1862 March 17th

March 17 1862 Monday

Establishment of the US War Board

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Peninsula Campaign

Island No 10 Campaign

Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

Kernstown Campaign

USA: The post of General-in-Chief of the US Army became vacant as Major-General George Brinton McClellan was directed to concern himself solely with matters in the Department of the Potomac. As an interim measure, the highly experienced Major-General Ethan Allen Hitchcock chaired the War Board. Hitchcock had applied to return to active service but was originally rejected on the grounds of his age and earlier retirement. Former General-in-Chief Major-General Winfield Scott intervened to secure his commission as a Major-General in February 1862, and he became a special adviser to the Secretary of War.

From 17 March 1862, Hitchcock served as the chairman of the War Board, the body that assisted President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin McMasters Stanton in the management of the War Department and the command of the Union armies during the period after McClellan was relieved of his responsibilities as General-in-Chief. McClellan was assured by supportive comments from Lincoln that his position was not permanently circumscribed but he later saw the change of command as part of an intrigue “to secure the failure of the approaching campaign.” The War Board included Hitchcock as chairman, and the five chiefs of the Regular Army staff: Brigadier-General Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant General), Brigadier-General Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster General), Colonel Joseph Gilbert Totten (Chief of Engineers), Brigadier-General James Wolfe Ripley (Chief of Ordnance), and Colonel Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary General).

Arkansas. Confederate Major-General Earl Van Dorn was ordered by General Albert Sidney Johnston to move eastwards across Arkansas to the Mississippi River. From here he would provide reinforcements for General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard in Tennessee. Van Dorn responded that he could insread move immediately to join the action around New Madrid, Missouri, or make a bolder march to St Louis by way of the Union supply depot at Rolla, Missouri.

Kentucky. Expedition to Pound Gap ended.

Mississippi. Expedition to Yellow Creek ended. Action at Riddle’s Point.

Missouri. Union Major-General John Pope continued to press Captain Andrew Hull Foote USN for two or three gunboats to run past the Confederate batteries at Island No 1o in order to help him cross the river and trap the garrison. Foote demurred, arguing that his boats were not invincible and that a chance disabling shot would deliver a valuable warship into Confederate hands. He added that a captured gunboat could threaten all the cities along the Mississippi and its tributaries. Nevertheless, Foote agreed to attack the Confederate fortifications at Island No 10 with three gunboats, which would begin by engaging the Redan Fort on the Tennessee shore. Foote ordered the USS Benton lashed between two other ironclads (USS Cincinnati and USS St Louis), a precaution in case one of the boats became disabled so it would not float downstream into Confederate hands.

The three ironclads attacked the Redan with bows forward, the mortar boats and the rest of the fleet joining if the range of their guns allowed. The Redan, commanded by Confederate Captain Edward W Rucker, was armed with three 8-inch Columbiads and three 32-pounders (smoothbore) and was partially flooded. The 32-pounder smoothbores were out of range throughout the three-hour fight but the huge “Lady Polk Jr” (a 128-pounder gun on the island) fired from three miles away, as did a rifled 32-pounder in another shore battery. The USS Benton took three direct hits and the ironclad USS St Louis was struck several times. The Confederate guns also damaged the engine of the USS Cincinnati. A rifled gun burst on board USS St Louis while firing, killing three men and wounding a dozen others in the crew.

The Redan took a tremendous pounding but the Confederate gunners stood to their guns until Foote retired. The upper fort was slightly damaged by USS Benton and the other boats which dismounted one gun.

For the next two weeks, fighting consisted of a bombardment of the island at long range, mostly conducted by the mortars, and occasionally replied to by the Confederate batteries. High expectations of the mortar boats were dashed; they did very little damage to the Confederate positions. After Foote had rejected Pope’s request that gunboats run past Island No 10, someone on Pope’s staff suggested that perhaps a canal could be cut to enable Union vessels to bypass the dangerous batteries. The canal was completed in two weeks, but it was not deep enough to provide passage for the gunboats. It proved useful, nevertheless, for transports and supply vessels enabling Pope to avoid total dependence on land communications.

