1862 March 8th

March 8 1862 Saturday

Battle of Pea Ridge, AR (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Hampton Roads, VA

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Pea Ridge Campaign

Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

New Madrid Campaign

Pea Ridge, Arkansas, also known as Elkhorn Tavern, Bentonville or Leetown. Temperatures fell rapidly after dark, making it a very uncomfortable night for the men of both armies. Union Brigadier-General Samuel Ryan Curtis called Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis’ 3rd Division to Ruddick’s field during the night. When Davis arrived, he was put in line to the left of Colonel Eugene Asa Carr’s Division. Brigadier-General Franz Sigel marched the 1st and 2nd Divisions through the night and finally camped near Pratt’s Store.

A number of regiments and artillery batteries from Confederate Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch’s Division, now led by Colonel Elkanah Greer, reached Major-General Earl Van Dorn via the Bentonville Detour and Cross Timber Hollow by a night march. Van Dorn did not yet realise that a mistaken order had caused his supply train to turn around and return to Camp Stephens during the previous afternoon and evening. By the morning, the Confederate reserve artillery ammunition would be hopelessly out of reach.

During the morning, Curtis massed his artillery near Elkhorn Tavern and launched a counterattack in an attempt to reopen his lines of communication. Sigel led the attack as his divisions had been less involved the previous day. In the early morning, Sigel had sent Colonel Peter Joseph Osterhaus to scout the open prairie to the west of Elkhorn. The colonel discovered a knoll that promised to make an excellent artillery position and reported it to Sigel. Osterhaus also suggested that the 1st and 2nd Divisions simply march up the Telegraph Road and deploy on Davis’ left, rather than retrace the muddled route of the previous evening. Sigel agreed with this good advice and his two divisions were put into motion. In the meantime, Davis ordered an Illinois battery to fire a few salvos into the woods opposite his position. This provoked a sharp Confederate reaction. Three Confederate batteries opened fire, causing two Union batteries to retreat and Davis to pull his men out of the open and back into the woods. This was followed by a Confederate probe which was quickly driven back. Soon Sigel’s men extended their line to the left of Davis.

By 8 am, Union Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth’s small division had assumed its place on the far left of Sigel’s line. Next came the divisions of Osterhaus, Davis, and Carr on the right. Curtis’ line faced generally north while the Confederates held a concave line drawn up for defence.

Sigel massed 21 guns on the open knoll discovered to the west of Elkhorn. With Sigel directing the fire personally, the Union artillery began an extremely effective fire against the 12 Southern guns opposing them. When the Confederate gunners pulled back from the destructive fire, Van Dorn ordered two new batteries to take their place. After one of these new batteries panicked and fled, Van Dorn put its commander under arrest. The Confederate artillery was unable to counter Sigel’s concentrated fire. With the opposing guns rendered nearly harmless, Sigel redirected his gunners to fire into the woods at the Confederate infantry. Near the base of Big Mountain, the projectiles created a deadly combination of rock shrapnel and wood splinters, driving the 2nd Missouri Brigade from its positions. During the bombardment, Sigel’s infantry edged forward so that by 9.30 am his divisions had executed a right wheel and faced to the northeast. By this time Van Dorn found that his reserve artillery ammunition was absent with the wagon train, a six-hour march away.

Van Dorn realised that he now had no hope of victory and decided to retreat via the Huntsville Road. This route led east from the tavern and then south. With Price disabled by his wound, Van Dorn’s army began to move toward the Huntsville Road in some confusion. At 10.30 am, Sigel sent his two divisions forward into the attack. On the far left, Asboth’s regiments drove the 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles from the summit of Big Mountain. Osterhaus was resisted by Colonel Henry Little’s 1st Missouri Brigade. Soon, Curtis ordered Davis to attack in the centre. Not realising that the Confederate army was retreating past his right flank, Curtis held Carr’s division in its position on the right. Van Dorn joined the retreat about 11 am and around noon Sigel’s soldiers met up with Davis’ men near Elkhorn Tavern and the victory was confirmed. A number of Confederates were cut off and escaped up the Wire Road into Cross Timber Hollow. From there the infantry retraced their steps on the Bentonville Detour. Several batteries marched northeast into Missouri then south through the Ozark Mountains.

