel Elkanah Greer of the 3rd Texas Cavalry but confusion meant that he was not notified of his superior officers’ death or capture for several hours.

In the meantime, Brigadier-General Albert Pike stepped up to assume command on the Leetown battlefield around 3 pm. At 3.30 pm, even as Hébert was still battling in the woods, Pike decided to lead the regiments nearest to him in retreat back to Twelve Corners Church. This movement was confused and several units were left behind, some marching back towards Camp Stephens, others around Big Mountain towards Van Dorn and the rest of the army. At least one regiment was at this point ordered to discard its arms and bury them for later recovery. Several hours later, Greer assumed command of the remaining forces and was at that point informed of Pike’s actions. Initially, he considered remaining on the battlefield but, after consulting with Van Dorn, he decided to withdraw his forces as well and to march to rejoin the remainder of the army in Cross Timber Hollow.

On the other side of Pea Ridge, Van Dorn and Price had encountered the Union line earlier near Elkhorn Tavern between 9.30 am and 10.30 am. Cearnal’s cavalry battalion in Price’s advance guard bumped into a company of the 24th Missouri Infantry in Cross Timber Hollow. Soon after, Carr arrived at Elkhorn Tavern with Dodge’s brigade right behind. Carr spread out his regiments facing north along the edge of the plateau near the tavern and pulled the 24th Missouri back to cover their left flank at the base of Big Mountain. The Union 4th Division commander then sent forward the 1st Iowa Battery’s four guns to slow the Confederate advance. At this point Van Dorn failed to rush against Carr’s outnumbered force with all available soldiers; he became cautious and ordered Price to deploy his division. When the Union guns began firing, Van Dorn ordered his own artillery into action. Soon, 21 Southern guns were pounding the Iowa battery and it lost three guns and two caissons. The Union line reformed further back around a second battery.

By the time Price’s infantry finally began edging uphill in a third advance toward the Union guns, they met Carr’s men advancing downhill in an aggressive counterstroke. The Confederate advance stalled near Elkhorn, but Price’s left flank units were marching up Williams Hollow further to the east. Once this force reached the plateau, Carr’s right flank would be turned.

By 12.30 pm Carr’s second brigade, Colonel William Vandever’s, arrived at Elkhorn. The Union division commander immediately launched this unit in a counterattack on Price’s right flank. Superior numbers of Confederates eventually forced Vandever to pull back a short distance uphill. At 2 pm Van Dorn learned that McCulloch’s division could not meet Price’s at Elkhorn. Confederate Colonel Henry Little on his own initiative waved his 1st Missouri Brigade forward and the Confederate advance began to roll uphill. These events convinced Van Dorn to take more aggressive action. Price was wounded but remained in charge of his left wing while Van Dorn took tactical control of the Confederate right wing. More time was lost in reorganising Price’s division to attack.

Meanwhile, Curtis was rushing small units to Carr’s assistance as quickly as he could. Carr himself was wounded three times but refused to leave the field. When Price’s left finally emerged from Williams Hollow and attacked about 4.30 pm Carr’s line was outflanked. Confederate artillery was systematically putting the Union guns out of action. On the right, Dodge’s brigade collapsed after putting up a fierce resistance at Clemon’s farm. On the left, in equally hard fighting, Vandever’s men were steadily pushed back to the tavern and beyond. In the centre, Little led his men forward in the face of Union artillery. After being forced back from position after position, Vandever’s men finally halted the Confederate drive at Ruddick’s field, over a quarter-mile south of the tavern. There they were joined by Dodge’s men, part of Asboth’s 2nd Division and Curtis. At 6.30 pm they launched a brief counter-attack but were soon recalled in the dark.

After the day’s fighting, only Confederate Colonel Stand Watie’s Cherokees and Colonel David N McIntosh’s Creeks were willing to fight on from among the Indian forces and these were placed on top of Pea Ridge to secure the Confederate right flank. By nightfall, the Confederates controlled Elkhorn Tavern and the Telegraph Road and Van Dorn decided to press the engagement the following day.

Curtis drew his forces into a more compact defensive position. Asboth’s division was summoned from reserve and marched up the Wire Road, arriving around 7 pm to relieve Carr’s division. Asboth was wounded in skirmishing during the evening.

Curtis held a council of war at which Sigel, Osterhaus, Carr, and Asboth advocated retreat. Only Davis agreed with Curtis in mounting a defensive stand in the morning. Although his army was now cut off from safety in Missouri, Curtis predicted victory in the morning, sensing that the Confederates must be at least as exhausted as his own men.

