1862 July 1st

July 1 1862 Tuesday

Battle of Tampa, FL (CWSAC Limited Battle – Confederate Victory)

Battle of Malvern Hill, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Booneville, MS

Seven Days’ Battles

USA. The US Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act, authorising the construction of a Trans-Continental railroad across the western territories to California. This route would eventually be traversed by the rival Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad.

USA. The US government enacted the first Union Federal Income Tax Law.

Tampa, Florida. The bombardment of Tampa ended when the Union gunboat withdrew without being able to drive away the defenders. No casualties were reported. (CWSAC Limited Battle – Confederate Victory)

Indian Territory. Incident at Cabin Creek.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Holly Springs.

Mississippi. The fresh-water and salt-water naval fleets of the US Navy met for the first time on the Mississippi River when eight ships of Union Captain David Glasgow Farragut’s fleet ascending from New Orleans met those of Union Captain Charles Henry Davis which had steamed southwards from Memphis. They took joint station midway between Vicksburg and the mouth of the Yazoo River.

Booneville, Mississippi. Union Brigadier-General Washington Lafayette Elliott had been leading his cavalry brigade to harass the line of retreat of the Confederates from Corinth to Tupelo. His men damaged the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, destroyed military supplies, and captured about 1,000 men (most of them stragglers) during their operations.

Shortly after taking command of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade (2nd Michigan Cavalry and 2nd Iowa Cavalry), Union Colonel Philip Henry Sheridan was stationed at Booneville, a station on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad about 22 miles south of Corinth, in order to exploit the advantageous situation. A stronger Confederate cavalry force of about 4,700 men under Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers converged from Tupelo and Saltillo and prepared to attack Booneville from the southwest. Chalmers quickly pushed back the Union pickets from the junction of the Tupelo and Saltillo roads. The Union cavalry took up a new position about a mile and a half from the town. The Confederates began to turn the Union left flank. Although authorised to withdraw, Sheridan launched a surprise counter-attack against the Confederate rear with Captain R A Alger’s 2nd Michigan Cavalry. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Hatch’s 2nd Iowa Cavalry hit the Confederate left flank.

By 3.30pm, the larger Confederate force had been forced to withdraw from the aggressive Union garrison. Sheridan launched a pursuit for four miles before recalling his troopers. Sheridan’s promotion to Brigadier-General was later backdated to this action as he gained growing recognition in the eyes of his superior commanders.

Union strength was reported at 827 men and the Confederates’ at 5,000 men. Chalmers reported that he had between 1,200 and 1,500 men but other records substantiate between 4,000 and 5,000. The Confederates lost at least 65 men killed and others wounded and missing while the Union lost 1 man killed, 24 wounded and 16 missing.

Missouri. Skirmish with Confederate guerrillas at Cherry Grove in Schuyler County, eight miles from the Iowa state line.

Texas. USS De Soto, Captain William M Walker, captured the British schooner William attempting to run the blockade at Sabine Pass.

Virginia. Incidents at Cold Harbor and White Oak Church.

Virginia. Skirmish involving Union Brigadier-General John White Geary at Fort Furnace at Powell’s Big Fort Valley.

Virginia. Confederate batteries at Coggins’ Point took Union forces under fire on the James River between Harrison’s Landing and Shirley, sinking two Army transports. The USS Cimarron immediately opened counter fire on the battery.

Malvern Hill, Virginia, also known as Poindexter’s Farm, Crew’s Farm, or Turkey Run. The sixth and last of the Seven Days’ Battles. The slopes of Malvern Hill had been cleared of timber to provide excellent visibility. The open fields to the north could be swept by deadly fire from as many as 250 guns that had been put in position by Colonel Henry Jackson Hunt, Chief of Artillery of the Union Army of the Potomac. Beyond this cleared space the terrain was swampy and thickly wooded.

