1862 June 30th

June 30 1862 Monday

Battle of Tampa, FL

Battle of Glendale, VA (CWSAC – Major Battle – Inconclusive)

Battle of White Oak Swamp Creek, VA (CWSAC – Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Turkey Bridge, VA

Seven Days’ Battles

USA. The Union Regular Army and US Volunteers had expanded its General Officer Corps to 230 men.There were now 31 Major-Generals (3 awaiting confirmation, and including 3 who were were concurrently Brigadier-Generals in the US Regular Army; 193 Brigadier-Generals (2 awaiting confirmation and not including the 3 already counted as Major-Generals); and, 5 Brigadier-Generals of the Staff (229).

CSA. The Confederate Army had been created in March 1861 and had grown exponentially. There were now 5 Generals, 25 Major-Generals, and 111 Brigadier-Generals (3 awaiting confirmation) (141).

Alabama. Union Major-General Don Carlos Buell’s four divisions were proceeding towards Chattanooga and arrived between the ferry over the Tennessee River at Florence and Huntsville. He had about 35,000 men and had repaired the Memphis & Charleston railroad as far as Decatur. Major-General Ormsby McKnight Mitchel was awaiting his arrival with a further 11,000 men near Chattanooga. Major-General George Henry Thomas was not far behind at Iuka with a division of 8,000 men and two more divisions were promised by Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant at Corinth. However, Buell did not need reinforcements but supplies. His troops were already running short of supplies as their supply lines extended to breaking point. The destruction of the bridge at Elk River on the Nashville & Decatur Railroad necessitated a forty-mile wagon road past the break and the force was put onto half rations. Ahead of Buell, the Bridgeport Bridge over the Tennessee had been burned previously by Mitchel on his retreat from Chattanooga and that would require engineers, time and materials to repair it.

Arkansas. Incident at Adams Bluff.

Arkansas. Confederate troops fired on USS Lexington, Lieutenant James W Shirk, on the White River. Between St Charles and Clarendon.

Florida. Union Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont USN ordered USS South Carolina, Commander John J Almy, to join USS Wyandotte in blockading Mosquito Inlet near New Smyrna. The inlet had become an important unloading point for Confederate blockade runners bringing arms from Nassau.

Florida. USS Quaker City, Commander James M Frailey, captured the brig Model with a cargo of coal in the Gulf of Mexico.

Tampa, Florida. Tampa was a small but important trade hub for the Confederacy. It was defended by a Confederate artillery company called the Osceola Rangers under Captain J W Pearson. A Union gunboat entered Tampa Bay and turned its broadside guns on the town. The gunboat then launched a dispatch boat under a flag of truce. It carried 20 men led by Lieutenant A J Drake USN with instructions to demand the surrender of Tampa. The Confederates refused and the gunboat opened fire. After a pause, Drake informed the Confederates that shelling would re-commence at 6 pm after allowing time to evacuate non-combatants from the city. Firing continued sporadically into the afternoon of the following day.

Kentucky. Incident at Henderson.

South Carolina.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION  DEPARTMENT OF THE SOUTH

Union Department of the South: Major-General David Hunter
James Island, South Carolina 1st Division (South): Brigadier-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
1st Brigade, 1st Division (South): Colonel J L Chatfield
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (South): Colonel T Welsh
James Island, South Carolina 2nd Division (South): Brigadier-General Isaac Ingalls Stevens
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (South): Colonel W M Fenton
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (South): Colonel A Farnsworth
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division (South): Colonel R Williams
Beaufort, South Carolina (South): Brigadier-General John Milton Brannan
Fort Pickens and Pensacola, Florida: Brigadier-General Lewis Golding Arnold

Tennessee. Incident at Powell River.

Tennessee. Confederate cavalry captured some wagons from a Union supply train at Rising Sun.