Missouri. Confederate Major-General Sterling Price foffically disbanded the Missouri State Guard and enrolled it into regular Confederate service in the Army of the West. A small number of Guard units remained independent until the end of the war in 1865, seeing action in several engagements in the Trans-Mississippi region under Brigadier-General Mosby Munroe Parsons and State Brigadier-General James S Rains. It is estimated that at least 34,000 Missourians served in the Missouri State Guard during the war and possibly as many as 40,000. The peak strength was approximately 23,000 to 28,000 men in September 1861, of whom about 5,000 were operating in Southeast Missouri under State Brigadier-General Meriwether Jefferson Thompson.

North Carolina. The CSS Nashville under the command of Lieutenant R B Pegram ran the blockade out of Beaufort, evading the gunfire of USS Cambridge, Commander W A Parker, and USS Gemsbok; LieutenAnt CAvendy.

Tennessee. Expedition to Pittsburg Landing and Savannah ended. Union Brigadier-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s Army of West Tennessee moved from Savannah to Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. The troops disembarked at Pittsburg Landing on the western bank of the Tennessee River. The Army had expanded and nw five Divisions. Brigadier-General John Alexander McClernand led the 1st Division, Colonel William Hervey Lamm Wallace had the 2nd Division, temporarily deputising for Brigadier-General Charles Ferguson Smith who was in interim command of the expedition. Brigadier-General Lewis Wallace’s 3rd Division was stationed three miles upstream at Crump’s Landing on the opposite bank. Brigadier-General Stephen Augustus Hurlbut’s 4th Division and the 5th Division of Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman which had just returned from an unsuccessful attempt to destroy the Big Bear Creek bridge, made camp at Pittsburg Landing.

The interim commander, C F Smith, had established headquarters at Savannah. Grant arrived in person to take command of operations from Smith and moved in with his staff. Grant was ordered to await the arrival of Major-General Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Ohio from Nashville before advancing any further south. The Confederate base at Corinth, Mississippi, was a long day’s march distant and Buell was reported to be near Waynesboro, about forty miles away. Grant declined to fortify his camps, trusting that the Confederates were demoralised and too weak to oppose his advance before Buell arrived.

Virginia. The first elements of Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s Army of the Potomac embarked for transportation by sea from Alexandria to the Yorktown peninsula. This was the first stage of McClellan’s campaign against the Confederate capital of Richmond. Twelve divisions were to be transported in increments by 389 vessels to Fortress Monroe. McClellan believed that he had satisfactorily met the conditions of the government to provide sufficient troops for the defence and protection of the capital before commencing his operations. A fleet of 113 steamers, 188 schooners, and 88 barges began to transport the army from Alexandria in echelons of 10,000 men with all their equipment and supplies. Major-General Irvin McDowell protected the embarkation from the defences at Alexandria. McDowell’s I Corps had been set aside to advance overland towards Fredericksburg, thereby protecting the capital from direct attack by the enemy armies in Virginia. The V Coirps was operating in the Shenandoah valley, leaving McClellan with the II Corps, III Corps, and IV Corps to be transported to the Peninsula.

Virginia. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks received orders from Major-General George Brinton McClellan to leave a covering force of one division (Brigadier-General James Shields’ 2nd Division of V Corps) in the Shenandoah Valley and to send the majority of his troops eastwards. McClellan wanted the bulk of V Corps to join the Army of the Potomac on the Yorktown peninsula but events prevented this from happening. Shields’ division continued to operate around Strasburg in the Shenandoah Valley while the 1st Division of Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams prepared to leave Winchester for Alexandria. Meanwhile, Brigadier-General John Sedgwick’s 3rd Division left Harper’s Ferry and headed to join the army at Alexandria.

Although the Shenandoah Valley was to be deprived by this plan of two-thirds of its Union occupiers, the brigade of Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Kelley (part of the Mountain Department) was stationed to the northwest at Romney. It could feasibly support Sheilds in the Valley but it was too distant to provide immediate support. Kelley’s main duty was to ensure the security of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

ORDER OF BATTLE: 2/V/POTOMAC

Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
V Corps (Potomac): Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Shields
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Shields
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Erastus Barnard Tyler

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General George Brinton McClellan was temporarily suspended as General-in-Chief of the US Army, permitting him to exercise direct field command of the Amy of the Potomac.