In the confusion, Curtis failed to understand that Van Dorn had escaped on the Huntsville Road. Thinking that Van Dorn had retreated via Cross Timber Hollow, he sent Sigel and some cavalry to pursue in that direction. Instead of taking the forces Curtis assigned for the pursuit, Sigel gathered both of his divisions and marched northeast toward Keetsville, Missouri. Near there, he requested that Curtis send his supply train to that place. Sigel finally admitted that the Confederate main body had not retreated by way of Missouri and that his pursuit had been futile.

Separated from their supply train, Van Dorn’s main body retreated through sparsely settled country for a week, living off what little food they could take from the inhabitants. They were finally reunited with their supply train south of the Boston Mountains. Van Dorn retreated to Van Buren and then to the Arkansas River. He was subsequently ordered to join the forces east of the Mississippi River. After the defeat at Pea Ridge, the Confederates never again seriously threatened Union control of the state of Missouri.

Curtis proceeded east to West Plains, Missouri. Then he turned south into undefended northeast Arkansas. In due course, Curtis was ordered to halt his advance into Arkansas and to lead his men to the Mississippi, where they could reinforce operations in Tennessee. Both sides had concluded that successful operations were too difficult to manage in the inhospitable country and, with matters apparently settled in northern Arkansas, prepared to move their forces to regions where they might have more of an impact.

The Union forces reported 203 killed, 980 wounded and 201 missing for a total of 1,384 casualties. Of these, Carr’s 4th Division lost 682 men, almost all of them in its resolute stand on the first day. Davis’ 3rd Division lost 344. Asboth and Carr were wounded. Van Dorn counted his losses as 800 to 1,000 killed and wounded, with between 200 and 300 prisoners, but these estimates are probably too low. A more realistic estimate is that the Confederates suffered as many as 2,000 casualties at Pea Ridge. These losses included Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch killed, Brigadier-General James McQueen McIntosh killed, and nominated Brigadier-General William Yarnel Slack mortally wounded. Major-General Sterling Price was wounded. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Kentucky. The Union division of Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman embarked at Paduch for transportation up the Tennessee River to reinforce the Army of West Tennessee.

Louisiana. USS Bohio, Acting Master W D Gregory, captured the schooner Henry Travers off Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Mississippi. Incident at Mississippi City.

Missouri. Operations began at Rolla.

Tennessee. Occupation of Chattanooga by Confederate Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd. Incident at Nashville.

Tennessee. A detachment of Confederate cavalry commanded by Colonel John Hunt Morgan raided the suburbs of Nashville, causing some minor depredations. Union Colonel James Dada Morgan began defensive operations to protect the city.

Virginia. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks and his command arrived to occupy Leesburg on the Potomac River. The small Confederate garrison commanded by Brigadier-General Daniel Harvey Hill was forced to abandon Leesburg and headed south to rejoin the army south of the Rappahannock River.

Hampton Roads, Virginia, also known as Newport News. The CSS Virginia, the first Confederate ironclad warship, left Norfolk with two accompanying wooden gunboats at about 1 pm and sailed to attack a flotilla of wooden warships of the Union Navy in Hampton Roads. The vessel had not had the opportunity to undergo sea trials or training while underway and the revolutionary vessel entered the action in a state of complete uncertainty.

The CSS Virginia was armoured with a 130-feet long iron casemate and drew 22 feet of draught, restricting its passage to deep water channels. It carried two 6-inch rifles, two 7-inch rifles, and six 9-inch smoothbores, but it relied also on its four-foot long iron ramming prow. Its inadequate engines could barely generate 5 knots of speed. The Confederate chain of command was also anomalous. Lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones had directed much of the conversion of USS Merrimack into CSS Virginia, and he was disappointed when he was not named her captain. Jones was retained aboard CSS Virginia as executive officer. Ordinarily, the ship would have been led by a captain of the Confederate States Navy, as determined by seniority. Secretary of the Navy Stephen R Mallory wanted the aggressive Captain Franklin Buchanan to command the ship, but at least two other captains had greater seniority and applied for the post. Mallory evaded the issue by appointing Franklin, head of the Office of Orders and Detail, as Flag Officer in charge of the defences of Norfolk and the James River. As such, he could control the movements of all Confederate vessels in the area, including the CSS Virginia. Buchanan took command of the CSS Virginia and its crew of 250 men.