The entire Union Army of the Potomac occupied the hill and its surroundings, with the exception of Brigadier-General Silas Casey’s division of IV Corps, now commanded by Brigadier-General John James Peck, which had proceeded to Harrison’s Landing and formed the extreme right of the Union line. The Union line extended in a semicircle from Harrison’s Landing on the extreme right to Brigadier-General George Webb Morell’s division of V Corps on the extreme left. Morell occupied the advantageous ground on the northwestern slopes of the hill. Adjoining the right of Morell’s command was Brigadier-General Darius Nash Couch’s division, detached from IV Corps, and this division occupied the effective centre of the Union position. The remainder of the IV Corps was guarding the supply trains. Although Major-General Fitz John Porter commanded the portion of the field on which Couch’s troops were positioned, he elected to allow Couch to act independently. Extending the Union line on Couch’s right were the divisions of Brigadier-General Philip Kearny and Major-General Joseph Hooker of Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman’s III Corps. To their right was Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner’s II Corps, consisting of the divisions of Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson and Brigadier-General John Sedgwick. These were anchored to Peck’s Division at Harrison’s Landing. Major-General William Buel Franklin’s two divisions of VI Corps were in reserve on the road to Harrison’s Landing. Stronger even than the multiple ranks of Union infantry were the densely-packed rows of artillery.

Rather than trying to outflank the dominant position at Malvern Hill, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee decided to attack directly, trusting that his artillery would clear the way for an infantry assault. Lee was warned by a local resident Rev L W Allen that the eminence would be impregnable if it were stoutly defended. Nevertheless, Lee was determined to attack, over-estimating the damage he had already caused to the Union army and its morale.

Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson approached from the north on the Quaker or Willis Church Road with four divisions (his own under Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder, Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill’s, Major-General William Henry Chase Whiting’s, and Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s). Major-General John Bankhead Magruder was to follow the same road with his division and to form on Jackson’s right or west. Major-General Benjamin Huger’s division was still on the march and would be given orders on his arrival. The tired divisions of Major-General James Longstreet and Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill went into reserve for rest and recovery.

Lee’s plan was to start the attack on the hill from the north on the Quaker Road, using Jackson’s divisions. Once again, Lee’s complex plan was poorly executed. The approaching soldiers were delayed by severely muddy roads and poor maps. For seven divisions to march promptly along one southbound road was an unrealistic expectation. A parallel road one mile to the east was not shown on Confederate maps and remained unused. Jackson arrived at the swampy creek called Western Run, a formidably swampy barrier and halted to scout the enemy lines beyond. Magruder’s guides led him along the incorrect “Quaker” Road and he headed away from the battle on the Long Bridge Road. Magruder’s proposed position was actually occupied by two brigades from Huger’s division (Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead and Colonel Ambrose Ransom Wright) when they finally reached the field after an overnight march and then a lengthy detour which arose from a misunderstanding of his orders. They formed the right of the Confederate line opposite the Crew house.

Eventually, by 1.30 pm, six of Lee’s eight divisions had assembled in the battle line with Huger’s division (brigades of Wright and Armistead) on the Confederate right and the brigades of Brigadier-General John Bell Hood and Colonel Evander McIver Law from Whiting’s division on the Quaker Road to the left. Jackson’s own and Ewell’s divisions were waiting behind in reserve. Brigadier-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble’s brigade of Ewell’s division was moved forward from reserve to connect Whiting’s line with Hill’s. They awaited the outcome of the Confederate bombardment before attacking. Armistead was given the responsibility of launching the attack “with a cheer” when he judged that the artillery had broken the enemy lines.

Viewing the strength of the Union position, the Confederates decided to concentrate their artillery at two targets. Longstreet found a promising terraced knoll on the right flank on which to place his guns. Part of the artillery was stationed on this hill 400 yards behind Armistead’s brigade on the right and 1,200 yards from the Crew House. The remainder were placed at Poindexter Farm alongside Whiting’s troops on the left.

The Union artillery anticipated the bombardment and began an intense and accurate counter-battery fire on the Confederate gunners as they tried to take up their positions. By 2.30 pm the Confederate artillery had clearly failed to take up an effective position, having been deployed piecemeal and severely damaged and disorganised by the dominant Union artillery. By 3.30 pm all but a few Confederate batteries were silenced or withdrawn in disorder.