Virginia. Reconnaissance to Strasburg and Winchester ended. Reconnaissance to White Oak Swamp ended. Reconnaissance to Luray ended. Operation at Forge Bridge ended. Incident at Jones’ Bridge. Reconnaissance to Moorefield and New Creek ended. Incidents at Brackett’s, Jordon’s Ford, New Kent Court House, and Forge Bridge.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan boarded the USS Galena at Haxall’s to confer with his US Navy counterparts about the availability of supply vessels on the James River. McClellan believed that the army should fall back below City Point, as the channel was too near the southern shore for transports to pass safely. He chose Harrison’s Landing instead as the nearest suitable point for his army to concentrate. Captain John Rodgers USN agreed to provide all necessary naval assistance.

White Oak Swamp Creek, Virginia, also known as White Oak Swamp or White Oak Swamp Bridge. Most elements of Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s army had been able to cross White Oak Swamp Creek by noon and about one-third of the army had reached the James River, with the remainder was still marching between White Oak Swamp and Glendale.

Confederate-General Robert Edward Lee ordered his Army of Northern Virginia to converge on the retreating Union forces, which were hemmed in by the restricted road network. Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson was ordered to press the Union rear guard at the White Oak Swamp crossing while the largest part of Lee’s army, with about 45,000 men, would attack the Army of the Potomac at Glendale, about two miles southwest, aiming to split it in two.

The last Union unit to travel south through White Oak Swamp, and thus Jackson’s target, was led by Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin, consisting of the divisions of Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith (2/VI) and Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson (1/II). Jackson’s divisions managed to cross the Chickahominy River after a day of delays around 3 am and marched south on the White Oak Road with their chief of artillery Colonel Stapleton Crutchfield at the head of the column. They marched slowly because they were encumbered by thousands of wounded Union prisoners and many of the stores that they obtained at Savage’s Station. They found that the single bridge over the swamp had been burned two hours earlier. Jackson arrived in person at noon and approved Crutchfield’s gun placement that was designed to fire diagonally from a ridge across the swamp against the Union batteries and infantry positions that they saw about 300 yards away. At 2 pm seven Confederate batteries opened fire with 31 guns, catching the Union troops by surprise and disabling several of their guns. After ordering his engineers to begin rebuilding the bridge, Jackson directed Colonel Thomas T Munford’s 2nd Virginia Cavalry to cross the swamp and capture some of the Union guns abandoned during the bombardment. As the men and horses waded through water that was belly deep and fouled with debris, Jackson and Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill crossed the river to perform a personal reconnaissance. Jackson saw that Union artillery and infantry was reinforcing the position and that their sharpshooters would play havoc with his engineers on the bridge. He realised that this was not a suitable place for an unopposed crossing. Munford reported that he had found a ford a quarter of a mile downstream that would be suitable for the infantry to cross. Confederate Brigadier-General Wade Hampton found a closer point at which a simple bridge could be built for infantry. Jackson ordered Hampton to build the bridge but took no specific action to cross the swamp, having decided that it was not feasible to attack if he could not bring forward his artillery. While the artillery duel across the swamp escalated to involve over 40 guns, and while fighting raged less than three miles away at Glendale, Jackson fell asleep for over an hour. Jackson’s inaction allowed some units to be detached from Franklin’s Union VI Corps in the late afternoon to reinforce the Union troops at Glendale. Jackson did not inform Lee of his situation and Lee did not send anyone to find why Jackson was delayed until it was too late to make a difference.

The Confederates lost 3 men killed and 12 wounded and Union casualties were estimated as 100 men. (CWSAC – Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Glendale, Virginia, also known as Frayser’s Farm, Frazier’s Farm, Charles City Cross Roads, New Market Crossroads, New Market Road, Willis Church, Nelson’s Crossroads, Nelson’s Farm or Malvern Cliff. This was the fifth of the Seven Days’ Battles. The Confederate divisions of Major-General Benjamin Huger, Major-General James Longstreet, and Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill were ordered to break the Union defences near Willis Church and Glendale. Confederate Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes was ordered to attempt to turn the Union left flank at Turkey Bridge. The divisions led by Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson were delayed further north by their efforts to collect abandoned arms and equipment and then halted after failing to cross White Oak Swamp. Jackson’s presence did draw two of Brigadier-General John Sedgwick’s three Union brigades, which had been defending the Charles City crossroads, north as reinforcements. They later returned to their former position after no Confederate attack had materialised.