McClellan, George Brinton / Pennsylvania / Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Orange, New Jersey 29 October 1885
USMA 1 July 1846 2/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 April 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 16 January 1857 / Major-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861 / Major-General USA 14 May 1861 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 Relieved 22 July 1862 / Resigned USA 8 November 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1 Lt USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Contreras 19 August 1847
Department of the Ohio 3 May 1861-23 July 1861 / Department of Virginia 1 June 1861 Declined / Army of Occupation 14 June 1861-23 July 1861 / Military Division (Department) of the Potomac 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Department of the Potomac 17 August 1861-5 November 1862 / Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-9 November 1862 / General-in-Chief 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Army of Virginia 2 September 1862-11 September 1862

USA: Major-General Ethan Allen Hitchcock was appointed Chairman of the War Board to exercise administrative but not executive command of the USA Army during the temporary suspension of the post.

Hitchcock, Ethan Allen / Vermont / Born 18 May 1798 Vergennes, Vermont / Died Sparta, Georgia 5 August 1870
USMA 1 July 1817 Artillery / Cadet USMA 11 October 1814 / 3rd Lieutenant USA Artillery 17 July 1817 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8th US Infantry 13 February 1818 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 October 1818 / Regt Adjutant 1 July 1819-1 June 1821 / 1st US Infantry 1 June 1821 / Regt Adjutant 16 July 1821-15 September 1821 / Captain USA 31 December 1824 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 13 March 1829-24 June 1833 / Major USA 8th US Infantry 7 July 1838 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 31 January 1842 / Colonel USA 2nd US Infantry 15 April 1851 / Resigned USA 18 October 1855 / Major-General USV 10 February 1862 / Chairman of the War Board 17 March 1862 / Commissioner for Exchange of War Prisoners 15 November 1862 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 3 November 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 October 1867 / Brevet Colonel USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 8 September 1847
Special Adviser to the Secretary of War 17 February 1862-17 March 1862 / Chairman of the War Board 17 March 1862-23 July 1862 / Commissioner for Prisoner Exchange 15 November 1862-3 November 1865 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 3 November 1865-19 August 1867

USA: Brigadier-General Ulysses Simpson Grant assumed command of the District of West Tennessee, succeeding Brigadier-General Charles Ferguson Smith.

USA: Brigadier-General Ulysses Simpson Grant retained field command of the Army of West Tennessee (“Army of the Tennessee”).

Grant, Ulysses Simpson (Hiram Ulysses) / Ohio / Born 27 April 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio / Died Mount McGregor, New York 23 July 1885
USMA 1 July 1843 21/39 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 4th US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 30 September 1845 / 4th US Infantry 15 November 1845 / Regt Quartermaster 1 April 1847-23 July 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 September 1847 / Regt Quartermaster 17 November 1848-5 August 1853 / Captain USA 5 August 1853 / Resigned USA 31 July 1854 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Colonel USV 21st Illinois Infantry 15 June 1861 / Major-General USV 16 February 1862 / Major-General USA 7 July 1863 to rank from 4 July 1863 / Lieutenant-General USA 4 March 1864 to rank from 2 March 1864 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 12 March 1864 / General USA 25 July 1866 / Resigned USA 4 March 1869 / General USA Retired 4 March 1877 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet 1 Lt USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847
District of Ironton 8 August 1861-15 August 1861 / District of Southeast Missouri 1 September 1861-23 December 1861 / District of Cairo 23 December 1861-14 February 1862 / District of West Tennessee 14 February 1862-12 September 1862 / Army of West Tennessee 21 February 1862-24 October 1863 / Chief of Staff Department of the Mississippi 29 April 1862-10 June 1862 / Department of the Tennessee 16 October 1862-17 October 1863 / XIII Corps Tennessee 24 October 1862-22 December 1862 / Military Division of the Mississippi 16 October 1863-18 March 1864 / General-in-Chief 12 March 1864-4 March 1869

USA: William Hemsley Emory promoted Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1862.