CSS Virginia was accompanied from her moorings on the Elizabeth River by CSS Raleigh and CSS Beaufort and was joined at Hampton Roads by the James River Squadron, CSS Patrick Henry, CSS Jamestown, and CSS Teaser. When they were passing the Union batteries at Newport News, CSS Patrick Henry was temporarily disabled by a shot in her boiler that killed four of her crew. After hasty repairs, she returned and rejoined the others. The CSS Patrick Henry was under John Randolph Tucker.

At this time, the Union Navy had five warships in the roadstead in addition to several support vessels. The sloop-of-war USS Cumberland (30-guns) and USS Congress (50-gun frigate) were anchored in the channel near Newport News. The frigate USS St Lawrence (50-gun frigate) and the USS Roanoke (40-gun steam frigate) and USS Minnesota (40-gun steam frigate) were near Fort Monroe. Command of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron was held by Captain Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN. Goldsborough was currently absent with the fleet supporting the Expedition in North Carolina, and Captain John Marston USN of USS Roanoke deputised for him. As USS Roanoke was one of the Union ships that ran aground during the coming battle, Marston was unable to materially influence the battle. Goldsborough had already devised and explained a plan in the event of CSS Virginia appearing. The Union frigates would engage ironclad, hoping to overpower her with their more numerous guns in crossfire.

CSS Virginia headed directly for the Union squadron. The planned trial voyage turned into a deliberate attack as soon as Buchanan realised the vulnerability of his opponents. He sent ashore at Craney Island the workmen who were finishing work on the vessel.

The battle opened when the Union tug USS Zouave fired on the advancing enemy, and CSS Beaufort replied. This preliminary skirmishing had no effect. The CSS Virginia did not open fire until she was within easy range of USS Cumberland. Return fire from USS Cumberland and USS Congress bounced off the iron plates without penetrating. CSS Virginia rammed USS Cumberland below the waterline and she sank rapidly, taking 121 seamen down with her. The wounded brought the casualty total to nearly 150. Ramming USS Cumberland nearly resulted in the sinking of CSS Virginia as the ram in her bow got stuck in the enemy ship’s hull. As USS Cumberland listed and began to go down, she almost pulled CSS Virginia down with her. CSS Virginia pulled back and broke free, but the ram was broken off, embedded as in the victim’s hull.

Buchanan next turned CSS Virginia to attack USS Congress. Seeing what had happened to USS Cumberland, Lieutenant Joseph B Smith of USS Congress ordered his ship to be grounded in shallow water to avoid total loss in deep water if she was sunk. By this time, the Confederate James River Squadron, commanded by Commander John Randolph Tucker CSN, had arrived and joined CSS Virginia for the attack on USS Congress. After an hour of unequal combat, the badly-damaged USS Congress surrendered. While the surviving crewmen of Congress were being ferried off the ship, a Union battery on the north shore opened fire on CSS Virginia, killing two Confederate officers. The Union 20th Indiana Infantry, 7th New York Infantry, and 11th New York Infantry also opened fire in support of the naval vessels from Newport News. Buchanan was wounded in his left thigh by a rifle shot. In retaliation, Buchanan ordered USS Congress set on fire by hot shot and incendiary shells. USS Congress burned throughout the rest of the day. Losses aboard the ship included 110 killed or presumed drowned. Another 26 were wounded, of whom ten died within days.

Although she had not suffered anything like the damage she had inflicted, CSS Virginia was not completely unscathed. Shots from USS Cumberland, USS Congress, and the Union riflemen ashore had riddled her smokestack, reducing her already low speed. Two of her guns were disabled and several armour plates had been loosened. The casemate remained intact but every external fixture was wrecked, including the severed iron ram.

The three other Union warships which had left Fort Monroe to join in the battle clung to the northern shore, in order to avoid the Confederate battery at Sewell’s Point. The USS Roanoke and USS St Lawrence ran aground and took no further important part in the battle. The USS Minnesota continued alone but then it also struck the seabed.