While A P Hill converged on the retreating Union Army in the vicinity of Glendale or Frayser’s Farm, the rest of the plan to split the Union army was poorly executed. Huger was slowed by felled trees obstructing the Charles City Road, a result of the efforts of pioneers from Union Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum’s division. Huger left behind his artillery and spent many hours trying to chop a new road through the thick woods and his progress slowed to a standstill. Fearing a counterattack from White Oak Swamp to his left he crawled forward and took no part in the battle.

Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan remained aboard the USS Galena during the battle to negotiate Union naval support after arranging for signal communications between Malvern Hill and the river. His command of the battle was therefore remote and left to the local Corps commanders.

Union Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall’s Union division (Pennsylvania Reserves (3/V) had stopped at Charles City Crossroads on its march to rejoin the V Corps of Major-General Fitz John Porter near Malvern Hill. The gap in the line left by Sedgwick was noticed and plugged by McCall’s three brigades. This proved to be one of the decisive sectors of the Union defence.

At 2.30 pm, as they waited for sounds of Huger’s expected attack, Lee, Longstreet, and visiting Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis were conferring on horseback in a clearing of stunted pines when they came under heavy artillery fire, which wounded two men nearby and killed three horses. A P Hill, commanding in that sector, ordered the President and the senior Generals to the rear.

Meanwhile, Holmes’ troops were making negligible progress at Turkey Bridge or towards Malvern Hill. They were halted by artillery fire and fire from the Union gunboats USS Galena and USS Aroostook near Turkey Bend on the James. Holmes withdrew to safety and took no further part in this sector of the battle. By 4 pm, Lee ordered Major-General John Bankhead Magruder to join Holmes on the River Road and to attack Malvern Hill; he then ordered Magruder to assist Longstreet instead so his division spent the day in counter-marching ineffectually along the Darbytown Road.

Longstreet attempted to silence the six batteries of Union guns firing in his direction, but long-range artillery fire proved to be inadequate. He ordered Colonel Micah Jenkins to charge the batteries, which brought on a-General fight at around 4 pm.  Although belated and not initiated as planned, the assaults by the divisions of A P Hill and Longstreet turned out to be the only ones to strike the main Union concentration. Longstreet’s 20,000 men were not reinforced by Holmes, Huger or Jackson, despite their proximity. Longstreet assaulted the disjointed Union line of 40,000 men, arranged in a two-mile arc north and south of the Glendale intersection, but the brunt of the fighting was at the position held by McCall’s division of V Corps just west of the Nelson Farm and north of Willis Church. (The farm was owned by R H Nelson, but its former owner was named Frayser and many of the locals referred to it as Frayser’s, or Frazier’s, Farm.) McCall’s division included the brigades of Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade (2/3/V) on the right and Brigadier-General Truman Seymour (3/3/V) on the left, with the brigade of Brigadier-General John Fulton Reynolds (1/3/V) now led by Colonel Seneca G Simmons after Reynolds’ capture at Boatswain’s Swamp in reserve. Three Confederate brigades were sent forward in the assault, from north to south: Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, Colonel Micah Jenkins (commanding Brigadier-General Richard Heron Anderson’s Brigade) and Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper. Longstreet ordered them forward in a piecemeal fashion over several hours. Kemper’s Virginians charged through the thick woods first and emerged in front of five batteries of McCall’s artillery. In their first experience of combat, the brigade conducted a disorderly but enthusiastic assault which carried them through the guns and broke through McCall’s main line; they pressed on with Jenkins’ support and were followed a few hours later by Wilcox. Six companies of the 12th Pennsylvania Infantry retreated precipitately after being threatened by encirclement and had to join Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker’s division to their left. Two Union batteries under Diedrich and Knierim were forced to retreat and the growing Confederate penetration was only stopped by intense artillery fire. The 1st Massachusetts Infantry, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, 26th Pennsylvania Infantry, and 69th Pennsylvania Infantry counterattacked fiercely and secured the line. The Confederate brigades met stiff resistance from Meade and Seymour in hand-to-hand combat. The attack was extended to the Union right flank and Brigadier-General Philip Kearny’s division to the right. The 55th Virginia Infantry and 60th Virginia Infantry overran Lieutenant Alanson Randol’s Union battery in hand-to-hand fighting and then all but one company of the 4th Pennsylvania Infantry gave way. Meade was wounded in the fighting and a second battery was captured (Captain James Cooper’s), but was subsequently recovered. McCall was captured when he mistakenly rode into the Confederate picket line looking for positions to place reinforcements.