Emory, William Hemsley / Maryland / Born 7 September 1811 Poplar Grove, Maryland / Died Washington, District of Columbia 1 December 1887
USMA 1 July 1831 14/33 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1831 / Resigned USA 30 September 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 24 April 1851 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / 1st US Cavalry 26 May 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 9 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1862 / Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 27 October 1863 / Major-General USV 25 September 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 1 July 1876 / Retired USA 1 July 1876 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1831 Brevet Captain USA 6 December 1846 Brevet Major USA 9 January 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 10 October 1857 Brevet Colonel USA 27 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USV 23 July 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
1st Brigade Cavalry Reserve Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 6 July 1862-10 August 1862 / Defences of Baltimore 10 August 1862-September 1862 / Emory’s Division Department of the Gulf September 1862-December 1862 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 3 January 1863-2 May 1863 / Defences of New Orleans 2 May 1863-25 August 1863 / 4th Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 30 July 1863-25 August 1863 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 4 September 1863-17 September 1863 / 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 13 December 1863-2 May 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 2 May 1864-2 July 1864 / District of Morganza 22 May 1864-16 June 1864 / Detachment XIX Corps Army of the Shenandoah 15 July 1864-6 August 1864 / XIX Corps Shenandoah 6 August 1864-8 December 1864 / XIX Corps Shenandoah 28 December 1864-20 March 1865 / Department of West Virginia 22 April 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Washington 17 August 1867-28 July 1868

USA: Andrew Jackson Smith promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862.

Smith, Andrew Jackson / Pennsylvania / Born 28 April 1815 Bucks, Pennsylvania / Died St Louis, Missouri 30 January 1897
USMA 1 July 1838 36/45 Dragoons-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 March 1845 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / Major USA 13 May 1861 / 1st US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd California Cavalry 2 October 1861 / Resigned USV 3 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 9 May 1864 / Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 7th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Resigned USA 6 May 1869 / Missouri Militia 1877 / Colonel USA Retired 22 January 1889 to rank from 5 January 1889 / Brevet Colonel USA 10 April 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Cavalry Department of the Missouri 11 February 1862-11 March 1862 / Cavalry Department of the Mississippi 11 March 1862-11 July 1862 / 1st Division Army of Kentucky 7 October 1862-13 November 1862 / 10th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 November 1862-18 December 1862 / 1st Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 10th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-7 August 1863 / 6th Division District of Columbus 7 August 1863-25 January 1864 / 3rd Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 25 January 1864-7 March 1864 / Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee 7 March 1864-10 March 1864 /Right Wing XVI Corps Department of the Gulf 10 March 1864-22 May 1864 / Right Wing XVI Corps District of West Tennessee 23 May 1864-7 November 1864 / Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) 5 December 1864-18 February 1865 / XVI Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-20 July 1865 / District of Alabama 17 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Missouri 12 September 1867-2 March 1868

USA: Marsena Rudolph Patrick promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862.

Patrick, Marsena Rudolph / New York / Born 11 March 1811 Watertown, New York / Died Dayton, Ohio 27 July 1888
USMA 1 July 1835 48/56 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1831 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 October 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 March 1839 / Captain USA 22 August 1847 / Resigned USA 30 June 1850 / Brigadier-General Inspector-General New York Militia 16 May 1861-9 May 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General USA 16 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Provost Marshal-General 16 March 1865 / Resigned USV 12 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835 Brevet Major USA 30 May 1848 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
Assistant Inspector-General Army of the Potomac 16 November 1862-12 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 12 March 1862-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 17 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-6 October 1862 / Provost Marshal Army of the Potomac 6 October 1862-16 March 1863 / Provost Marshal-General 16 March 1865-13 April 1865 / Provost Marshal Department of Virginia 13 April 1865-25 May 1865 / District of Henrico 25 May 1865-9 June 1865

USA: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862.

Quinby, Isaac Ferdinand / New Jersey / Born 29 January 1821 Morristown, New Jersey / Died Rochester, New York 18 September 1891
USMA 1 July 1843 6/39 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 20 December 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 Regt Quartermaster 10 October 1850-1 November 1851 / Resigned USA 16 March 1852 / Colonel USV 13th New York Infantry 14 May 1861 / Resigned USV 4 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Resigned USV 31 December 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843
Sub-District of Columbus 1 April 1862-21 April 1862 / District of Mississippi 21 April 1862-16 June 1862 / Subdistrict of Mississippi 16 June 1862-24 September 1862 / 4th Division District of West Tennessee 24 September 1862-16 October 1862 / 3rd Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 26 October 1862-1 November 1862 / 7th Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 22 December 1862-20 January 1863 / 7th Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee 20 January 1863-14 April 1863 / 7th Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee 16 May 1863-3 June 1863

USA: Hiram Gregory Berry promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862.

Berry, Hiram Gregory / Maine / Born 27 August 1824 Thomaston (Rockland), Maine / KIA Chancellorsville, Virginia 3 May 1863
Captain Maine Militia / Colonel USV 14th Maine Infantry 15 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Major-General USV 10 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Peninsula Campaign July 1862
3rd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 August 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac September 1862-October 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac November 1862-January 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 8 February 1863-3 May 1863

USA: Orris Sanford Ferry promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862.