ORDER OF BATTLE: PEA RIDGE, AR

Union Department of the Missouri: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck
District of Southwest Missouri: Brigadier-General Samuel Ryan Curtis
Army of the Southwest: Brigadier-General Samuel Ryan Curtis
Sigel’s Wing (Southwest): Brigadier-General Franz Sigel
1st Division (Southwest): Colonel Peter Joseph Osterhaus
1st Brigade, 1st Division (Southwest): Colonel Peter Joseph Osterhaus
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Southwest): Colonel Nicholas Greusel
2nd Division (Southwest): Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (Southwest): Colonel Frederick Schaefer
Curtis’ Wing (Southwest): Brigadier-General Samuel Ryan Curtis
3rd Division (Southwest): Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Brigade (Southwest), 3rd Division: Colonel Thomas Pattison
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Southwest): Colonel Julius White
4th Division (Southwest): Brigadier-General Eugene Asa Carr
1st Brigade, 4th Division (Southwest): Colonel Grenville Mellen Dodge
2nd Brigade, 4th Division (Southwest): Colonel William Vandever

Confederate Western Department: General Albert Sidney Johnston
Trans-Mississippi District: Major-General Earl Van Dorn
Army of the West: Major-General Earl Van Dorn
McCulloch’s Division (West): Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch
Hébert’s Brigade, McCulloch’s Division (West): Colonel Louis Hébert. Colonel Evander McNair
McIntosh’s Cavalry Brigade, McCulloch’s Division (West): Brigadier-General James McIntosh
Pike’s Brigade, McCulloch’s Division (West): Brigadier-General Albert Pike
Price’s Division Missouri State Guard (West): Major-General Sterling Price
Little’s 1st Missouri Brigade, Price’s Division (West): Colonel Henry Little
Slack’s 2nd Missouri Brigade, Price’s Division (West): Brigadier-General William Yarnel Slack
Greene’s 3rd Missouri Brigade, Price’s Division (West): Colonel Colton Greene
Green’s “Division”, Missouri State Guard: State Brigadier-General Martin Edwin Green
3rd “Division”, Missouri State Guard: Colonel John Bullock Clark
5th “Division”, Missouri State Guard: Colonel James P Saunders
6th “Division”, Missouri State Guard: Major D Herndon Lindsay
7th and 9th (McBride’s) “Divisions”, Missouri State Guard: Brigadier-General Daniel Marsh Frost
8th “Division”, Missouri State Guard: State Brigadier-General James Edward Rains 

Georgia. Union reconnaissance expedition to Elba Island and Savannah River began.

Kentucky. Union Captain Andrew Hull Foote’s gunboat flotilla of seven ironclads gunboats left Columbus and steamed for Island No 10. They left Cairo with Foote believing that they were not required for direct combat of the kind they had undertaken at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson.

Foote’s seven gunboats were accompanied by eleven mortar boats or rafts, later reinforced to fourteen, each of them 60-feet long and 35-feet wide and built to a novel hexagonal design. The mortar boats each mounted a single 13-inch mortar under the command of Captain Henry E Maynadier. Despite fears that they were not seaworthy and would not survive for long once their mortars opened fire, they became a useful new weapon for use against riverside fortifications. The ships moored three miles above the head of the fortified island and the mortar-boats launched a few long-range mortar shells across the peninsula against the defences.

Missouri. Operations in Saline County began.

Missouri. Skirmish at Bob’s Creek involving Union Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold Krekel (1st Battalion Missouri Militia Cavalry).

Missouri. Skirmish at Fox Creek.

Missouri. Skirmish at Point Pleasant.

Virginia. Incident at Winchester.

Virginia. A Confederate cavalry force commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Turner Ashby skirmished briefly with Union troops commanded by Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams near Winchester.

Virginia. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston begins to evacuate the lines at Manassas. The Confederate Army of the Valley under Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson remained in the Shenandoah Valley at Winchester. The brigade of Brigadier-General Daniel Harvey Hill guarded the ground between Johnston and Jackson at the key crossroads and railroad terminus of Leesburg. The rest of the Confederate Army of the Potomac converged from Evansport, Dumfries, Manassas, and Occoquan, in the direction of Culpeper and the Rappahannock River.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes and parts of IV Corps made a reconnaissance to West Point.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan made a reconnaissance towards Centreville and Manassas.

Union Organisation

USA: Samuel Davis Sturgis confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 March 1862 to rank from 10 August 1861.