The James River Squadron turned its attention to USS Minnesota. After CSS Virginia had concluded the surrender of USS Congress, she joined the James River Squadron. Her deep draught and the falling tide meant that CSS Virginia was unable to get close enough to USS Minnesota to be effective and darkness prevented the rest of the squadron from aiming their guns to any effect. The attack was therefore suspended.

CSS Virginia departed with the expectation of returning the next day and completing the task of destruction. She retreated into the safety of Confederate-controlled waters off the Sewell’s Point battery for the night. Both sides used the respite to prepare for the next day. CSS Virginia put 21 dead and wounded men ashore and underwent temporary repairs. Captain Buchanan was among the wounded, so command on the second day fell to his executive officer.

While CSS Virginia was being prepared for a renewal of the battle, and while USS Congress was still ablaze, the Union ironclad USS Monitor arrived in Hampton Roads during the night. The Union ironclad, commanded by Lieutenant John Lorimer Worden USN, had been rushed to Hampton Roads in hopes of protecting the Union fleet and preventing CSS Virginia from threatening Union coastal cities. The ship was too late to save the USS Congress and USS Cumberland so Worden was informed that his primary task was to protect USS Minnesota. USS Monitor took up a position near the grounded USS Minnesota and awaited the dawn. The ironclad had arrived, barely seaworthy and damaged in storms, just in time to engage its iron rival.

Near midnight, flames reached the magazine of the USS Congress and she exploded and sank. Reports of the loss of two ships sunk and others run aground, and the apparent invulnerability of the iron monster caused panic in the US capital.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: David Hunter

Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Cairo: William Tecumseh Sherman
  • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
  • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: James Shields
  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • I Corps Potomac: Irvin McDowell
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • V Corps Potomac: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of Eastern Kentucky was discontinued and incorporated into the Army of East Tennessee.

CSA: Colonel Thomas Marshall Jones (27th Mississippi Infantry) assumed temporary command of the Army of Pensacola, succeeding Brigadier-General Samuel Jones.

Jones, Thomas Marshall / Born 11 March 1832 Elizabeth City, Virginia / Died Prescott, Arizona 7 March 1913
USMA 1 July 1843 47/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1849 / 8th US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Regt Quartermaster 5 March 1857-10 October 1859 / 1st Lieutenant USA 19 July 1858 / Regt Adjutant 10 October 1859-13 December 1860 / Resigned USA 28 February 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 4 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 27th Mississippi Infantry 2 January 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 8 March 1862 Revoked May 1862 / Resigned PACS 27 February 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843
Assistant Commissary of Subsistence Army of Pensacola 4 April 1861-November 1861 /1st Brigade Army of Pensacola 8 March 1862 / Army of Pensacola 8 March 1862-13 March 1862 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862

CSA: James Edwin Slaughter promoted Brigadier-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 8 March 1862.

Slaughter, James Edwin / Virginia / Born June 1827 Cedar Mountain, Virginia / Died 1 January 1901
2nd Lieutenant USA US Infantry 5 March 1847 / US Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 27 February 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 August 1852 / Dismissed USA 14 May 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Assistant Inspector-General July 1861 / Major PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 6 November 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 8 March 1862 / No Record of Parole
Assistant Inspector-General Army of Pensacola 14 October 1861-15 November 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Army of Pensacola 16 November 1861-13 March 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General Army of Mississippi 18 March 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General Western Department 17 July 1862 / Slaughter’s Brigade District of the Gulf 1862 / Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 23 November 1863-18 March 1864 / Slaughter’s Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 15 December 1863-January 1864 / Slaughter’s Brigade 3rd Cavalry Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona September 1864-26 March 1865 / Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 25 October 1864-26 May 186

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • Army of Pensacola: Thomas Marshall Jones
  • Army of Mobile: John Bordenave Villepigue

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith awaited

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee

  • District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
  • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
  • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
    • First Grand Division (Mississippi): Leonidas Polk
    • Second Grand Division (Mississippi): Braxton Bragg
    • Reserve Corps (Mississippi): George Bibb Crittenden
  • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
  • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter

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