Ferry, Orris Sanford / Connecticut / Born Bethel, Connecticut 15 August 1823 / Died Norwalk, Connecticut 21 November 1875
Lieutenant-Colonel Connecticut Militia 1847 / Colonel USV 5th Connecticut Infantry 23 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 March 1862 to rank from 17 March 1862 / Resigned USV 15 June 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 23 May 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Shenandoah 1 May 1862-10 May 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 10 May 1862-26 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac Juniata District 6 September 1864-15 December 1864 /District of Philadelphia 16 December 5 July 1862-23 September 1862 / Ferry’s Brigade Suffolk Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 23 September 1862-26 December 1862 / 3rd Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 26 December 1862-1 February 1863 / 3rd Division XVIII Corps Department of the South 1 February 1863-5 March 1863 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Department of the South 5 March 1863-17 April 1863 / Seabrook Island X Corps Department of the South 17 April 1863-19 June 1863 / Lehigh District 29 February 1864-May 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 19 June 1864-27 August 1864 / Juniata District 6 September 1864-16 December 1864 / District of Philadelphia 16 December 1864-15 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
      • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
      • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
      • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
      • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
      • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
        • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Mountain Department: William Starke Rosecrans interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of the Cumberland: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
    • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • I Corps Potomac: Irvin McDowell
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the South: Thomas West Sherman temporary David Hunter awaited
    • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Samuel Gibbs French was appointed to command the District of Pamlico, arriving on 18 March 1862, to succeed Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch.

French, Samuel Gibbs / New Jersey / Born 22 November 1818 Gloucester, New Jersey / Died Florala, Florida 20 April 1910
USMA 1 July 1843 14 /39 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 12 January 1848 / Resigned USA 31 May 1856 / Colonel Ordnance Mississippi Militia 12 February 1861 / Major ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 October 1861 / Major-General PACS 31 August 1862 / Paroled Mobile, Alabama 26 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 / WIA Buena Vista 23 February 1847
1st Brigade District of Aquia 7 November 1861-15 March 1862 / District of Cape Fear 15 March 1862-17 March 1862 / District of Cape Fear 20 March 1862-17 July 1862 / District of Pamlico 17 March 1862-20 March 1862 / Sub-District of Cape Fear 19 September 1862-16 November 1862 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 17 February 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of Southern Virginia 1 April 1863-28 May 1863 / French’s Division Army of Mississippi June 1863-July 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 1 July 1863-14 July 1863 / French’s Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana July 1863-28 January 1864 / French’s Division Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 28 January 1864-04 May 1864 / French’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 4 May 1864-14 December 1864 / French’s Division District of the Gulf January 1865-April 1865

CSA: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard arrived to command the Army of Mississippi.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant / Louisiana / Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 20 February 1893
USMA 1 July 1838 2/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 June 1839 / Chief Engineer US Army in Mexico 1847 / Captain USA Engineers 3 March 1853 / Superintendent USMA 23 January 1861-28 January 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Department of South Carolina 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Forces in Charleston (Defences of Charleston) 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Department of the Potomac 31 May 1861-2 June 1861 / Alexandria Line 2 June 1861-20 June 1861 / Army of the Potomac 20 June 1862-19 July 1861 / I Corps Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / District of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Western Department 6 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-6 May 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 7 October 1862-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 18 April 1864-14 May 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-27 September 1864 / Defences of Drewry’s Bluff 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Defences of Petersburg 27 September 1864-1 October 1864 / Military Division of the West 3 October 1864-April 1865 / 16 December 1864 / Chief of Staff Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of Tennessee 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 14 January 1865-22 January 1865

CSA: The Missouri State Guard was incorporated into the Army of the West.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: James Heyward Trapier
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin interim Joseph Reid Anderson awaited
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson interim  Samuel Gibbs French awaited
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch interim  Samuel Gibbs French awaited
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Centre Wing Northern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton awaited
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
    • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
      • First Grand Division (Mississippi): Leonidas Polk
      • Second Grand Division (Mississippi): Braxton Bragg
      • Reserve Corps (Mississippi): George Bibb Crittenden
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby

Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm

 

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