On McCall’s northern flank, the Union division of Brigadier-General Philip Kearny held its positions against repeated Confederate attacks, aided by reinforcements of Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell’s brigade and two brigades from Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum’s division. Colonel Nelson Taylor’s brigade from Slocum’s division completed the restoration of order.

On the southern flank, Hooker’s Union division also repelled minor attacks. Sedgwick’s division, whose brigades had returned from their temporary diversion near White Oak Swamp, came up to fill a gap after a brutal counterattack. Heavy fighting continued until about 8:30 pm. Longstreet committed virtually every brigade in the divisions under his command while they had been fed in individually on the Union side to plug holes in the line as they occurred.

The rear of the Union supply trains and the reserve artillery of the army reached Malvern Hill about 4 pm. During the night, McClellan strengthened his strong position on Malvern Hill where the V Corps had begun to build defences as early as 9 am. The rest of the Union Army of the Potomac formed around Malvern Hill as it arrived from the various engagements to the north.

This was the Confederates’ best and last chance to cut off the Union Army of the Potomac from its retreat the James River. Lee had failed once again to achieve his objective of preventing the Union escape or to split McClellan’s army, nor had he beaten them in a race to the vital eminence of Malvern Hill. However, the inexorable Union advance on Richmond was repelled and abandoned.

Union casualties were 3,797 (297 killed, 1,696 wounded, and 1,804 missing or captured). Confederate casualties were 3,673 (638 killed, 2,814 wounded, and 221 missing). Meade and Sumner and Confederate Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson, Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender and Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston were all wounded. (CWSAC – Major Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: GLENDALE, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Edwin Vose Sumner
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell
III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Edgar Sickles
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Bradford Carr
3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Philip Kearny
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Bell Birney
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Hiram Gregory Berry
V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Truman Seymour
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Seneca G Simmons
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Conrad Feger Jackson
VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin
1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George William Taylor
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Jackson Bartlett
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Newton

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Heron Anderson
Kemper’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper
RH Anderson’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Micah Jenkins
Pickett’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General George Edward Pickett
Wilcox’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Pryor’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roger Atkinson Pryor
Featherston’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Field’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles William Field
Gregg’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg
Anderson’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson
Branch’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Archer’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Jay Archer
Pender’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender

Turkey Bridge, Virginia, also known as Turkey Bend or Turkey Run. Union Brigadier-General George Sykes’ division (1/V) was assisted by the Union gunboats USS Galena and USS Aroostook to defeat a Confederate attempt to envelop the Union southern flank during the action at White Oak Swamp. Confederate Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes’ troops were making no progress against Porter at Turkey Bridge or towards Malvern Hill and were halted by artillery fire and disconcerted by large calibre shells from the Union gunboats USS Galena and USS Aroostook on the James. Naval gunfire support was controlled through a system of liaison in which fall-of-shot information was sent by Army signal personnel ashore to Army signal personnel afloat in the gunboats using the Myers system of signalling. Holmes’ division and Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise’s brigade were repelled after a short engagement.