Sturgis, Samuel Davis / Pennsylvania / Born 11 June 1822 Shippensburg, Pennsylvania / Died St Paul, Minnesota 28 September 1889
USMA 1 July 1846 32/42 Dragoons-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 16 February 1847 / Regt Quartermaster 1 April 1851-1 March 1852 / 1st Lieutenant USA 15 July 1853 / Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Major USA 3 May 1861 / 4th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 March 1862 to rank from 10 August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 6th US Cavalry 27 October 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Colonel USA 7th US Cavalry 6 May 1869 / Retired USA 11 June 1886 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10 August 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 29 August 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Buena Vista 20 February 1847 Exchanged 28 February 1847
1st Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861-10 August 1861 / 1st Brigade 5th Division Western Army September 1861-October 1861 / Chief of Staff Western Department November 1861 / District of Kansas 10 April 1862-5 May 1862 / Sturgis’ Brigade Military District of Washington August 1862 / Reserve Corps Army of Virginia August 1862-3 September 1862 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 3 September 1862-7 February 1863 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Virginia 6 March 1863-19 March 1863 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 19 March 1863-21 May 1863 / District of Central Kentucky 4 June 1863-14 June 1863 / 1st Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 24 June 1863-10 July 1863 / Cavalry Army of the Ohio 10 July 1863-15 December 1863 / Cavalry Corps Army of the Ohio 15 December 1863-10 April 1864 / West Tennessee Expedition District of West Tennessee 1 June 1864-13 June 1864

USA: Eugene Asa Carr promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862.

Carr, Eugene Asa / New York / Born 20 March 1830 Erie, New York / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 December 1910
USMA 1 July 1850 19/44 Mounted Rifles-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA US Mounted Rifles 30 June 1851 / 1st Lieutenant 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Captain USA 11 June 1858 / 4th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 3rd Illinois Cavalry 16 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862 / Major USA 5th US Cavalry 7 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Cavalry 7 January 1873 / 5th US Cavalry 10 April 1873 / Colonel USA 6th US Cavalry 29 April 1879 / Brigadier-General USA 19 July 1892 / Retired USA 15 February 1893 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1850 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10 August 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 15 May 1863 Brevet Major-General USV 11 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / Medal of Honor 7 March 1862 / WIA Pea Ridge 7 March 1862
Cavalry Army of the West 24 July 1861 / 3rd Brigade Cavalry District of Southwest Missouri 31 January 1862-9 February 1862 / 4th Division Army of the Southwest 9 February 1862-13 May 1862 / 6th Division Army of the Southwest 5 June 1862-7 October 1862 / Army of the Southwest 7 October 1862-12 November 1862 / District of St Louis 13 November 1862-28 February 1863 / 2nd Division Army of Southeast Missouri 28 February 1863-26 March 1863 / 14th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 28 March 1863-28 July 1863 / Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee 3 September 1863-15 October 1863 / 2nd Division Cavalry Army of Arkansas 30 November 1863-6 January 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry VII Corps Department of Arkansas 13 February 1864-11 May 1864 / District of Little Rock 11 May 1864-24 December 1864 / 3rd Division XVI Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 14 March 1865-20 July 1865

USA: Thomas Alfred Davies promoted Brigadier-General USV 11 March 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862.

Davies, Thomas Alfred / New York / Born 3 December 1809 Black Lake, New York / Died Ogdensburg, New York 19 August 1899
USMA 1 July 1829 25/46 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 1st US Infantry 1 July 1829 / Resigned USA 31 October 1831 / Colonel USV 16th New York Infantry 15 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 11 March 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Major-General USV 11 July 1865
2nd Brigade 5th Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-25 July 1861 / Davies’ Brigade Defences of Washington July 1861-7 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee 14 April 1862-2 June 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 2 June 1862-10 June 1862 / 2nd Division District of Corinth Army of the Tennessee 13 August 1862-24 September 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Tennessee 24 September 1862-5 October 1862 / 4th Division Army of the Tennessee 5 October 1862-30 October 1862 / District of Columbus 30 October 1862-11 January 1863 / District of Rolla 13 March 1863-25 March 1864 / District of North Kansas 28 February 1864-11 April 1865 / District of South Kansas 31 October 1864-22 November 1864 / District of Wisconsin 17 April 1865-27 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Cairo: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: James Shields
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • I Corps Potomac: Irvin McDowell
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Charles Sidney Winder confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 7 March 1862 to rank from 1 March 1862.

Winder, Charles Sidney / Maryland / Born 18 October 1829 Easton, Maryland / KIA Cedar Mountain, Virginia 9 August 1862
USMA 1 July 1850 22/44 Artillery-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / 4th US Artillery 1 July 1850 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1851 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5 April 1854 / Regt Adjutant 4 April 1854-3 March 1855 / Captain USA 9th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 1 April 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Major ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 6th South Carolina Infantry 8 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 7 March 1862 to rank from 1 March 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1850
1st Brigade Jackson’s Division Valley District 25 March 1862-1 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 1 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 2nd Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-9 August 1862 / 1st Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 9 August 1862-9 August 1862

CSA: Samuel Bell Maxey confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 7 March 1862 to rank from 4 March 1862.