Despite the setback, Lee directed his main infantry line to advance at 3.30 pm. Armistead moved forward to drive back the enemy sharpshooters who were harassing his command from close range. Three of his regiments moved through lines of Union sharpshooters across a wheat field and into a gully far ahead of the rest of the army towards the Crew House. They sheltered and awaited the wider advance. They were soon trapped and kept pinned down until nightfall.

At about 4 pm Magruder’s delayed division arrived and formed up behind Huger’s two brigades. Lee was now more aware of the difficulty of the objective facing him and decided to send Longstreet’s division from reserve on a flanking march around Jackson’s left wing. However, when Lee received word from Whiting that the Union troops were seen to be retreating, he ordered Magruder to attack immediately on the line previously attacked by Armistead. Poor staff work and weak command resulted in just one-third of Magruder’s 15,000 men going forward without artillery support and their attack was smashed with heavy losses.

Magruder’s charge was understood by D H Hill to be the “cheering” signal previously agreed for the general advance. His division then launched a series of suicidal attacks along the Willis Church Road between 6.30 pm and 7 pm. Part of Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes’ brigade got within 200 yards of the Union line, Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley’s brigade was shattered as it advanced through artillery fire across open ground. The brigades of Brigadier-General Robert Ransom, Brigadier-General Thomas Howell Cobb, Colonel William Barksdale, and Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs were sent reeling back.

Then, Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes’ brigade and Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw’s brigade from Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ Division moved into the gap between Magruder and D H Hill, only to be halted in turn by heavy fire. Following the general trend, Wright’s and Brigadier-General William Mahone’s brigades from Huger’s division joined the attack but were stopped in their tracks. Trimble was preparing to make yet another attack towards nightfall but Jackson stopped him. Across the entire line of battle, the Confederate troops had made suicidal frontal attacks and no troops approached closer than 200 yards from the Union centre; they had all been repulsed by nightfall with heavy losses.

The Confederates sustained 5,355 to 5,590 casualties and the Union 3,214, many of them stragglers captured in the approach marches. Despite his victory at Malvern Hill McClellan withdrew to entrench at Harrison’s Landing on James River, where his army was protected by gunboats of Captain  Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough’s fleet. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: MALVERN HILL, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Edwin Vose Sumner
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Henry French
2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Sedgwick
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Alfred Sully
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Wallace Burns
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Edgar Sickles
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph B Carr
3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Phillip Kearny
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Robinson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Bell Birney
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Hiram Gregory Berry
V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Webb Morell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Henry Martindale
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Griffin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sykes
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Robert C Buchanan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major Charles S Lovell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Gouverneur K Warren
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Truman Seymour
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel R Biddle Roberts
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Albert L Magilton
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Conrad Feger Jackson

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder
Winder’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder
J R Jones’ Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel John Robert Jones
Fulkerson’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Wade Hampton
Lawton’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Alexander Robert Lawton
Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell
Elzey’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Jubal Anderson Early
Trimble’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Taylor’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Leroy A Stafford
G W Smith’s Division, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting
Hood’s Brigade, G W Smith’s Division, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Law’s Brigade, G W Smith’s Division, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Evander M Law
D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Rodes’ Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel John Brown Gordon
G B Anderson’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel C C Tew
Garland’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Samuel Garland
Rains’ Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Alfred H Colquitt
Ripley’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Semmes’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
D R Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Toombs
Toombs’s Brigade, D R Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs
D R Jones’ Brigade, D R Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel George T Anderson
Magruder’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Griffith’s Brigade, Magruder’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel William Barksdale
Cobb’s Brigade, Magruder’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Howell Cobb
Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Benjamin Huger
Mahone’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Mahone
Wright’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright
Armistead’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead
Ransom’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Ransom
Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Daniel’s Brigade, Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Junius Daniel
Walker’s Brigade, Holmes’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Van H Manning
Wise’s Independent Brigade, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise
Cavalry Brigade Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Ewell Brown Stuart

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Corinth was established in the Department of the Mississippi, comprising the vicinity of Corinth, Mississippi.