ORDER OF BATTLE: TURKEY BRIDGE, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sykes
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel Robert C Buchanan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major Charles S Lovell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Gouverneur Kemble Warren
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
USS Galena, USS Aroostook

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Ransom’s Brigade, Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Ransom
Daniel’s Brigade, Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Junius Daniel
Walker’s Brigade, Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John George Walker 
Wise’s Command, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise

Union Organisation

USA: The Sub-District of Columbus was discontinued.

USA: William Bowen Campbell promoted Brigadier-General USV 4 July 1862 to rank from 30 June 1862.

Campbell, William Bowen / Tennessee / Born 1 February 1807 Hendersonville#, Tennessee / Died Lebanon, Tennessee 19 August 1867
Captain USV 2nd Tennessee Mounted Infantry 18 June 1836 / Mustered Out USV 14 January 1837 / Major-General Tennessee Militia 1844 / Colonel USV 1st Tennessee 3 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 25 May 1847 / Brigadier-General USV 4 July 1862 to rank from 30 June 1862 / Resigned USV 26 January 1863

USA: Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall was captured at Glendale.

McCall, George Archibald / Pennsylvania / Born 16 March 1802 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died West Chester, Pennsylvania 26 February 1868
USMA 1 July 1822 26/40 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 1 July 1822 / 4th US Infantry 23 December 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 January 1829 / Captain USA 21 September 1836 / Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1846-26 December 1847 / Major USA 3rd US Infantry 26 December 1847 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 10 June 1850 / Resigned USA 29 April 1853 / Major-General Pennsylvania Militia 15 May 1861 Expired 23 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Resigned USV 31 March 1863 / Brevet Major USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Major USA 7 July 1846 / WIA & CIA Glendale 30 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
McCall’s Brigade Military Division of the Potomac 2 August 1861-20 August 1861 / McCall’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-3 October 1861 / McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-12 June 1862 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 June 1862-30 June 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I  Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Jones Mitchell Withers assumed temporary command of Reserve Corps (Mississippi), succeeding Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge who was to  lead a detached force for an operation in Louisiana.

Withers, Jones Mitchell / Alabama / Born 12 January 1814 Madison, Alabama / Died Mobile, Alabama 13 March 1890
USMA 1 July 1835 44/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1831 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1835 / Resigned USA 5 December 1835 / Alabama Militia 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Infantry 3 March 1847 / 13th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / Resigned USA 23 May 1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Alabama Infantry 28 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 6 April 1862 / Resigned PACS 13 July 1863 / Reappointed Major-General PACS 21 July 1863 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835
Department of Norfolk 23 May 1861-26 May 1861 / District of Alabama 12 September 1861-27 January 1862 / Army of Mobile 27 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-30 June 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 30 June 1862-20 November 1862 / Withers’ Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 18 August 1862-20 November 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-13 August 1863 / District of Northern Alabama 6 February 1864-27 July 1864 / Reserve Forces of Alabama 30 April 1864-4 May 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Richard Griffith died of wounds received at Savage’s Station.

Griffith, Richard / Pennsylvania-Mississippi / Born 11 January 1814 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / DOW Richmond, Virginia 30 June 1862
1st Lieutenant USV 1st Mississippi Rifles 1846 / Mustered Out USV 12 July 1847 / Brigadier-General Mississippi Militia 18 February 1861 / 2nd Lieutenant ACSA Infantry 10 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 12th Mississippi Infantry 23 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 2 November 1861 / MWIA Savage’s Station 29 June 1862
Clark’s Brigade Van Dorn’s Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 2 November 1861-9 November 1861 / Griffith’s Brigade District of the Potomac 9 November 1861-January 1862 / Griffith’s Brigade D H Hill’s Division Army of the Potomac January 1862-14 March 1862 / Griffith’s Brigade D H Hill’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-18 April 1862 / Griffith’s Brigade Magruder’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 18 April 1862-29 June 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of the West: Dabney Herndon Maury temporary
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Richard Griffith DOW
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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