Maxey, Samuel Bell / Kentucky / Born 30 March 1825 Tompkinsville, Kentucky/ Died Eureka Springs, Arkansas 16 August 1895
USMA 1 July 1846 58/59 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8th US Infantry 23 February 1847 / 7th US Infantry 18 July 1847 / Resigned USA 17 September 1849 / Colonel PACS 9th Texas Infantry May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 7 March 1862 to rank from 4 March 1862 / Major-General PACS 19 May 1864 to rank from 18 April 1864 Unconfirmed / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847
Maxey’s Brigade X Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 9 April 1862-July 1862 / 1st Brigade Cheatham’s Division Army of Mississippi July 1862-15 August 1862 / Maxey’s Brigade District of East Louisiana September 1862-May 1863 / Maxey’s Brigade French’s Division Department of Mississippi and West Louisiana 23 May 1863-October 1863 / District of the Indian Territory 11 December 1863-9 January 1864 / Cavalry Division Department of Arkansas 18 April 1864-9 May 1864 / District of the Indian Territory 9 May 1864-21 July 1864 / 2nd Cavalry Division Trans-Mississippi Army 21 July 1864-14 February 1865 / District of the Indian Territory 21 February 1865-1 March 1865 / Maxey’s Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 7 April 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: William Duncan Smith promoted Brigadier-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862.

Smith, William Duncan / Georgia / Born 28 July 1826 Augusta, Georgia / Died Charleston, South Carolina 4 October 1862
USMA 1 July 1846 35/59 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 August 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 August 1851 / Captain USA 4 June 1858 / Resigned USA 28 January 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Major ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Major PACS 1st Georgia Regular Infantry April 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 25 June 1861 / Colonel PACS 20th Georgia Infantry 14 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
1st Brigade District of Georgia 30 April 1862-8 July 1862 / First Sub-District of South Carolina 8 July 1862-4 October 1862

CSA: Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch was killed at Pea Ridge.

McCulloch, Benjamin / Tennessee-Texas / Born 11 November 1811 Rutherford, Tennessee / KIA Pea Ridge, Arkansas 7 March 1862
2nd Lieutenant Army of Texas 1835 / 1st Lieutenant Army of Texas 21 April 1836 / 1st Lieutenant Texas Rangers 1838-1839 / Captain 1st Texas Rangers 26 April 1846 / Major-General Texas Militia April 1846 / Mustered Out USV 30 July 1846 / Major USV Quartermaster 16 July 1847 / Resigned 6 September 1847 / Major-General Texas Militia 1861 / Colonel Texas Cavalry 14 February 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 May 1861 / CIA Ciudad Mier 1842
Indian Territory 13 May 1861-10 September 1861 / Forces in Missouri 2 July 1861-3 August 1861 / Western Army 4 August 1861-19 January 1862 / District of the Indian Territory 10 September 1861-21 November 1861 / 1st Division Army of the West 19 January 1862-7 March 1862

CSA: Brigadier-General James McQueen McIntosh was killed at Pea Ridge.

McIntosh, James McQueen / Florida / Born 1828 Fort Brooke, Florida Territory / KIA Pea Ridge, Arkansas 7 March 1862
USMA 1 July 1849 43/43 Infantry-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1845 / 1st US Infantry 1 July 1849 / 8th US Infantry 11 February 1851 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 15 May 1851 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Captain USA 16 January 1857 / Resigned USA 7 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / ADC (H M Rector) April 1861 / Colonel PACS 2nd Arkansas Mounted Rifles 1 May 1861 / ADC (B McCulloch) 29 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 January 1862 to rank from 24 January 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1849 / WIA Wilson’s Creek 10 August 1861
1st Brigade McCulloch’s Division Western Department January 1862-March 1862 / Cavalry Brigade McCulloch’s Division Army of the West March 1862-7 March 1862

CSA: Colonel William Yarnel Slack, posthumously promoted Brigadier-General, was mortally wounded at Pea Ridge.

Slack, William Yarnel / Kentucky-Missouri / Born 1 August 1816 Mason, Kentucky / DOW Moore’s Mill, Arkansas 21 March 1862
Captain USV 2nd Missouri Infantry 1846 / Mustered Out USV 1847 / Brigadier-General Missouri State Guard 4 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 April 1862 to rank from 12 April 1862 / WIA Springfield 1861 WIA Wilson’s Creek 10 August 1861 MWIA 7 March Pea Ridge
4th Division Missouri State Guard August 1861-10 August 1861 / 2nd Brigade Missouri State Guard 23 January 1862-7 March 1863`

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • Army of Pensacola: Samuel Jones
    • Army of Mobile: John Bordenave Villepigue
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith awaited
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
      • First Grand Division (Mississippi): Leonidas Polk
      • Second Grand Division (Mississippi): Braxton Bragg
      • Reserve Corps (Mississippi): George Bibb Crittenden
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Benjamin McCulloch KIA
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh KIA
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith

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