USA: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans assumed command of the District of Corinth.

USA: The Army of the Mississippi was subordinated to the District of Corinth.

USA: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans retained command of the Army of the Mississippi.

Rosecrans, William Starke / Ohio / Born 6 September 1819 Little Taylor Run, Ohio / Died Redondo Beach, California 11 March 1898
USMA 1 July 1842 5/56 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 April 1843 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1853 / Resigned USA 1 April 1854 / ADC (G B McClellan) 23 April 1861-June 1861 / Colonel Chief Engineer Ohio Militia 23 April 1861 / Colonel USV 23rd Ohio Infantry 12 June 1861 / Mustered Out USV 17 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USA 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 / Major-General USV 17 September 1862 to rank from 25 October 1862 adjusted to rank from 21 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Resigned USA 28 March 1867 / Brigadier-General USA 27 February 1889 / Retired USA 1 March 1889 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Rosecrans’ Brigade Army of Occupation May 1861-23 July 1861 / Department of the Ohio 23 July 1861-19 September 1861 / Army of Occupation 23 July 1861-19 September 1861 / Department of Western Virginia 19 September 1861-11 March 1862 / Mountain Department 11 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Right Wing Army of the Mississippi May 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of the Mississippi 26 June 1862-24 October 1862 / District of Corinth 1 July 1862-20 October 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Tennessee 24 September 1862-20 October 1862 / Department of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-17 October 1863 / Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-19 October 1863 / XIV Corps Cumberland 24 October 1862-8 January 1863 / Department of the Missouri 22 January 1864-2 December 1864

USA: Philip Henry Sheridan promoted Brigadier-General USV 13 September 1862 to rank from 1 July 1862.

Sheridan, Philip Henry / New York-Ohio / Born 6 March 1831 Albany, New York / Died Nonquitt, Massachusetts 5 August 1888
USMA 1 July 1853 34/52 Infantry-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 1st US Infantry 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 22 November 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 March 1861 / Captain USA 14 May 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster 25 December 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd Michigan Cavalry 27 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 September 1862 to rank from 1 July 1862 / Major-General USV 10 April 1863 to rank from 31 December 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 20 September 1864 / Major-General USA 14 November 1864 to rank from 8 November 1864 / Mustered Out USV 8 November 1864 / Lieutenant-General USA 4 March 1869 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 1 November 1884-5 August 1888 / General USA 1 June 1888 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / WIA Middle Cascade, Oregon Territory 28 March 1857
Assistant Quartermaster Army of the Southwest 25 December 1861-26 April 1862 / Assistant Quartermaster Army of the Mississippi 26 April 1862-27 May 1862 / 2nd Brigade Cavalry Army of the Mississippi 1 July 1862-4 September 1862 / 11th Division Army of the Ohio 4 September 1862-29 September 1862 / 11th Division III Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 11th Division III Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 3rd Division Right Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 3rd Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-9 October 1863 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-17 February 1864 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 February 1864-4 April 1864 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 4 April 1864-7 August 1864 / Middle Military Division 7 August 1864-27 February 1865 / Army of the Shenandoah 7 August 1864-18 October 1864 / Middle Military Division 21 September 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 186422 April 1865 / Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac 26 March 1865-6 May 1865 / Military Division of the Southwest 17 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Military Division of the Gulf 27 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of the Gulf 6 August 1866-11 March 1867 / Fifth Military District 11 March 1867-5 September 1867 / Department of the Missouri 19 August 1867-12 September 1867 / Department of the Missouri 2 March 1868-20 March 1869 / General-in-Chief 1 November 1883-5 August 1888

USA: Lieutenant-Commander Samuel Magaw USN assumed interim command of the Potomac Flotilla of the US Navy, succeeding Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant-Commander Samuel Magaw USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
      • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I  Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of the West: Dabney Herndon Maury temporary
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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